Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-41] Static Quiz for IAS Prelims 2020

National Geo-Heritage sites in India; National River Conservation Plan (NRCP); Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol; Kyoto Protocol; Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ); Dihang Dibang biosphere reserve; Dibru Saikhowa biosphere reserve; Indicator species; Flagship species; Methanol; Compensatory Afforestation Fund; Indian Network on Climate Change Assessment (INCCA); 4x4 assessment report; World Environment Day (WED);
By IASToppers
April 18, 2020

What was the theme of 2019 World Environment Day?

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World Environment Day 2019 is hosted by China with a theme of “Air Pollution”. 

Enrich Your Learning:

World Environment Day (WED):

  • World Environment Dayis observed on the 5th of June every year for encouraging worldwide awareness and action to protect our environment.
  • World Environment Day was established by the UN General Assembly in 1972on the first day of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment.
  • The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) annually organizes events for World Environment Day
  • Indiahosted World Environment Day 2018 emphasizing on prevention of ‘Plastic Pollution’.
  • The Government launched#SelfiewithSapling campaign as part of the World Environment Day celebrations.

The Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA) is an initiative of which Ministry?  

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Answer: Ministry of Environment and Forests.

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Indian Network on Climate Change Assessment (INCCA):

  • Government of India announced the launch of the INCCA in
  • It is a network-based programme, which consists of over 120 institutions and over 250 scientists country wide. 
  • It is designed to undertake a range of activities in the area of climate change, e.g. science, impacts, vulnerability, mitigation and adaptation. 

4×4 assessment report:

  • The 4×4 assessment report is prepared by the INCCA.
  • The report has for the first time calculated the impact of global warming on India in 2030s. Earlier reports had longer time frames of 2050 and 2070.
  • The 4×4 Assessment examines the implications of climate change for India in 2030s.
  • It covers climate change projections, sea level rise and extreme events, agriculture, water forests and human healthat macro level.

Name the geological heritage site in Gujarat.

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Answer: GUJARAT: Sedimentary Structures – Eddy Markings, Kadan Dam, Panch Mahals Dist.  

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National Geo-Heritage sites in India:

Geological Survey of India (GSI) declares geo-heritage sites/ national geological monuments for protection and maintenance.

State-wise details of the geological heritage sites/ national geological monuments:


  • Volcanogenic bedded Barytes, Mangampeta, Cuddapah Dist.
  • Eparchaean Unconformity, Chittor Dist.
  • Natural Geological Arch, Tirumala Hills, Chittor Dist.
  • Erra Matti Dibbalu- the dissected and stabilized coastal red sediment mounds located between Vishakhapatnam and Bhimunipatnam.


  • Laterite near Angadipuram PWD rest house premises, Malapuram Dist.
  • Varkala Cliff Section, Thiruvanatapuram Dist.


  • Fossil wood near Tiruvakkarai, South Arcot Dist.
  • National fossil wood park, Sattanur, Tiruchirapalli Dist.
  • Charnockite, St. Thomas Mount, Madras
  • Badlands of Karai Formation with Cretaceous fossils along Karai – Kulakkalnattam Section, Perambalur District.


  • Sendra Granite, Pali Dist.
  • Barr Conglomerate, Pali Dist.
  • Stromatolite Fossil Park, Jharmarkotra Rock Phosphate deposit, Udaipur Dist.
  • Gossan in Rajpura-Dariba Mineralised belt, Udaipur Dist.
  • Stromatolite Park near Bhojunda, Chittaurgarh Dist.
  • Akal Fossil Wood Park, Jaisalmer Dist.
  • Kishangarh Nepheline Syenite, Ajmer Dist.
  • Welded Tuff, Jodhpur Dist.
  • Jodhpur Group – Malani Igneous Suite Contact, Jodhpur Dist.
  • Great Boundary Fault at Satur, Bundi Dist.


  • Lonar Lake, Buldana Dist.   


  • Lower Permian Marine bed at Manendragarh, Surguja Dist.


  • Columnar Lava, St Mary Island Udupi Dist.
  • Pillow lavas near Mardihalli, Chitradurga Dist.
  • Peninsular Gneiss, Lalbagh, Banglore
  • Pyroclastics & Pillow lavas, Kolar Gold fields, Kolar Dist.


  • Siwalik Fossil Park, Saketi, Sirmur.


  • Pillow Lava in lron ore belt at Nomira, Keonjhar dist.


  • Plant Fossil bearing Inter-trappean beds of Rajmahal Formation, upper Gondwana sequence around Mandro, Sahibganj dist.


  • Nagahill Ophiolite Site near Pungro.


