Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-45] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Partition of Bengal 1905; Reasons/factors that led the ‘non-cooperation movement’; Pabna Peasant Uprising; Resolution of Swadeshi; ‘Nirbal Sewak’ and ‘Prem’; Censorship of Press Act, 1799; Tripuri Session of the Indian National Congress (1939); ‘Passive Resistance Association’ by Mahatma Gandhi; Bal Shastri Jambekar; Sound industrial base under the colonial rule;
By IASToppers
April 23, 2020

In context of manufacturing, India could not develop a sound industrial base under the colonial rule. Why?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

In manufacturing, India could not develop a sound industrial base under the colonial rule. Even as the country’s world famous handicraft industries declined, no corresponding modern industrial base was allowed to come up to take pride of place so long enjoyed by the former. The primary motive of the colonial government behind this policy of systematically deindustrialising India was two-fold.

  • The intention was, first, to reduce India to the status of a mere exporter of important raw materials for the upcoming modern industries in Britain and, second, to turn India into a sprawling market for the finished products of those industries so that their continued expansion could be ensured to the maximum advantage of their home country — Britain.
  • In the unfolding economic scenario, the decline of the indigenous handicraft industries created not only massive unemployment in India but also a new demand in the Indian consumer market, which was now deprived of the supply of locally made goods.
  • This demand was profitably met by the increasing imports of cheap manufactured goods from Britain. During the second half of the nineteenth century, modern industry began to take root in India but its progress remained very slow. Initially, this development was confined to the setting up of cotton and jute textile mills.

Who is considered as the father of Marathi Journalism?

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Answer:

  • Bal Shastri Jambekar is considered as the father of Marathi Journalism.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bal Shastri Jambekar:

  • Bal Shastri Jambekar was one of the pioneers in Bombay, to attack the Brahmanical orthodoxy and tried to reform popular Hinduism.
  • He is renowned for his contributions in the field of print media and social awareness.
  • He is known as the Father of Marathi Journalism, for his efforts in starting journalism in Marathi language with the first newspaper in the language named ‘Darpan’ in 1832, in the early days of British Rule in India.
  • His birthday and coincidentally the day of publication of the first issue of Darpan is 6 January and it is celebrated as the Journalist Day (Darpan Din) in Maharashtra in his memory.
  • He founded ‘The Bombay Native General Library’.
  • He also started ‘Native Improvement Society’, of which ‘Student’s Literary and Scientific Society’ was an offshoot.
  • Intellectual giants like Dadabhai Navroji and Bhau Daji Lad drew inspiration through these institutions.
  • He was the first Indian to have published research papers in the quarterly journal of the Asiatic Society.
  • He was the first person to print Dnyaneshwari in 1845. It was known as the first ever-printed version.
  • He had mastery in many languages including Marathi, Sanskrit, English and Hindi. Apart from that he also had a good grasp of Greek, Latin, French, Gujarati and Bengali.
  • He was one of those social activists who made continuous effort in generating useful and healthy consciousness amongst the common masses and attempted to educate the uneducated.

The Partition of Bengal of 1905 was solely on the religious ground in the name of administrative difficulty. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

  •  

Right Statement:

  • The Partition of Bengal of 1905 was based on language as well as religious ground.

Enrich Your Learning:

Partition of Bengal 1905:

  • The Partition of Bengal 1905 was carried out by the British viceroy in India, Lord Curzon, despite strong Indian nationalist opposition.
  • The partition took place on 16 October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas.
  • During that time the provincial state of Bengal, comprised West Bengal with a Hindu majority and East Bengal and Assam with a Muslim majority, the Hindi-speaking regions of Bihar, the Odia-speaking regions of Odisha as well as the Assamese-speaking region of Assam, making it a huge administrative entity.
  • With the growing efforts of the Indian freedom fighters to secure the independence of India, Lord Curzon decided to address both these problems by partitioning Bengal into two entities, which would result in a Muslim-majority in the eastern half, and a Hindu-majority in the western half.
  • The Hindus of West Bengal who dominated Bengal’s business and rural life complained that the division would make them a minority in a province that would incorporate the province of Bihar and Orissa.
  • Hindus were outraged at what they recognised as a “divide and rule” policy, where the colonisers turned the native population against itself to rule.
  • The partition animated the Muslims to form their own national organization on communal lines.
  • In order to appease Bengali sentiment, Bengal was reunited by Lord Hardinge in 1911, in response to the Swadeshi movement’s riots in protest against the policy and the growing belief among Hindus that east Bengal would have its own courts and policies.
  • The partition left a significant impact on the people of Bengal as well as the political scene of the Indian subcontinent. This event also created a sense of political awareness among the Muslims of East Bengal. 
  • In 1947, Bengal was partitioned for the second time, solely on religious grounds, as part of the Partition of India following the formation of the nation’s India and Pakistan.
  • In 1947, East Bengal became East Pakistan, and in 1971 became the independent state of Bangladesh after a successful war of independence with West Pakistan.

What was the causative factor which lead to the formation of ‘Passive Resistance Association’ by Mahatma Gandhi?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Mahatma Gandhi first formed the Passive Resistance Association to conduct the campaigns against the introduction of Certificate of Registration in South Africa in 1906.
  • The campaign was prompted by the introduction of the Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance in Transvaal by the Transvaal Assembly. The law required that every Indian, including children over eight years, had to register with a government official, the Registrar of Asiatic.
  • The Registrar would take their fingerprints and issue them with a registration certificate, which they had to produce on demand.
  • Indians who could not produce a certificate could be fined and sent to prison. The Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) requested Gandhi to come to the Transvaal to help interpret and oppose the Act. A mass meeting was held at the Empire Theatre in Johannesburg, attended by thousands of people who vowed not to observe the law.
  • This marked the beginning of the eight-year-long Satyagraha Passive Resistance Campaign emulated by other similar campaigns such as the 1946 Passive Resistance Campaign, the 1952 Defiance Campaign and 1960 Sharpeville Massacre.
  • Gandhi began to clarify his concept of passive resistance, outlining its rationale. He disliked the notion of passivity and called for people to come up with an appropriate name for the new mode of resistance. When his nephew made a suggestion, Sadagraha (firmness in a good cause), Gandhi adapted the idea and coined the word ‘Satyagraha’, which means ‘truth force’.
  • The intention is to convince the opponent and not to crush him, to convert the opponent, who must be ‘weaned from error by patience and sympathy’.
  • Other movements also used these ideas. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament cited Gandhi as an influence in its struggle to urge nations to reject the use of nuclear weapons. Environmental movements such as Greenpeace have used non-violence as a method to fight their battles against nuclear proliferation and ecological destruction.

‘Subhash Chandra Bose’ was elected as the President of Indian National congress at the Tripuri Session. What was the demand of Bose?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Tripuri Session of the Indian National Congress (1939)

  • In March 1939, Congress met at annual session at Tripuri near Jabalpur.
  • The Resolution on the “National Demand” must be considered a definite political advance. This resolution calls for a “nation-wide struggle,” and demands that the Congress organisations and also the Congress Governments should take steps to prepare for this.
  • Subhash Chandra Bose was re-elected the President of INC at the Tripuri Session in 1939 by defeating the Gandhiji’s Candidate Pattabhai Sitaramaiyya.
  • He demanded that the Congress should deliver a six-months’ ultimatum to Britain and in the event of its rejection a country-wide struggle for ‘Poorna Swaraj’ should be launched.
  • His warning and advice went unheeded, his powers as President were sought to be curtailed. He, therefore, resigned in April 1939, and announced, in May 1939, the formation of the Forward Bloc within the Congress.

Who brought the Censorship of Press Act, 1799 in India?

