Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-45] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme; Rainfed Area Development Programme; Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN); International Committee of Red Cross; National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; Geneva Conventions; International Humanitarian Law; Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement (APTTA); India-Afghanistan Air Corridor; Post-retirement Appointment of Judges; Section 124-A of the Indian Penal Code; National Security Act, 1980; Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (FMBAP);
By IASToppers
April 23, 2020

What are the benefits of the Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (FMBAP)?

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Answer:

Benefits:         

  • The FMBAP Scheme will be implemented throughout the country for effective flood management, erosion control and anti-sea erosion.
  • The proposal will benefit towns, villages, industrial establishments, communication links, agricultural fields, infrastructure from floods and erosion in the country.
  • The catchment area treatment works will help in reduction of sediment load into rivers.

Enrich Your Learning:

Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (FMBAP):

  • The Union Cabinet has approved the Flood Management and Border Areas Programme for Flood Management Works in entire country and River Management Activities and works related to Border Areas.

Funding pattern:

  • The funding pattern for FM Component for works in general category States will continue to be 50% (Centre): 50% (State)and for projects of North Eastern States, Sikkim, J&K, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, the funding pattern will continue to be 70% (Centre): 30% (State).
  • RMBA component being specific to activities in border areas with neighbouring countries and in accordance with bilateral mechanisms, the projects / works will continue to be funded as 100% grant-in-aid / central assistance. 

Salient features:

  • The Scheme “FMBAP” has been framed by merging the components of two continuing XII Plan schemes titled “Flood Management Programme (FMP)” and “River Management Activities and Works related to Border Areas (RMBA)”.
  • The aim of the Schemeis to assist the State Governments to provide reasonable degree of protection against floods in critical areas by adopting optimum combination of structural and non-structural measures and enhancing capabilities of State / Central Government officials in related fields.
  • The works under the scheme will protect valuable land from erosion and flooding and help in maintaining peace along the border.
  • The Scheme aims at completion of the on-going projects already approved under FMP. Further, the scheme also caters to Hydro-meteorological observations and Flood Forecasting on common rivers with the neighbouring countries.
  • The Scheme also includes survey and investigations, preparation of DPR etc.of water resources projects on the common rivers with neighbouring countries like Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project, Sapta Kosi-Sun Kosi Projects in Nepal which would benefit both countries.

The suspect can be kept in jail for 12 months without any charge under the National Security Act 1980. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Security Act, 1980:

  • The National Security Act (NSA) came into existence in 1980 during Indira Gandhi’s government. 
  • The National security Act, empowers the Central Government and State Governments to detain a person to prevent him/her from acting in any manner against the welfare and security of the country,damaging the Indian relations with foreign countries, obstructing the maintenance and supply of essential services to the community.

Provisions of the National Security Act, 1980 (NSA)/ Rasuka:

  • If a person, does not believe in the rule of law, harms the Indian relations with other countriesof the world, disrupt the maintenance or supply of public services, attack police personnel on duty and creates the threat to the national security; can be arrested by the concerned government under this act.
  • Under NSA, the concerned officer has the power to keep the suspect in captivity for 5 days without assigning any reason while in special circumstances this period can be up to 10 to 12 days. After this, the officer needs the permission of the state government for further detention.
  • The arrested person is not entitled to the aid of any legal practitioner in any matter connected with the proceedings before an advisory board. This panel is constituted by the government for dealing with NSA cases.
  • This law empowers the central government to arrest or expel a foreigner to control his activity.
  • Some people have been booked under Rasuka for misbehaving with doctors, for transferring their corona infection to other healthy peopleand attacking the police personals in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi.

Imprisonment under the NSA:

  • The National Security Act (NSA), empowers the concerned government to keep a suspect in jail for 12 months without any charge. But this period can be extended if the government finds fresh evidence against the suspect.
  • If an officer arrests a suspect, he has to explain the reasons to the concerned state government. Until the state government approves this arrest, the maximum period of arrest cannot be more than twelve days.

The suspect can be kept in jail for 12 months without any charge under the National Security Act 1980. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Security Act, 1980:

  • The National Security Act (NSA) came into existence in 1980 during Indira Gandhi’s government. 
  • The National security Act, empowers the Central Government and State Governments to detain a person to prevent him/her from acting in any manner against the welfare and security of the country,damaging the Indian relations with foreign countries, obstructing the maintenance and supply of essential services to the community.

