Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-44] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Vasudev Balwant Phadke; Lord Cornwallis as Father of Indian Civil Services; Tilak Swaraj Fund; Books written by Balgangadhar Tilak; Queen’s proclamation of 1858; Indian High Courts Act 1861; Rise of extremism; Annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911; Doctrine of Lapse; Difference between nij and ryoti system;
By IASToppers
April 22, 2020

What were the main features of the Nij system of cultivation? How was it different from ryoti system?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • In the nij system of indigo cultivation the planter produced indigo in lands that he directly owned. He either bought the land or rented it from other zamindars and produced indigo by directly employing hired labourers.

Difference between nij and ryoti system:

  • In NIJ cultivation, the planter themselves produce indigo while under Ryot system, planter get indigo produced by ryot.
  • In NIJ cultivation planter directly employ hired labour to produce indigo while in ryot system, planter force the ryot to sign an agreement to produce indigo.
  • In NIJ cultivation less than 25 percent of land should be under indigo cultivation while in ryot system, at least 25 percent of land should be under indigo cultivation.
  • Under NIJ cultivation it is very difficult to find labour while in ryot system, planter sometimes forces the village head on behalf of ryot to sign the agreement to produce indigo.
  • Under ryot system planter give loan to ryot to produce indigo, this is not applied in case of NIJ cultivation.

Which states were annexed under the Doctrine of Lapse by Lord Dalhousie?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • In 1824, before the time of Dalhousie, the princely state of Kittur was acquired by the East India Company by this doctrine.
  • Other states were also annexed in 1830’s and 1840’s through this doctrine.

After Dalhousie became the Governor-General, in 1848, Satara was acquired as per this doctrine. Other major states annexed by the British as per the Doctrine of Lapse:

  1. Jaipur – 1849
  2. Sambhalpur – 1849
  3. Udaipur – 1852
  4. Jhansi – 1853
  5. Nagpur – 1854

The company took over the princely states of Satara (1848), Jaitpur and Sambalpur (1849), Nagpur and Jhansi (1854), Tanjore and Arcot (1855) and Udaipur (Chhattisgarh) under the terms of the doctrine of lapse.

Oudh (1856) is widely believed to have been annexed under the Doctrine of Lapse. However, it was annexed by Lord Dalhousie under the pretext of mis-governance.

Which Viceroy of India is remembered for the annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911?

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Answer:

  • Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India (1910- 1916), is remembered for the annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Benaras Session of 1905 under the Presidentship of Gopal Krishna Gokhale was convened to condemn the Partition of Bengal and the reactionary policies of Curzon and support the anti-Partition and Swadeshi Movement of Bengal.
  • Due to these political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited on 12 December 1911.
  • A new partition which divided the province on linguistic, rather than religious grounds followed, with the Hindi, Oriya and Assamese areas separated to form separate administrative units: Bihar and Orissa Province was created to the west, and Assam Province to the east.
  • The administrative capital of British India was moved from Calcutta to New Delhi as well.

What were the major factors which contributed to the rise of extremism or militant nationalism in India?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Extremism or militant nationalism became a predominant philosophy of Indian nationalism or Indian national movement from 1905 to 1917. Many factors contributed to the rise of extremism or militant nationalism.

  • One such factor was the opposition of certain early nationalists in the strategy and technique adopted by the moderates’ expression of faith in the fairness of the British, mendicancy and appealing to the British government.
  • The failure of the Indian Council Act of 1892 in satisfying the aspirations of the Indians is another important cause. Further, the callous attitude exhibited by the British towards the sufferings of the people due to the famine of 1897 was also one of the causes.
  • The outbreak of the Bubonic plague in Bombay presidency and the means followed by the government created strong resentment in the minds of the people which led to the murder of Rand, the Plague Commissioner of Poona by the Chapekar brothers.
  • In revolutionary associations overemphasis on religion were there which kept Muslims aloof from revolutionary terrorism.
  • Another factor was the exclusion of educated Indians from the public services also which led to the dissatisfaction for the moderate methods and the view of Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, “the highest ranks of civil employment must be a general rule, as held by Englishmen” made the blood of the Indians boil and think of resorting to violent means to redeem their honour.
  • Lord Curzon’s high-handed mission, commission and omissions – the Calcutta Corporation Act of 1899, and Calcutta University Act of 1904, along with the partition of Bengal in 1905 accelerated the extremist movement.
  • Revolutionary terrorist groups in India opted to follow in the footsteps of Russian Nihilists or Irish nationalists.

