Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-43] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Tiger census; Coal Bed Methane (CBM); Jal Jeevan Mission; M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for tigers - intensive protection and ecological status); CaTRAT; Total Fertility Rate; Momentum of Change; Energy resources; Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015; Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT); India's top 10 trading partners;
By IASToppers
April 21, 2020

As of December 2019, India`s trades more with Singapore than Hong Kong. (a) True OR (b) False?

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Answer:

  1. b) False. Singapore is India`s fifth largest trading partner while Hong Kong is fourth largest.

Enrich Your Learning:

India’s top 10 trading partners (as of December 2019)

  1. United States: US$51.6 billion (16% of total Indian exports)
  2. United Arab Emirates: $29 billion (9%)
  3. China: $16.4 billion (5.1%)
  4. Hong Kong: $13.2 billion (4.1%)
  5. Singapore: $10.4 billion (3.2%)
  6. United Kingdom: $9.8 billion (3%)
  7. Germany: $9 billion (2.8%)
  8. Bangladesh: $8.8 billion (2.7%)
  9. Netherlands: $8.7 billion (2.7%)
  10. Nepal: $7.3 billion (2.3%)

Which among these statements is incorrect regarding Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)? (a) It is a messaging service. OR (b) It is used by banks to send and receive payment orders. OR (c) It is a subsidiary organisation of the World Bank.

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Answer:

  • c) Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) has no relations with the World Bank.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) is a provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment.
  • It is headquartered in La Hulpe, Belgium.
  • SWIFT does not facilitate funds transfer: rather, it sends payment orders, which must be settled by correspondent accounts that the institutions have with each other.

 

The constitution of Child Welfare Police Officers is provision under Protection of Children from Sexual Offences, 2012. (a) True OR (b) False?

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Answer:

False. The constitution of Child Welfare Police Officers is provision under Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

Enrich Your Learning:

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

Objectives:

  • Achieve the objectives of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children as ratified by India on December 11, 1992.
  • It specifies procedural safeguards in cases of children in conflict with law.
  • It seeks to address children in the 16-18 age group, in conflict with law

Key Provisions:

  • A child is anyone less than 18 years of age. However, a special provision has been inserted for the possibility of trying 16-18-year olds committing heinous offences, as adults.
  • Constitution of Juvenile Justice Boards for each district. JJBs are composed of a Metropolitan or Judicial Magistrate and two social workers, one of whom shall be a woman.
  • Powers and responsibilities of the JJBs include:
    • Ensuring legal aid for a child;
    • Adjudicating and disposing of cases related to children in conflict with law;
    • Conducting regular inspection of adult jails to ensure no child is lodged in such jails and others
    • Inspection visits.
    • Conducting inspection visits of residential facilities for such children.
  • Constitution of a Children`s Court.
  • Child Welfare Committees (CWCs):  States shall constitute one or more CWCs for each district for dealing with children in need of care and protection. The powers and responsibilities of a CWC include: (i) conducting inquiries; (ii) selecting registered institutions for the placement of a child and; (iii) addressing orphans, abandoned children, surrendered children and sexually abused children, etc.
  • Special Juvenile Police Units (SJPU) and Child Welfare Police Officers:An SJPU will be established in each district, consisting of a police officer and two social workers. One Child Welfare Police Officer will be present in every police station.
  • Adoption provisions, where regulations regarding adoption shall be framed by the Central Adoption Resource Authority.
  • Penalties range from fines to imprisonment are also prescribed by the act.

Which among these statements is incorrect? (a) India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources. OR (b) The first floating solar power plant in India was constructed in Karnataka. OR (c) Hydropower plants of more than 25 MW capacity come under the ambit of Ministry of Power

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Answer:

  • The first floating solar power plant in India was constructed in Banasura Sagar, Kerala.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • India was the first countryin the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)), in the early 1980s, and its public sector undertakings the Solar Energy Corporation of India is responsible for the development of solar energy industry in India. Hydroelectricity is administered separately by the Ministry of Power.
  • India is one of the countries with the largest production of energy from renewable sources. As of 2019, 35% of India’s installed electricity generation capacity is from renewable sources, generating 17% of total electricity in the country.
  • In the Paris Agreement India has committed to an Intended Nationally Determined Contributions target of achieving 40% of its total electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030.
  • According to 2027 blueprint, India aims to have 275 GW from renewable energy, 72 GW of hydroelectricity, 15 GW of nuclear energy and nearly 100 GW from “other zero emission” sources.