Provisions of the National Security Act, 1980 (NSA)/ Rasuka:

  • If a person, does not believe in the rule of law, harms the Indian relations with other countriesof the world, disrupt the maintenance or supply of public services, attack police personnel on duty and creates the threat to the national security; can be arrested by the concerned government under this act.
  • Under NSA, the concerned officer has the power to keep the suspect in captivity for 5 days without assigning any reason while in special circumstances this period can be up to 10 to 12 days. After this, the officer needs the permission of the state government for further detention.
  • The arrested person is not entitled to the aid of any legal practitioner in any matter connected with the proceedings before an advisory board. This panel is constituted by the government for dealing with NSA cases.
  • This law empowers the central government to arrest or expel a foreigner to control his activity.
  • Some people have been booked under Rasuka for misbehaving with doctors, for transferring their corona infection to other healthy peopleand attacking the police personals in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi.

Imprisonment under the NSA:

  • The National Security Act (NSA), empowers the concerned government to keep a suspect in jail for 12 months without any charge. But this period can be extended if the government finds fresh evidence against the suspect.
  • If an officer arrests a suspect, he has to explain the reasons to the concerned state government. Until the state government approves this arrest, the maximum period of arrest cannot be more than twelve days.

Section 124A of Indian Penal Code (IPC) is related to: a) Criminal defamation OR b) Sedition?

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Answer: Sedition

Enrich Your Learning:

Section 124-A of the Indian Penal Code:

  • The offence of sedition is introduced under Section 124A of IPC.
  • Whoever, by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or whoever excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards, the Government established by law in India, has committed the offence of sedition.

What are the meaning of disaffection, hatred and contempt?

Under Section 124A of IPC:

  1. Disaffection includes disloyalty and all feelings of enmity.
  2. Hatred implies an ill will, while contempt implies a low opinion. Both of them are a state of mind in relation to the object.

Types of Sedition:

Five heads of sedition can be enumerated depending upon the object of the accused: –

  • Exciting disaffection against the King, Government, Constitution, Parliament or administration of justice;
  • Promoting any alteration in Church or State by unlawful means;
  • Inciting disturbance of the peace;
  • Raising discontent among the King’s subjects; and
  • Exciting class hatred

Offence under this Section is Cognizable, Non-bailable and Non-compoundable:

  • Cognizable: an offence for which a police officer may, in accordance with the First Schedule or under any other law for the time being in force, arrest without a warrant.
  • Non-bailable: They are serious offences where bail is a privilege and only the courts can grant it.
  • Compoundable offences: Offences where the complainant (i.e. the victim), enter into a compromise and agrees to have the charges dropped against the accused.

Key facts:

  • The offence of sedition was originally introduced under section 113 of Macaulay’s Draft Penal Code of 1837.
  • It was dropped when the Indian Penal Code was passed in 1860.
  • The then law member of the Government of India Sir Fits James Stephen introduced an amendment in the form of section 124-A through the Indian Penal Code (Amendment) Act, 1870which was passed.

Who were punished during the freedom struggle under section 124A?

  1. In 1897, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was booked for sedition.
  2. Gandhiji, being the editor of the paper ‘Young India’ along with Shankarlal Ghelabhai Sankar printer and publisher were charged under section 124A.

Should section 124 be amended?

Arguments in support of Section 124A:

  • Section 124A of the IPC has its utility in combating anti-national, secessionist and terrorist elements.
  • It protects the elected government from attempts to overthrow the government with violence and illegal means.
  • The continued existence of the government established by law is an essential condition of the stability of the State.
  • If contempt of court invites penal action, contempt of government should also attract punishment.
  • Many districts in different states face a Maoist insurgency and rebel groups virtually run a parallel administration. These groups openly advocate the overthrow of the state government by revolution.
  • Against this backdrop, the abolition of Section 124A would be ill-advised merely because it has been wrongly invoked in some highly publicized cases.

Arguments against Section 124A:

  1. Section 124A is a relic of colonial legacy and unsuited in a democracy.
  2. It is a constraint on the legitimate exercise of constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech and expression.
  3. Dissent and criticism of the government are essential ingredients of robust public debate in a vibrant democracy.
  4. They should not be constructed as sedition. Right to question, criticize and change rulers is very fundamental to the idea of democracy.
  5. The British, who introduced sedition to oppress Indians, have themselves abolished the law in their country. There is no reason, why should not India abolish this section.
  6. The terms used under Section 124A like ‘disaffection‘ are vague and subject to different interpretation to the whims and fancies of the investigating officers.

 

What are the Constitutional provisions regarding Post-retirement Appointment of Judges in India?

