Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-44] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Chandrayan II; Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC); Kurzarbeit Scheme; Carbon Dioxide; Sovereign Bond; Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD); Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM); Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY); Fair and Remunerative Price of sugar cane; MARPOL (International Convention on Prevention of Marine Pollution);
By IASToppers
April 22, 2020

Recently, the term MARPOL was in news. It is related to what?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

MARPOL (International Convention on Prevention of Marine Pollution)

  • ​​​The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes.
  • The MARPOL Convention was adopted on 2 November 1973 at International Maritime Organisation. MARPOL has been updated by amendments through the years.In 1997, a Protocol was adopted to amend the Convention and a new Annex VI was added which entered into force on 19 May 2005.
  • The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships– both accidental pollution and that from routine operations – and currently includes six technical Annexes.

The Six Annexes are:

  • Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil.
  • Annex II Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk.
  • Annex III Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form.
  • Annex IV Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships.
  • Annex V Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships.
  • Annex VI Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships.

Additional Information:

  • India is a signatory to MARPOL. In addition, Prevention of Marine Pollutionis also dealt with by Merchant Shipping Rules, 2009 framed under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958.
  • A steering committee with stakeholders has been constituted by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change to tackle the issues of marine plastic littering. The Committee will co-ordinate the activities of all the Ministries/Departments, examine  proposals and provide guidance to Ministries, State and UT Governmentswith regard to research, policy planning, deployment of technology, public outreach and education and other facets of the problem of marine plastic littering.

The Fair and Remunerative Price of sugar cane is approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs. a) True b) False

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Answer:

  1. a) True. The Fair and Remunerative Price of sugar cane is approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Fair and Remunerative Price of sugar cane?

  • The Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) is the minimum price that sugarcane farmers are legally guaranteed to get from sugar mills. It is will be uniformly applicable all over the country.
  • The ‘FRP’ of sugarcane is determined under the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966.
  • The FRP approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairsand is determined by the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).

Which is a likely outcome of successful implementation of Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY) scheme?

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Answer:

Increase rural transport services is the most likely outcome of Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY) scheme.

Enrich Your Learning:

Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY)

The scheme is a subcomponent of the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM).

Objectives

  • To provide an alternative source of livelihoodsto members of SHGs under DAY – NRLM by facilitating them to operate public transport services in backward rural areas, as identified by the States
  • To provide safe, affordable and community monitored rural transport services to connect remote villages with key services and amenities(including access to markets, education and health) for the overall economic development of the area by making use of the supports available within the framework of DAY – NRLM.

The Community Investment Fund (CIF) provided to Community Based Organization (CBOs) under DAY-NRLM will be utilized to support the SHG members in this new livelihoods’ initiative. The beneficiary SHG member will be provided an interest free loan by the CBO from its Community Investment Fund upto Rs.6.50 lakh for purchase of the vehicle.

Which are the sub-schemes under the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission?

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Answer:

Sub Schemes under NRLM:

  • Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY)
  • Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)
  • Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP)
  • National Rural Livelihoods Project (NRLP)

Enrich Your Learning:

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) 

  • Aajeevika – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India in June 2011. In November 2015, the program was renamed Deendayal Antayodaya Yojana (DAY-NRLM).
  • The World Bank is providing investment support to the initiative.
  • The Mission aims at creating efficient and effective institutional platforms of the rural poor, enabling them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial services. 

Features:

  • Universal Social Mobilisation.
  • Participatory Identification of Poor
  • Community Funds as Resources in Perpetuity
  • Financial Inclusion
  • Livelihoods
  • Convergence and partnerships
  • Sensitive Support Structures

NRLM Guiding Principles:

  • Poor have a strong desire to come out of poverty, and they have innate capabilities.
  • Social mobilization and building strong institutions of the poor is critical for unleashing the innate capabilities of the poor.
  • An external dedicated and sensitive support structure is required to induce the social mobilization, institution building and empowerment process.
  • Facilitating knowledge dissemination, skill building, access to credit, access to marketing, and access to other livelihoods services underpins this upward mobility

NRLM Core Values:

  • Inclusion of the poorest, and meaningful role to the poorest in all the processes
  • Transparency and accountability of all processes and institutions
  • Ownership and key role of the poor and their institutions in all stages – planning, implementation, and, monitoring
  • Community self-reliance and self-dependence

 

NRLM set out with an agenda to cover 7 Crore rural poor households, across 600 districts, 6000 blocks, 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats and 6 lakh villages in the country through self-managed Self Help Groups (SHGs) and federated institutions and support them for livelihoods collectives in a period of 8-10 years.

Chandrayaan 2 was supposed to land on the Lunar North Pole? a) True b) False

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Answer:

  1. b) Chandrayaan 2 was supposed to land on the Lunar South Pole.

Enrich Your Learning:

Chandrayan II

  • Chandrayaan-2 was India’s second mission to the moon. The aim was to collect scientific information on lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, lunar exosphere and signatures of hydroxyl and water-ice.
  • Chandrayaan-2 launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, India, aboard a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle(GSLV) rocket on July 22, 2019.
  • The target site was the Lunar South Pole.
  • The apparatus to the moon included an orbiter, lander named Vikram and a rover named Pragyaan.

