Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-42] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

India and Bangladesh relation; National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) Project; Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs); Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN); Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty; Forest-PLUS 2.0; World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS); National Population Register (NPR); Freedom in the World 2020 report; Sendai Framework;
By IASToppers
April 20, 2020

The Sendai Framework is a subject related to___________. a) Climate change OR b) Disaster Reduction

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Answer: Disaster Reduction

Enrich Your Learning:

Sendai Framework:

  • The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.
  • It was endorsed by the UN General Assembly following the 2015 Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR).

The Seven Global Targets of the Sendai:

  1. Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
  2. Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
  3. Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.
  4. Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
  5. Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
  6. Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.
  7. Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.

The Four Priorities for Action:

  1. Understanding disaster risk
  2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
  3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
  4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction

According to a Freedom in the World 2020 report, India has become one of the world’s most free democracies. True OR False.

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Answer: False.

Correct statement: According to a Freedom in the World 2020 report, India has become one of the world’s least free democracies.

Enrich Your Learning:

Freedom in the World 2020 report:

  • The recently released Freedom in the World 2020 reporthas ranked India among least free democracies of the World.
  • The report has been released by Freedom House, a U.S.-based watchdog, which has been tracking global political and civil liberties for almost half a century.

Highlights of the Report:

  • The Freedom in the World 2020 report ranks India at the 83rd position, along with Timor-Leste and Senegal.
  • This is near the bottom of the pile among the countries categorized as “Free”, with only Tunisia receiving a lower score.
  • India’s score fell by four points to 71, the worst decline among the world’s 25 largest democracies this year.

Reasons for low score:

  • The annulment of autonomy and the subsequent shutdown of Kashmir, the National Register of Citizens and the Citizenship (Amendment) Act,as well as the crackdown on mass protests have been listed as the main signs of declining freedom in the report.
  • As per the report, the actions have shaken the rule of law in Indiaand threatened the secular and inclusive nature of its political system.
  • The report noted that India has long been seen as a democratic counterweight to China and hence a strategic partner for the United States in the region.
  • The report slammed the internet blackout in Kashmir, terming it the longest shutdown ever imposed by a democracy.
  • It said freedom of expression was under threat in India, with journalists, academics and others facing harassment and intimidation when addressing politically sensitive topics.

What do you know about the National Population Register (NPR)?

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Answer:

The National Population Register (NPR) is a list of ‘usual residents of the country’. A usual resident of the country is one who has been residing in a local area for at least the last six months, or intends to stay in a particular location for the next six months.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Population Register (NPR):

  • The National Population Register (NPR) is a Register of usual residents of India.
  • The objective of the NPR is to create a comprehensive identity databaseof every usual resident in the country including demographic as well as biometric particulars along with Aadhaar number.
  • It is being prepared at the local (Village/sub-Town), sub-District, District, State and National level.
  • The NPR will collect both demographic data and biometric data. Demographic data has 15 categories, ranging from name and place of birth to education and occupation. For Biometric data, Aadhaar details of the residents will be fetched.
  • A resident is defined for the purposes of NPR as a person who has resided in a local area for the past 6 months or more or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next 6 months or more.
  • The NPR was conducted earlier in two phases in 2010 and 2015.

What is the theme of 2020 World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS)?

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Answer:

2020 Theme: ‘Towards 2030 Goals: Making the Decade Count’

Enrich Your Learning:

World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS):

  • WSDS is the annual flagship event of The Energy and Resources Institute(TERI).
  • Aim:to expand the scope of its reach and involve many more stakeholders involved in the climate change fight.
  • The Summit addressed broad themes of- circular economy, water, energy, industry transitions & e-mobility.
  • It provides a platform for global leaders and practitioners to discuss and deliberate over climatic issues of universal importance.
  • It strives to provide long-term solutions for the benefit of the global community by assembling the world’s most enlightened leaders and thinkers on a single platform.

Who have recently launched Forest-PLUS 2.0 programme?