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Answer:

  • Article 124 states that “no person who has held office as a judge of the Supreme Court shall plead or act in any court or before any authority within the territory of India.”
  • Article 220 bars High Court judges from pleading before “any authority in India except the Supreme Court and the other High Courts.”

Enrich Your Learning:

Post-retirement Appointment of Judges:

  • Since 1950, there have been 44 Chief Justices of India who have accepted post-retirement jobs.
  • According to a study, as many as 70 of over 100 retired Supreme Court judges have taken up such assignments in organizations like NHRC, National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, Armed Forces Tribunal, Law Commission of India
  • Some have been appointed heads of commissions or as governors of states.
  • About 36 per cent of the appointments were made by the central government, mainly to tribunals, commissions, ad hoc committees and government positions like that of Lokayukta.
  • The study says that the statutes of these bodies have laid down that only candidates with specific qualifications will be considered.
  • At least 56 per cent of the appointments were made because they were required by law, implying a structural problem.
  • In some cases, Supreme Court judges have been appointed to commissions even four months ahead of retirement.

First Law Commission Recommendations:

  • Judges of the higher judiciary should not accept any government job after retirement.
  • Such judges must not forget that their conduct even post-retirement was crucial to preserve people’s faith in the judiciary.

According to Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement, India can export goods to Afghanistan using the Wagah Border (Pakistan land route) but Afghan trucks are not permitted to carry export goods to India through the Wagah border. True OR False?

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Answer: False.

Correct statement: India cannot export goods to Afghanistan using the Wagah Border (Pakistan land route) but Afghan trucks are permitted to carry export goods to India through the Wagah border.

Enrich Your Learning:

Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement (APTTA):

  • Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement (APTTA) is a bilateral trade agreement that was signed in 2010 between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • “Afghanistan Transit Trade Agreement” was signed in 1965, which granted Afghanistan the right to import duty-free goods through Pakistani seaports.
  • Notably, this did not offer Pakistan reciprocal rights to export goodsto the then “Soviet Union or Central Asian Republics (after the fall of the USSR)”.
  • In 2010, for greater regional connectivity between South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East APTTA became a reality.
  • While APTTA was believed to be key to jumpstart the Afghan economy, it has rather proved to be an unfavourable agreement.

India-Afghanistan Air Corridor:

  • India and Afghanistan announced a plan to create a joint air corridor to enhance bilateral trade following Pakistan’s reluctanceto allow transit rights through its territory.
  • The joint air trade corridor would help India and Afghanistan to export and import items by bypassing Pakistan.
  • The Afghan government was also focusing on creation of economic zones in airports.

The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols are related to which subject?

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Answer:

The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols set out how soldiers and civilians should be treated during armed conflict.

Enrich Your Learning:

The Geneva Conventions:

  • The Geneva Conventions is a body of Public International Law, also known as the Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflicts, whose purpose is to provide minimum protections, standards of humane treatment, and fundamental guarantees of respect to individualswho become victims of armed conflicts.
  • The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols form the basis of modern international humanitarian law, setting out how soldiers and civilians should be treated during the war.
  • Although they were adopted in 1949, to take account of the experiences of the Second World War, the four Geneva Conventions continue to apply to armed conflicts today.
  • Two additional protocols were adopted in 1977, which expanded the rules. Then, a third protocol was agreed in 2005, which recognised an additional emblem, the red crystal.

The protocols:

  • Protocol Iexpands protection for the civilian population as well as military and civilian medical workers in international armed conflicts.
  • Protocol IIelaborates on protections for victims caught up in high-intensity internal conflicts such as civil wars. It does not apply to internal disturbances such as riots, demonstrations and isolated acts of violence.
  • In December 2005, a third Additional Protocolto the Geneva Conventions was adopted that provides for another distinctive emblem: the red crystal. The red crystal is an optional emblem, equal in status to the red cross and red crescent.
  • The Geneva Conventions are a series of treatieson the treatment of civilians, prisoners of war (POWs) and soldiers who are otherwise rendered hors de combat (French, literally ‘outside the fight’), or incapable of fighting.
  • In total, 196 countries have signed and ratifiedthe 1949 conventions over the years, including many that did not participate or sign until decades later. These include Angola, Bangladesh, and Iran.
  • As of 2010, 170 nations have ratified Protocol I and 165 have ratified Protocol II. Any nation that has ratified the Geneva Conventions but not the protocols are still bound by all provisions of the conventions.