Instruments carried by the Orbiter:

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Terrain Mapping Camera 2 (TMC-2),which will map the lunar surface in three dimensions using two on-board cameras. A predecessor instrument called TMC flew on Chandrayaan-1.
  • Collimated Large Array Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS),which will map the abundance of minerals on the surface. A predecessor instrument called CIXS (sometimes written as C1XS) flew on Chandrayaan-1.
  • Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM),which looks at emissions of solar X-rays.
  • Chandra’s Atmospheric Composition Explorer(ChACE-2), which is a neutral mass spectrometer. A predecessor instrument called CHACE flew on Chandrayaan-1’s Moon Impact Probe.
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR),which will map the surface in radio waves. Some of its design is based on Chandrayaan-1’s MiniSAR.
  • Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS),which will measure the abundance of water/hydroxl on the surface.
  • Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC)to examine the surface, particularly the landing site of the lander and rover.

The lander’s instruments included:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA), to look for moonquakes.
  • Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE), to examine the surface’s thermal properties.
  • Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA-Langmuir Probe),to look at plasma density on the surface.
  • It was designed to function for one lunar day, which is equivalent to about 14 Earth days.

Rover-Pragyan:

Chandrayaan-2’s Rover was a 6-wheeled robotic vehicle named as Pragyan.

Kyasanur Forest Disease is caused by? a) Bacteria OR b) Fungi OR c) Protozoan OR d) Virus?

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Answer:

Kyasanur Forest Disease is caused by a virus.

Enrich Your Learning:

Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD):

  • Caused by Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV). KFDV was identified in 1957 when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka.

 

 

 

 

 

  • Hard ticks are the reservoir of KFD virus. Rodents, shrews, and monkeys are common hosts for KFDV.
  • Transmission to humans may occur after a tick bite or contact with an infected animal) sick or recently dead monkey).
  • No person-to-person transmission has been described.

Symptoms:

  • Chills, fever, and headache, mental disturbances, tremors, and vision deficits.

Cure:

  • Supportive care for the patients is required.
  • A vaccine does exist for KFD.

Sovereign Bonds are denominated only in domestic currency. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer: Wrong.

Right Statement:

  • Sovereign Bonds can be denominated in both foreign and domestic currency.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Sovereign Bond?

  • A sovereign bond is a specific debt instrument issued by the government.They can be denominated in both foreign and domestic currency
  • These promise to pay the buyer a certain amount of interestfor a stipulated number of years and repay the face value on maturity
  • Sovereign bonds help governments raise financial resources to support expenditure.
  • The Yield of the sovereign bond is the interest rate that the government pays on issuing bonds. 
  • Countries with volatile economies and high inflation rates have to issue higher interest returns on their bonds compared to more stable ones.
  • The central banks also control the supply of money within the economy by the use of these bonds. When the government is in expansionist mode, the central bank will back debt in exchange for cash to raise capital for the expenditure. In case it is in the contracting mode, the banks hope to slow growth by selling more securities to take out liquidity from the system.

During dry conditions, microorganisms present in the soil release more Carbon Dioxide. a) True b) False

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Answer:

  1. a) True. Microorganisms present in the soil do release more Carbon Dioxide.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide increase during dry years.
  • When soil is dry, plants are stressed and can’t absorb as much CO₂ to perform photosynthesis. At the same time, because dry conditions are often accompanied by warm temperatures, microorganisms in the soil, which are more productive when it’s warm, release more CO₂.
  • Under a warming climate, rather than absorbing more greenhouse gas emissions, plants and soil may start absorbing less.
  • Carbon uptake is not a zero-sum game. Even when a drought year is followed by a year as wet as the previous one was dry; it is not enough to compensate for the dry year.

Which country has launched the Kurzarbeit Scheme to address unemployment during uncertain economic situations?

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Answer: 

  • Kurzarbeit Scheme is an initiative of Germany.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Kurzarbeit Scheme?

  • Kurzarbeit is German for “short-work”. The policy provides for a short-time work allowance, called kurzarbeitgeld, which partially compensates for lost earnings during uncertain economic situations. Its origins date back as far as the early 20th century, before and after World War I.
  • Workers can apply for short-term work benefits under the scheme, with the government stepping in to pay employees a part of their lost income.
  • The companies retain their employees instead of laying them off and allows the latter to sustain themselves for a period of up to 12 months.
  • Germany’s was able to hold its unemployment rate to within 7.5 percent even during the 2008-2009 economic crisis.

Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) can accept demand deposits. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

  • NBFC cannot accept demand deposits.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)? 

  • A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of  shares /stocks /bonds/ debentures /securities issued by Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature, leasing, hire-purchase, insurance business, chit business but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property.

Difference between NBFCs and Banks:

  • NBFC cannot accept demand deposits.
  • NBFCs do not form part of the payment and settlement system and cannot issue cheques drawn on itself.
  • Deposit insurance facility of Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation is not available to depositors of NBFCs, unlike in case of banks.

Regulatory Body:

  • NBFCs except Housing Finance Companies, Merchant Banking Companies, Stock Exchanges, Companies engaged in the business of stock-broking/sub-broking, Venture Capital Fund Companies, Nidhi Companies, Insurance companies and Chit Fund Companies are regulated by Reserve Bank of India.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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