During the colonial rule in India, Ramosi Peasant Force was formed to get rid off the Britishers from the country by instigating an armed revolt. Who instituted this force?

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Answer:

  • Vasudev Balwant Phadke

Enrich Your Learning:

About Vasudev Balwant Phadke:

  • Vasudev Balwant Phadke, also known as the father of the Indian Armed Rebellion was born on 4th November 1845 in Panvel, Raigad district, Maharashtra.
  • He formed the Ramosi Peasant Force which aimed to get rid off the Britishers from the country by instigating an armed revolt.
  • The Ramosi Peasant Force was the group of Ramoshis, Kolis, Bhils and Dhangars communities in Maharashtra and the actually the “organized political dacoits”.
  • Since the elite classes didn’t support his cause, he gathered people from backward communities and raided government treasury to collect money for the benefit of famine-stricken villagers.
  • The first raid he ever did was at the house of the local businessman at Dhamari in Shirur Taluka, Pune where he took the money which was collected as income tax from Indians by British.
  • His inspiring speeches at Pune brought people out in great numbers, who would listen to him ardently.
  • Phadke wanted a well-organized revolutionary machine to create the most impact, so he made four groups.
  • He was captured and imprisoned in 1879 and died in 1883.

Indian High Courts Act of 1861 authorized the Crown to create High Courts in the Indian colony. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

  •  

Enrich Your Learning:

Indian High Courts Act 1861:

  • Indian High Courts Act 1861 was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to authorize the Crown to create High Courts in the Indian colony.
  • The Act was passed after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and consolidated the parallel legal system of the Crown and the East India Company.
  • The objective of this act was to amalgamate the Supreme Courts and the Sadar Adalats in the three Presidencies
  • The jurisdiction and powers exercised by these courts was to be assumed by the High Courts.
  • It vested in Queen of England the power to issue letters patent to erect and establish High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
  • The High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were established by Indian High Courts Act 1861.
  • It did not by itself create and establish the High Courts in India. 
  • The Act abolished the Supreme Courts at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay; the Sadar Diwani Adalat and the Sadar Nizamat Adalat at Calcutta; Sadar Adalat and Faujdari Adalat at Madras; Sadar Diwani Adala and Faujdari Adalat at Bombay.
  • These High Courts became the precursors to the High Courts in the modern-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

Composition of the High Court’s:

  • The Indian High Courts Act 1861 had also spelled the composition of the High Court.
  • Each High Court was to consist of a Chief Justice and NOT more than 15 regular judges.
  • The chief Justice and minimum of one third regular judges had to be barristers and minimum one third regular judges were to be from the “covenanted Civil Service”.
  • All Judges were the be in the office on the pleasure of the Crown.
  • The High Courts had an Original as well as an Appellate Jurisdiction the former derived from the Supreme Court, and the latter from the Sudder Diwani and Sudder Foujdari Adalats, which were merged in the High Court.

Queen’s proclamation of 1858 was read by Lord Dalhousie at grand Darbar of Allahabad. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

  •  

Right Statement:

  • Queen’s proclamation of 1858 was read by Lord Canning at grand Darbar of Allahabad.

Enrich Your Learning:

Queen’s proclamation of 1858:

  • A proclamation was issued by Queen Victoria on 1stNovember 1858, following the 1857 revolt.
  • It was read at the grand Darbar held at Allahabad by Lord Canning, who was the last Governor General and the first Viceroy of India.
  • It unveiled a new British policy of perpetual support for “native princes” and non-intervention in matters of religious belief or worship within British India.
  • It resulted into the Government of India Act 1858.
  • It declared that thereafter India would be governed by and in the name of the British Monarch through a Secretary of State.
  • The Act laid down that henceforth India shall be governed by and in the name of the Queen. Thus, the Company’s territories in India were to be vested in the Queen, the Company ceasing to exercise its power and control over these territories.
  • It abolished the Board of Control and the Court of Directors. The post of a Secretary of State was created. He was to be assisted by a Council of India which was to consist of fifteen members.
  • The Doctrine of Lapse was cancelled, and the British stopped the policy of annexation.
  • A general amnesty (pardon) was granted to the rebels except those who were directly involved in killing the British subjects.
  • The office of the Governor General was changed to that of Viceroy of India.
  • The Crown was empowered to appoint a Governor-General and the Governors of the Presidencies.
  • An Indian Civil Service was to be created under the control of the Secretary of State.
  • Hereto all the property and other assets of the East India Company were transferred to the Crown. The Crown also assumed the responsibilities of the Company as they related to treaties, contracts, and so forth.
  • The Act ushered in a new period of Indian history, bringing about the end of Company rule in India.

Who wrote the book ‘The Arctic Home in the Vedas’ in which he argued that the Vedas could only have been composed in the Arctic’s?

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Answer:

  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak wrote the book ‘The Arctic Home in the Vedas’.

Enrich Your Learning:

Books written by Balgangadhar Tilak

  • In 1903, he wrote the book The Arctic Home in the Vedas. In it, he argued that the Vedas could only have been composed in the Arctic’s, and the Aryan bards brought them south after the onset of the last ice age. He proposed a new way to determine the exact time of the Vedas.
  • In “The Orion”, he tried to calculate the time of Vedas by using the position of different Nakshatras. Positions of Nakshtras were described in different Vedas.
  • Tilak authored “Shrimadh Bhagvad Gita Rahasya” in prison at Mandalay – the analysis of ‘Karma Yoga’ in the Bhagavad Gita, which is known to be gift of the Vedas and the Upanishads.

Who announced ‘Tilak Swaraj Fund’ which was aimed at collecting Rs 1 crore to aid India’s freedom struggle and resistance to the British rule?

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Answer:

  • Mahatma Gandhi

Enrich Your Learning:

Tilak Swaraj Fund:

  • A year into the Non-Cooperation Movement, Mahatma Gandhi announced the Tilak Swaraj Fund to finance the movement.
  • The Fund, a homage to Bal Gangadhar Tilak on his first death anniversary, aimed at collecting Rs 1 crore to aid India’s freedom struggle and resistance to the British rule.
  • A massive amount at the time, the sceptical were proved wrong when the money came in by the set deadline of June 30.
  • Of the collected amount, Rs 37.5 lakh was donated by Bombay, which led him to refer to the city as “Bombay the Beautiful”.

Lord Cornwallis reformed the civil services in order to strengthen the British rule in India. What was the fundamental principle behind this reform?

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Answer:

  • The fundamental principle behind this reform was the separation of revenue administration from the judicial administration.

Enrich Your Learning:

Lord Cornwallis as Father of Indian Civil Services

  • Lord Cornwallis is known as the Father of Civil Services in India. He introduced Covenant Civil Services (Higher Civil Services) which were different from the Un-covenanted Civil Services (Lower Civil Services).
  • The Former was created by the Law of the Company, while later was not created by the law of the company”.
  • In order to consolidate the British rule in India, the civil services were reformed, modernised and rationalised by him.
  • The basic principle was the separation of revenue administration from the judicial administration.
  • The Collector was deprived of judicial and magisterial powers, he became only the head of revenue administration. The posts of district judges were created to look after judicial administration.
  • He reserved all the covenanted services for Britishers and excluded Indians from superior posts. Due to doubtfulness about the integrity and ability of Indians, he introduced this policy.
  • After the revolt of 1857, there were many reforms in India which transferred all powers to crown.
  • There were reforms in civil services appointments as well, which were done to increase support for British government in India among elites and educated population.
  • Charter Act of 1853 abolished the patronage system and introduced the system of open Competition as the basis of selection of Civil Services.
  • Indian Civil Services Act of 1861 provided the reservation of certain principal posts for the members of the covenanted services.
  • According to the act, “any Indian or European may be appointed to any of the office, provided that he had resided in India for last 7 years”.

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