The four Geneva Conventions:

  • Convention I:This convention protects wounded and infirm soldiers and ensures humane treatment without discrimination founded on race, color, sex, religion or faith, birth or wealth, etc.
  • The convention prohibits torture, assaultsupon personal dignity, and execution without judgment. It also grants the right to proper medical treatment and care.
  • Convention II:This agreement extended the protections described in the first convention to shipwrecked soldiers and other naval forces, including special protections afforded to hospital ships.
  • Convention III:One of the treaties created during the 1949 convention, this defined ‘Prisoner of War,’ and accorded such prisoners proper and humane treatment as specified by the first convention.
  • Specifically, it required POWs to give only their names, ranks, and serial numbers to their captors.Nations party to the convention may not use torture to extract information from POWs.
  • Convention IV:Under this convention, civilians are afforded the same protections from inhumane treatment and attack afforded to sick and wounded soldiers in the first convention.

Applicability of the Geneva Conventions:

  • The conventions apply to all cases of declared war between signatory nations.
  • The conventions apply to all cases of armed conflict between two or more signatory nations, even in the absence of a declaration of war.
  • The conventions apply to a signatory nation even if the opposing nation is not a signatory, but only if the opposing nation ‘accepts and applies the provisions’ of the conventions.

What is International Humanitarian Law?

  • International humanitarian law (IHL) is a set of international laws that establish what can and can’t be done in an armed conflict.
  • IHL protects all victims of armed conflicts, including civilians, and combatantswho are injured, have been captured or have laid down their arms. All parties to an armed conflict – whether states or organised non-state armed groups – are bound by IHL.
  • Also known as the laws of war or the law of armed conflict, the best known of these rules are found in the four Geneva Conventions of 1949. The rules of war are universal.

During armed conflict, such rules include:

  • Care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, regardless of whether they are friends or enemies
  • Humane treatment of prisoners
  • Protection of civilian persons and property
  • Respect for the red cross, red crescent, and red crystal emblems
  • Attacking only military targets
  • Limiting the use of force
  • No physical or moral coercion shall be exercised against protected persons, in particular, to obtain information from them or from third parties

What are the seven Fundamental Principles that guide the working of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies?

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Answer:

The seven Fundamental Principles that guide the work of the IFRC and its members are: humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality.

Enrich Your Learning:

International Committee of Red Cross:

  • The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
  • State parties to the Geneva Convention of 1949 and its Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts.
  • Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants

National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies:

  • There are today 190 recognized National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies around the world.
  • National Societies are independent relief organizations that carry out their own humanitarian activities and support the public authorities in their own countries as auxiliaries in the humanitarian field.
  • Each National Society is made up of volunteers and staff who provide a wide variety of services according to the needs in the country.
  • This can include health programmes, first aid, disaster relief, social services, assistance to victims of war and natural disasters, and restoring family links, as well as the promotion of international humanitarian law and the principles of the Movement.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies:

  • It is a worldwide humanitarian aid organizationthat reaches 160 million people each year through its 192 member National Societies. 
  • It acts before, during and after disasters and health emergenciesto meet the needs and improve the lives of vulnerable people.
  • It does so with impartiality as to nationality, race, gender, religious beliefs, class and political opinions.
  • The IFRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Committee of the Red Cross(ICRC) and 192 National Societies.

Transport and Marketing Assistance Scheme is a scheme of which central ministry?

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Answer: Ministry of Commerce and Industry 

Enrich Your Learning:

Transport and Marketing Assistance Scheme:

  • The Ministry of Commerce and Industryhas laid out a detailed procedure for claiming benefits under the Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme, which aims at boosting agricultural exports.
  • Earlier in March, 2019the Department of Commerce of the Ministry of Commerce & Industry had announced this scheme for providing financial assistance for transport and marketing of agriculture products to boost exports of such commodities to certain countries in Europe and North America.
  • The level of assistance would be different for different regions as notified from time to time for export of eligible products. The scheme covers freight and marketing assistance for export by air as well as by sea.
  • The scheme will help inincreasing farm export from India.

Objective:

  • The scheme aims to provide assistance for the international component of freight and marketing of agricultural produce.
  • To mitigate disadvantage of higher cost of transportation of export of specified agriculture products due to trans-shipment.
  • To promote brand recognition for Indian agricultural products in the specified overseas markets.

Coverage & Eligibility:

  • All exporters, duly registered with relevant Export Promotion Council as per Foreign Trade Policy, of eligible agriculture products shall be covered under this scheme.
  • The Scheme would be applicable for a period as specified from time to time. Presently the Scheme would beavailable for exports from 1.3.2019 to 31.03.2020.