  • Stromatolite bearing Dolomite / Limestone of Buxa Formation at Mamley, near Namchi, South district.

What does Compensatory afforestation mean?

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Compensatory afforestation means that every time forest land is diverted for non-forest purposes such as mining or industry, the user agency pays for planting forests over an equal area of non-forest land, or when such land is not available, twice the area of degraded forest land.

Enrich Your Learning:

Compensatory Afforestation Fund:

  • The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act was passed by the centre in 2016.
  • It was enacted to manage the funds collected for compensatory afforestation which till then was managed by ad hoc Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA).
  • As per the rules, 90% of the CAF money is to be given to the states while 10% is to be retained by the Centre.
  • The funds can be used for:
  • treatment of catchment areas,
  • assisted natural generation,
  • forest management,
  • wildlife protection and management,
  • relocation of villages from protected areas,
  • managing human-wildlife conflicts,
  • training and awareness generation,
  • supply of wood saving devices and allied activities.

Methanol is a clean burning drop in fuel which can replace both petrol & diesel in transportation & LPG in cooking fuel.  True OR False.

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Answer: True.

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Why Methanol is considered an alternative to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)?

  • About 80% of LPG consumed in India is imported. Methanol can be a major market in India,besides helping us reduce oil imports by 20%.
  • In terms of heat value, a 14 kg LPG cylinder is equivalent to about 20 kg of methanol. But methanol works out 30% cheaper, and the saving on an equivalent quantity of LPG is expected to be up to ₹350.
  • As an engine fuel, methanol has chemical and physical fuel properties similar to ethanol.
  • Methanol can be an alternative to conventional transportation fuels. The benefits of methanol include:
  • Lower production costs—Methanol is cheap to produce relative to other alternative fuels.
  • Improved safety—Methanol has a lower risk of flammability compared to gasoline.
  • Increased energy security—Methanol can be manufactured from a variety of carbon-based feedstocks, such as natural gas and coal. Its use could help reduce fuel use while advancing domestic fuels.

First Methanol Cooking Fuel Program:

  • Northeast and Assam Petro-chemicals, a state-owned company launched Asia’s first cannisters based and India’s first “Methanol Cooking Fuel Program”.
  • The project is a natural extension of vision of reducing import of crudeand an effort to provide clean, import substitute, cost effective and pollution free cooking medium.



Give the example of the Indicator species and the flagship species.

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Indicator species: For example, lichens are capable to indicate air pollution, water pollution, heavy metals as well as radioactive particles.

Flagship species: For example, campaigns to save the Bengal tiger could help preserve forests and habitat for other creatures.

Enrich Your Learning:

Indicator species:

  • An indicator species is an organism whose presence, absence or abundance reflects a specific environmental condition.
  • Indicator species can signal a change in the biological condition of a particular ecosystem, and thus may be used as a proxy to diagnose the health of an ecosystem.

Flagship species:

  • A flagship species is a species selected to act as an ambassador, icon or symbol for a defined habitat, issue, campaign or environmental cause.
  • Flagship species are usually used as the focal point of large conservation campaigns for their ability to get people’s attention. 

A modern feral horse population (Janghali ghura) is found in the__________. a) Dibru-Saikhowa biosphere reserve OR b) Dihang Dibang biosphere reserve

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Answer: Dibru-Saikhowa biosphere reserve

Enrich Your Learning:

Dihang Dibang biosphere reserve:

  • Dihang-Dibang or Dehang-Debang is a biosphere reserve constituted in 1998 is located in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The Mouling National Park and the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary are located fully or partly within this biosphere reserve.
  • The habitat ranges from tropical wet evergreen in the river gorges to subtropical, temperate, alpine and permanent snow.
  • Rare mammals such as Mishmi takin, red goral, musk deer (at least two sub-species), red panda, Asiatic black bear, occasional tiger and Gongshan muntjac occur, while among birds there are the rare Sclater’s monal and Blyth’s tragopan.
  • Two flying squirrels have been discovered from the vicinity of this reserve.

Dibru Saikhowa biosphere reserve:

  • Dibru-Saikhowa is a National Park as well as a Biosphere Reserve situated in the south bank of the river Brahmaputra in the extreme east of Assam state in India.
  • Dibru-Saikhowa is among the most vibrant wildness on earth and is also distinct for its pristine scenic beauty.
  • Situated in the flood plain of Brahmaputra, Dibru-saikhowa is a safe haven for many extremely rare and endangered species of Wildlife.
  • The forest type of Dibru-Saikhowa comprises of semi-evergreen forests, deciduous forests, littoral and swamp forests and patches of wet evergreen forests.
  • Famed for Ferral horses, a total 36 species of mammals and above 400 species of birds have so far been recorded from the Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.