 

 

Hydroelectricity:

  • India is the 7th largest producer of hydroelectric powerin the world.
  • Hydroelectric plants with capacities up to 25 MW, comes under the ambit of the Ministry of New and Renewable energy (MNRE).  Whilst large hydro, defined as above 25 MW, comes under the ambit of Ministry of Power.

Wind

  • India currently is the fourth largest installed wind power capacityin the world.
  • As of 30 June 2018 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 34,293 MW, mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (7,269.50 MW), Maharashtra (4,100.40 MW), Gujarat (3,454.30 MW), Rajasthan (2,784.90 MW), Karnataka (2,318.20 MW), Andhra Pradesh (746.20 MW) and Madhya Pradesh (423.40 MW)

Solar Power:

  • India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India.
  • The National Solar Missionis one of the missions being implemented to augment the solar power generation in the country.
  • The International Solar Alliancean alliance of 121 solar rich countries lying partially or fully between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, a number of countries outside of this area are also involved with the organisation. The ISA aims to promote and develop solar power amongst its members and has the objective of mobilising $1 trillion of investment by 2030.
  • Three of the top five largest solar parks worldwide are in Indiaincluding the second-largest solar park in the world at Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, with a capacity of 1000 MW.
  • India’s first and the largest floating solar power plant was constructed at Banasura Sagar reservoir in Wayanad, Kerala.

Biomass:

  • India is an ideal environment for Biomass productiongiven its tropical location and abundant sunshine and rains. The country’s vast agricultural potential provides huge agro-residues which can be used to meet energy needs, both in heat and power applications.
  • Biomass materials that can be used for power generation include bagasse, rice husk, straw, cotton stalk, coconut shells, soya husk, de-oiled cakes, coffee waste, jute wastes, groundnut shells and sawdust.

Momentum of Change is an initiative of: (a) United Nations Climate Change secretariat OR (b) World Trade Organisation OR (c) World Wildlife Fund OR (d) Amnesty International?

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Answer:

Momentum of Change is an initiative of United Nations Climate Change secretariat.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Momentum for Change is an initiative by the UN Climate Change secretariat.
  • Momentum for Change recognizes innovative and transformative solutionsthat address both climate change and wider economic, social and environmental challenges.
  • The initiative calls these solutions as Lighthouse Activities. These are practical, scalable and replicable examples of what people, businesses, governments and industriesare doing to tackle climate change.

 

 

India’s population growth rate peaked between 1961 and 1971. (a) True OR (b) False

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Answer:

True. India’s population growth rate peaked between 1961 and 1971

Enrich Your Learning:

India’s population growth rate peaked between 1961 and 1971 and has been falling since.

 

What is Total Fertility Rate?

The Total Fertility Rate is the average number of children borne by a woman in her lifetime.

Trends:

  • The Total Fertility Rate in rural areas remains higher than in urban areas.
  • Among bigger States (as defined by the Sample Registration Survey), Jammu & Kashmir and NCT of Delhi registered the biggest drop in Total Fertility Rate (in percentage terms) from 2007 to 2017, while Kerala and Tamil Nadu showed no change.
  • Despite a high decrease over the years, the Total Fertility Rate has remained high in States like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • Increase in population was highest in Bihar between 2001 and 2011 and lowest in Kerala.

According to the tiger census, which Indian state has the highest number of tigers in India?

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Answer:

  • Highest number of tigers in India are found in Madhya Pradesh.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Status of Tigers in India-2018 report has estimated the total tiger population in the country at 2,967. In 2014, it was 2226. This is the fourth cycle National tiger status assessment survey.
  • The tiger bearing habitats were divided into five landscape regions—Shivalik-Gangetic plains, Central India and the Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, North Eastern Hills and Brahmaputra Flood Plains and the Sundarbans.