Background:

  • In the year 2018, the government also approved anAgriculture Export Policy with an aim to double the shipments to USD 60 billion by 2022.
    • It is aimed at boosting exports of agriculture commodities such as tea, coffee and rice and increase the country’s share in global agri-trade.
  • The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)plays a significant role in tapping India’s agricultural strengths and works towards expanding the export potential of Indian agricultural and food products.

Under Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi scheme, the farmer families having cultivable land up to 2 hectares are provided INR 6,000 per year. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN):

In the Interim budget of 2019-20, Government has announced the ‘Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)’ for providing an assured income support to the small and marginal farmers.

Highlights of Programme:

  • Under this programme, vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land upto 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support at the rate of Rs. 6,000 per year.
  • This income support will be transferred directly into the bank accounts of beneficiary farmers, in three equal instalments of Rs. 2,000 each.
  • Funded by Government of India, this programme will entail an annual expenditure of Rs. 75,000 crores.

Small and marginal landholder family comprises of:

  • Husband, wife and minor children up to 18 years of age, who collectively own cultivable land up to two hectares.

Significance of Programme:

  • Around 12 crore small and marginal farmer families are expected to benefit.
  • PM-KISAN would not only provide assured supplemental income to the most vulnerable farmer families, but would also meet their emergent needs especially before the harvest season.

Implementation:

  • So far, over 8 crore Indian farmers have been enrolled in PM-Kisan, even though there are around 14.5 crore landholding farmers in India.
  • Among the States where the enrolment is less than half are Madhya Pradesh (49 per cent), Tamil Nadu (47 per cent), Kerala (40 per cent) and Bihar (26 per cent).

Key fact:

  • A small and marginal landholder farmerfamily for the purpose of the calculation of the benefit is defined as “a family comprising of husband, wife and minor children (upto 18 years of age) who collectively own cultivable land upto 2 hectare as per land records of the concerned State/UT”.

What are the main features of Rainfed Area Development Programme?

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Answer:

The main features of RADP are:

  • Farmer centric approach focusing mainly on small and marginal farmers.
  • Composite farming to sustain the livelihood and food security at farm level.
  • Integrated farming system to help farmers in minimizing the impacts of possible crop failures through supplementary production/income from the remaining production approach.
  • Adoption of cluster approach.

Enrich Your Learning:

Rainfed Area Development Programme:

  • Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP) was implemented as a sub-scheme under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), launched in 2011-12.
  • Objectives:
  • To improve quality of life of farmers’especially, small and marginal farmers by offering a complete package of activities to maximize farm returns.
  • Increasing agricultural productivityof rainfed areas in a sustainable manner by adopting appropriate farming system-based approaches.
  • To minimise the adverse impact of possible crop failure due to drought, flood or un-even rainfall distribution through diversified and composite farming system.
  • Restoration of confidence in rainfed agriculture by creating sustained employment opportunitiesthrough improved on-farm technologies and cultivation practices
  • Enhancement of farmer’s income and livelihood support for reduction of povertyin rainfed areas.
  • Thestrategy would focus on multi-cropping, rotational cropping, inter-cropping, mixed-cropping along with allied activities that include horticulture, livestock etc.
  • Financial resourcesof Rs 100,000/- will be provided to farmers in arid & semi-arid zones and Rs 80,000/- for sub-humid & humid areas. This money does not include that for construction of tanks and polyhouses.
  • The state agricultural department will be the nodal agencyfor the implementation of the scheme.
  • To ensure proper coordination the principal district agriculture officer/joint director may involve Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA).
  • Rainfed areas account for nearly 57 per cent of the agricultural land in India.

Rainfed Agriculture Atlas:

  • The Revitalising Rainfed Agriculture (RRA) Networkreleased a new rainfed agriculture atlas which maps the agro biodiversity and socio-economic conditions prevailing in such areas.
  • It primarily focuses on four themes – Bio-physical characteristics of Rainfed areas, Livelihoods in Rainfed Areas, Nature of public investments in Rainfed areas and; Reimagining public investments. The main aim is to demonstrate the diversity of biophysical, agro-ecological, and socio-political contexts within the broad umbrella of rainfed areas; and show the misalignment between the existing regimes of public investments in agriculture with this diversity.
  • The Atlas also presents several opportunities for agricultural growth through a restructuring of the nature, amount, and delivery of public investments.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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