Which among these two World Heritage Sites is included in the Taj Trapezium Zone? a) Temples of Khajuraho OR b) Fatehpur Sikri

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Fatehpur Sikri is included in the Taj Trapezium Zone. Other World Heritage sites include Taj Mahal and Agra Fort.

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Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ):

  • Taj Trapezium zone is an area around the Taj Mahal to protect the monument. TTZ covers a total of six districts, five in Uttar Pradesh and one in Rajasthan.
  • Apart from the Taj Mahal, the other two World Heritage sites, the Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri also fall under the TTZ.
  • TTZ was created after the Supreme Court of India judgment aimed to protect the Taj Mahal from environmental pollution.

Why was Taj Trapezium Zone created?

  • A large number of industries and power plants existed near Agra, which was releasing pollutants high in sulphur and nitrogen oxides.
  • Furthermore, the interaction of these elements with clouds would give rise to acid rain.  The Taj Mahal, made of marble, was particularly more prone to damage caused by acid rain.

What other measures were taken to reduce environmental pollution?

  • Use of natural gas or LPG as fuel instead of coal or oil for the 2000 polluting industries in the zone
  • People to be encouraged to use liquefied petroleum gas.
  • Use of low sulphur content diesel in vehicles will be encouraged.

Under Kigali Amendment to which Protocol, countries promised to achieve over 80% reduction in Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) consumption by 2047?  a) Montreal Protocol OR b) Kyoto Protocol

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Answer: Montreal Protocol

Enrich Your Learning:

Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol:

  • A historic global climate deal was reached in Kigali, Rwanda at the 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MOP28).
  • The so-called Kigali Amendment which amends the 1987 Montreal Protocol aims to phase out Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a family of potent greenhouse gases by the late 2040s.
  • Under Kigali Amendment, in all 197 countries, including India have agreed to a timeline to reduce the use of HFCs by roughly 85% of their baselines by 2045.
  • The Kigali Amendment amends the 1987 Montreal Protocol that was designed to close growing ozone hole in by banning ozone-depleting coolants like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
  • The Kigali Agreement or amended Montreal Protocol for HFCs reduction will be binding on countries from 2019.
  • Under Kigali Amendment, in all 197 countries, including India have agreed to a timeline to reduce the use of HFCs by roughly 85% of their baselines by 2045.

Kyoto Protocol:

  • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 to fight global warming by reducing GHGs emission and came into effect in 2005.
  • It is an international GHGs emissions reduction treaty linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • It commits its Parties by setting internationally binding GHGs emission reduction targets.
  • The 1st commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol was from 2008-2012.
  • The 2nd commitment period for the period 2013- 2020 was adopted in 2012 by the Doha Amendment of the Kyoto Protocol.
  • So far, 75 countries have ratified the Second Commitment Period.
  • The protocol is based on principle of Equity and Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR).
  • It places obligations on developed nations to undertake mitigation targets to reduce emissions by 5.2% of 1990 levels during 2008-2012 period and provide financial resources and technology to developing nations.
  • Developing countries like India have no mandatory mitigation obligations or targets under the Kyoto Protocol.

Which rivers are included under Ganga Action Plan II which was launched in 1993?

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It included of River Yamuna, Gomti and major tributaries of River Ganga.

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National river conservation plan:


  • The Central Government started the river pollution abatement programme with the launching of the Ganga Action Plan (GAP-I) in the year 1985.
  • GAP Phase II was launched in 1993 for pollution abatement of river Yamuna and Gomti, major tributaries of river Ganga.
  • The river pollution abatement programme was further expanded to include other major rivers of the country in 1995 under the aegis of National River Conservation Plan (NRCP).

About National River Conservation Plan (NRCP):

  • The objective of NRCP is to reduce the pollution load in rivers.
  • The pollution abatement works taken up under the NRCP include;
  1. Interception and diversion works of sewerage systems to capture raw sewage flowing into the rivers through open drains and diverting them for treatment;
  2. Setting up of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) for treating the diverted sewage;
  3. Construction of Low Cost Sanitation Toilets to prevent open defecation on river banks;
  4. Construction of Electric Crematoria and Improved Wood Crematoria to conserve the use of wood;
  5. River Front Development works, such as improvement of bathing Ghats;
  6. Public participation & awareness and capacity building, etc.
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change is presently implementing the works for pollution abatement of rivers, other than Ganga and its tributaries.
  • Presently NRCP (excluding Ganga and its tributaries) has covered polluted stretches of 33 rivers in 76 towns spread over 15 States.


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