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Answer:

US Agency for International Development (USAID) and India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) have officially launched Forest-PLUS 2.0.

Enrich Your Learning:

Forest-PLUS 2.0:

  • It is a five-year programmeinitiated in 2018 that focuses on developing tools to bolster ecosystem management and harnessing ecosystem services in forests.
  • Tetra Tech ARD, a US company, was given the contract to implement the programme. IORA Ecological Solutions, an Indian environmental advisory group, is its implementation partner.
  • Forest-PLUS 2.0 comprises pilot project in Gaya (Bihar), Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) and Medak (Telangana).

Objectives:

  • Developing tools for multiple servicesin forests management which includes innovative apps for automating forest planning processes, model forest management plans etc.
  • Developing incentive-based instrumentsfor leveraging finance. For example, a payment mechanism where a municipality/industry would pay upstream forest communities to use water flowing down because of improved forest management.
  • Modelling and setting up conservation enterprises and mobilising investmentfrom the private sector.

The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty was an arms control treaty between which countries?

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Answer: The United States and the Soviet Union. 

Enrich Your Learning:

Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty:

  • Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, nuclear arms-control accord reached by the United States andthe Soviet Union in 1987.
  • Two nations agreed to eliminatetheir stocks of intermediate-range and shorter-range (or “medium-range”) land-based missiles (which could carry nuclear warheads).
  • It was the first arms-control treaty to abolish an entire category of weapons systems.
  • In addition, two protocols to the treaty established unprecedented procedures for observers from both nations to verify first-hand the other nation’s destruction of its missiles.
  • The INF Treaty defined intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) and ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCMs) as those having ranges of 1,000 to 5,500 km and shorter-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) as those having ranges from 500 to 1,000 km.
  • The treaty prohibits both parties from possessing, producing or flight-testing ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of 500-5,500km.
  • Possessing or producing ground-based launchers of those missiles is also prohibited.
  • Existing weapons had to be destroyed, and a protocol for mutual inspection was agreed upon.
  • Each party has the right to withdraw from the treaty with six months’ notice, if it decides that extraordinary events related to the subject matter of this Treaty have jeopardized its supreme interests.
  • Recently, U.S. formally have withdrawn from INF arms treaty.

India and Bangladesh are the members of sub-regional groupings like BIMSTEC, the BBIN Initiative and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). True OR False.

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Answer:

True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Key facts about India and Bangladesh relation:

  • India and Bangladesh share the historical legacy of cooperation and support during the Liberation War of 1971.
  • India shares the longest international land boundary with Bangladesh which is more than 4000 kms long.
  • The historic India-Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement(LBA) came into force following the exchange of instruments of ratification in June 2015, providing for exchange of enclaves between the two countries.
  • Bangladesh is India’s biggest trade partner in South Asia.
  • India has given $8 BN Line of Credit(LoC) for the construction of Akhaura-Agartala rail project which shortened the distance between Dhaka and Kolkata to 550 km from 1650 kms earlier.
  • The two nations are working jointly on the rehabilitation of Kulaura-Shahbazpur section of railway linewhich will provide direct rail connectivity to Karimganj district of Assam and other North Eastern states.
  • India has launched Dhaka-Khulna-Kolkata bus and Khulna-Kolkata Bandhan Express servicesin 2017 and end-to-end customs and immigration services for Dhaka-Kolkata Maitri Express to provide transport, connectivity and people to people contact.
  • India is providing Bangladesh technical assistance for the construction of the 2,400 MW Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant in Pabna, Bangladesh’s first nuclear plant which is expected to go into operation by 2020.
  • The nations are working on construction of 130 km Bangladesh-India Friendship Pipeline between Siliguri in West Bengal and Parbatipur in Dinajpur district, Bangladesh.
  • The Joint exercises of Army (Exercise Sampriti) and Navy (Exercise Milan) take place between the two countries on annual basis for better military engagement.