Trends:

  • Central India and Eastern Ghats have the highest number of tigers at 1,033. Madhya Pradesh has 526 tigers, the most in any State, followed by Karnataka which has at 524 tigers.
  • Other states with substantial tiger population are Uttarakhand (442), Maharashtra (312) and Tamil Nadu (264).
  • In Chhattisgarh, the count dropped from 46 to 19.
  • 24% mortality among tigers is due to poaching.

Additional Information:

  • India along with 12 other tiger range countries had committed to doubling the population of tigers in their respective countries by 2022, as part of the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) programme Tx2.
  • India with has over 80% of the global tiger population which stands at 3,159.
  • Madhya Pradesh has six tiger reserves — Kanha, Pench, Bandhavgarh, Panna, Satpura and Sanjay-Dubri.

CaTRAT are related to: (a) Tiger Conservation OR (b) Cyber security OR (c) Cancer Diagnosis OR (d) Renewable Energy?

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Answer:

  • CaTRAT are software related to Tiger Conservation.

Enrich Your Learning:

M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for tigers – intensive protection and ecological status)

  • Launched by National Tiger Conservation Authority.
  • It is a software-based monitoring system launched across Indian tiger reserves.
  • The aim is to strengthen patrolling and surveillance of the Endangered Bengal tiger. It will also enhance the effectiveness and spatial coverage of patrols.
  • Also, an android version of the software was also developed.  It was used in the recently concluded fourth All-India Tiger Estimation.

CaTRAT – Camera Trap data Repository and Analysis Tool)

  • It is an artificial intelligence software which uses neural network and image recognition, to classify images of wildlife species, with focus on detecting tigers.
  • The tool is used by the Wildlife Institute of India and the National Tiger Conservation Authority.

 

Which among these is not a component of Jal Jeevan Mission: (a) Provide piped water supply to rural and urban households in India. OR (b) Grey water management OR (c) Water source development OR (d) Retrofitting of completed piped water supply schemes?

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Answer:

Jal Jeevan Mission focusses on providing piped water supply to all households in rural India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

  • Implemented by Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • The mission’s goal is to provide to all households in rural India safe and adequate water through individual household tap connections by 2024.

The following kinds of works/ schemes are proposed to be taken up under JJM:

  • In-village water supply (PWS) infrastructure for tap water connection to every household.
  • Reliable drinking water source development/ augmentation of existing sources.
  • Transfer of water (multi-village scheme; where quantity & quality issues are there in the

local water sources).

  • Technological intervention for treatment to make water potable (where water quality is an

issue, but quantity is sufficient).

  • Retrofitting of completed and ongoing piped water supply schemes to provide Functional Household Tap Connection and raise the service level.
  • Grey water management.
  • Capacity building of various stakeholders and support activities to facilitate the implementation.

Funding: Total estimated cost of JJM is Rs. 3.60 Lakh Crore. 

The fund sharing pattern between Centre and State is 90:10 for Himalayan (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh) and North-Eastern States, 100:0 for UTs and 50:50 for rest of the States

 

Coal Bed Methane in India found only Damodar Koel valley? a) True b) False

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Answer: False

Correct Statement:

  • Apart from Damodar Koel Valley, Coal Bed Methane is also found in the Son Valley.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Coal Bed Methane (CBM)?

  • CBM is extracted from what are known as unconventional gas reservoirs— where gas is extracted directly from the rock that is the source of the gas.
  • The methane is held underground within the coaland is extracted by drilling into the coal seam and removing the groundwater. The resulting drop in pressure causes the methane to be released from the coal.

 

  • According to the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, India’s CBM resources are estimated at around 92 trillion cubic feet (TCF), or 2,600 billion cubic metres (BCM).

Major Locations:

  • Coal and Coal Bed Methane are found in 12 states of Indiawith the Gondwana sediments of eastern India holding the bulk.
  • The Damodar Koel valleyand Son valley are prospective areas for CBM development.

Applications of Coal Bed Methane:

  • For power generation.
  • As compressed natural gas (CNG) auto fuel.
  • As feedstock for fertilisers, industrial uses such as in cement production, rolling mills, and steel plants.  
  • For methanol production.

Additional Information:

  • India has the fifth-largest coal reserves in the world.

Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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