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Answer:

  • Lord Wellesley brought the Censorship of Press Act, 1799.

Enrich Your Learning:

About the Censorship of Press Act, 1799:

  • The idea was to stop the French from publishing anything which could harm British in any way.
  • This act brought all the newspapers under the Government scrutiny before their publication.
  • It imposed almost wartime press restrictions including pre-censorship.
  • This act was later extended in 1807 and covered all kinds of Press Publications newspapers, magazine, books and Pamphlets.
  • These restrictions were relaxed under Lord Hastings, who had progressive views, and in 1818, pre-censorship was dispensed with.

‘Nirbal Sewak’ and ‘Prem’ were two newspapers published by which Indian prince?

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Answer:

  • Raja Mahendra Pratap published two newspapers- “Prem” in Hindi and “Nirbal Sewak” in Hindi and Urdu.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Raja Mahendra Pratap the only Indian prince who actively participated in the Revolutionary Movement within and outside India.
  • In 1915, he formed the first government outside India in Afghanistan.
  • He returned to India after 32 years of exile and became the member of the second Lok Sabha in 1957-1962.
  • He was president of Indian Freedom Fighters’ Association and the president of All India Jat Mahasabha.

The resolution of Swadeshi was adopted in which session of Indian National Congress?

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Answer:

  • The resolution of Swadeshi was adopted in 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • This session was headed by Dada Bhai Naoroji. Prior to this, in Banaras 1905 session, a resolution of boycott of British goods was put forward.
  • However, it was 1906 session at Calcutta in which four resolutions on self-government, boycott movement, Swadeshi and national education were passed by the Congress.
  • Swadeshi and boycott are two sides of same coin. Swadeshi means adopting indigenous products. When we say Boycott, it means we reject foreign made products.
  • The initial protest was as Boycott and later it became Swadeshi.
  • During the Swadeshi movement, traditional folk theatre forms such as Jatra’s were used to reach to masses and National schools were setup across the country.
  • It was actually a tool of political purpose for Congress to turn the wave into a popular agitation.

What do you know about the Pabna Peasant Uprising?

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Answer:

  • Pabna Peasant Uprising (1873-76) was a resistance movement by the peasants (“Ryots”) against the lords of the lands in Bengal (“zamindars”) in the Yusufshahi pargana (now the Sirajganj District, Bangladesh) in Pabna.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Pabna rebellion was different from most contemporary peasant rebellions. This movement began as the peasants organised an agrarian league in May 1873 to resist the demands of the zamindars.   
  • Pabna (now in Bangladesh) was a jute production and trading centre and was relatively prosperous. Here half of the cultivators had managed to win occupancy rights because of the Bengal Tenancy Act, 1859. But the zamindari rents had increased multiple times. The zamindars tried to stop the peasants to get occupancy right and this was a reason of revolt there.
  • The peasants were much more organised than in other revolts via meetings, appeals and marches. They moved to the court and challenged the zamindars, raised funds to pay for legal expenses, to meet the cost of legal battle.
  • The movement was nonviolent to some extent but Zamindars were killed at some places and violence did happen.

What are the reasons/factors that led the ‘non-cooperation movement’ by Mahatma Gandhi?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Economic hardships due to World War I:India’s indirect participation in the war caused a lot of economic hardships to the people. Prices of goods began to soar which affected the common man leding to resentment against the government.
  • The Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre:After The repressive Rowlatt Act and the brutal massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, faith in the British system of justice was broken and the whole country rallied behind its leaders who were pitching for a more aggressive stance against the government.
  • The Khilafat Movement:During the First World War, Turkey, which was a German ally, had fought against the British. After Turkey’s defeat, the Ottoman caliphate was proposed to be dissolved. The Khilafat movement was launched by Muslims in India to persuade the British government not to abolish the caliphate. The leaders of this movement accepted the non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji and led a joint protest against the British.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020 LAKSHYA-75
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