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a 3rd largest market, larger than European Union and North American markets in the world. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

ASEAN:

  • In 1967, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by its founding fathers.
  • Founding Fathers of ASEAN are: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
  • The motto of ASEAN is “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”.
  • It is a regional grouping that promotes economic, political, and security cooperation among its ten members:
  1. Brunei,
  2. Cambodia,
  3. Indonesia,
  4. Laos,
  5. Malaysia,
  6. Myanmar,
  7. Philippines,
  8. Singapore,
  9. Thailand,
  10.  

Importance:

  • ASEAN countries have a total population of 650 million people and a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of $2.8 trillion.
  • The group has played a central role in Asian economic integration, signing six free-trade agreements with other regional economies and helping spearhead negotiations for what could be the world’s largest free trade pact.

Who regulates the functioning of Urban Cooperative Banks?

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Answer:

Unlike commercial banks, UCBs are only partly regulated by the RBI. The banking operations are regulated by RBI but management is regulated by Registrar of Co-operative Societies either under the State or Central government.

Enrich Your Learning:

Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs):

  • The concept of Co-operative banks was born out of the concept of co-operative credit societies where members from a community band together to extend loans to each other, at favourable terms.
  • The co-operative banks are broadly classified into urban or rural co-operative banks based on their region of operation.
  • Urban co-op banks are classified into scheduled and non-scheduled banks.
  • The commercial banks which are structured as joint stock companies, UCBs are structured as co-operatives, with their members carrying unlimited liability.
  • There is a clear distinction between a commercial bank’s shareholders and its borrowers, in a UCB borrowers can double up as shareholders.
  • In the event UCBs fail, deposits with them are covered by the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation of India up to a sum of ₹1 lakh per depositor, the same as for a commercial bank.
  • UCBs remain quite a hit with retail savers and small businesses because they offer attractive interest rates on deposits, far higher than commercial banks.

State co-operative bank:

  • The state cooperative bank is a federation of the central cooperative bank and acts as custodian of the cooperative banking structure in the State.
  • Its funds are obtained from the social capital, deposits, loans and overdrafts of the Reserve Bank of India.
  • State-owned cooperative banks lend money to cooperative central banks and to primary companies and not directly to farmers.

National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) Project is an initiative of which central Government ministry?

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Answer: Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.

Enrich Your Learning:

National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) Project:

  • NeVA aims:
  • to make all the Legislatures of the country paperless by making the proceedings of the Houses digital.
  • to bring all the legislatures of the country together, in one platform thereby creating a massive data depository without having the complexity of multiple applications.
  • to live up-to its potential of being ‘One Nation, One Application’.
  • It enables automation of entire law-making process, tracking of decisions and documents, sharing of information.
  • NeVA is a device neutral and member centric application created to equip them to handle diverse House Business smartly by putting entire information regarding member contact details, rules of procedure, list of business, notices, bulletins, bills, starred/unstarred questions and answers, papers laid, committee reports etc. in their hand held devices/ tablets and equip all Legislatures/ Departments to handle it efficiently.
  • NeVA to provide information on 40 Legislatures on fingertips of citizens across the country.
  • NeVA will completely eliminate the process of sending out a notice/request for collection of data.
  • NeVA is an effort to integrate this information on one platform and giving anytime anywhere access to everyone at a click of a button.
  • The NeVA initiative promises to ensure ease of access of important information about functioning of Legislatures in a simplified format to everyone.
  • It is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) included in Digital India Programme and Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (MoPA) is the ‘Nodal Ministry’ for its implementation in all the 31 States/ UTs with Legislatures.
  • The funding of NeVA is on the pattern of Central Sponsored Scheme i.e. 60:40; and 90:10 for North East & hilly States and 100% for UTs.
  • The funding for e-Vidhan is provided by the MoPA and technical support by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).
  • In order to promote the rolling out NeVA, the MoPA has consulted all State Governments.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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