Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-46] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Red Ribbon Express (RRE) programme; Indian Science, Technology and Engineering Facilities Map (I-STEM) portal; NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Global Energy Transition Index 2019; El Nino; Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI); 2020 edition of World Happiness Report; World Intellectual Property Organization’s (WIPO) international classification systems; Chemical Vapour Deposition; National Aids Control Organisation (NACO); National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS and STIs 2017-2024; ‘Test and Treat’ Policy (2017); Programme 90-90-90 by 2020;
By IASToppers
April 24, 2020

Red Ribbon Express is an HIV/AIDS awareness campaign by__________. a) The Indian Railways OR b) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

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Answer: The Indian Railways

Enrich Your Learning:

Red Ribbon Express (RRE) programme:

  • Red Ribbon Express is an HIV/AIDS awareness campaign train by the Indian Railways. The motto of the Red Ribbon Express is Embarking on the journey of life.
  • Red Ribbon Express (RRE) is one of the flagship initiatives under the National AIDS Control Programmethat was successfully implemented twice in the past.
  • Based on the overwhelming response received during the last two phases, the third phase of RRE was flagged off from Delhi in 2012, the National Youth Day.
  • On a yearlong journey the special train will pass through 23 states covering 162 railway station It is scheduled to halt at 12 stations for 22 days in the state.
  • Since 1992, when the comprehensive National AIDS Control Programme was launched in all States in the country. Since then, there has been a considerable expansion of the services for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support.
  • The HIV estimates 2010 show an overall reduction in HIV prevalence and incidence in India. The estimated number of new annual HIV infections has declined by more than 50% over the past decade.
  • The third phase of RRE is being organized in collaboration with Ministry of Railways, NRHM and key mainstreaming partnersin order to further strengthen the ongoing mainstreaming efforts.
  • Besides disseminating information regarding primary prevention and services, RRE-III aims at reducing stigma & discrimination against People Living with HIV/AIDS and strengthening people’s knowledge, while focusing on youth in particular, about the measures to be taken to prevent HIV/AIDS.

 

‘Test and Treat’ Policy (2017) is related to which disease?

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Answer: Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

Enrich Your Learning:

National Aids Control Organisation (NACO):

  • Established in 1992is a division of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare that provides leadership to HIV/AIDS control programme in India through 35 HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Societies.
  • It is the nodal organisation for formulation of policy and implementation of programs for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in India.
  • NACO was set up by the government of India to introduce comprehensive strategies, and to realise the goal of HIV prevention and control among the high-risk populations.

National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS and STIs 2017-2024:

  • The National Strategic Plan aims to attain universal coverage of HIV prevention, treatment to care continuum of services that are effective, inclusive, equitable, and adapted to needs of the people living with HIV.
  • The National Strategic Plan aims to working towards reaching the UN Sustainable Development Goals. “Mission Sampark” launched to bring back people living with HIV who have left treatment after starting Anti Retro Viral Treatment (ART).
  • Aims to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and Syphilis as well as elimination of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination by 2020.
  • For preventing new infections, National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) aims to achieve 80 % reduction in new HIV infections by 2024 from baseline value of 2010.
  • Further, by 2024, the target is to ensure that 95 % of those who are HIV positive in the country know their status, 95 % of those who know their status are on treatment and 95 % of those who are on treatment experience effective viral load suppression.

Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT) program 2002:

  • The Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT) programme was launched in the country in the year 2002 following a feasibility study in 11 major hospitals in the five high HIV prevalence states.
  • The PPTCT programme aims to prevent the perinatal transmission of HIV from an HIV infected pregnant mother to her newborn baby.The programme entails counselling and testing of pregnant women in the ICTCs.

Test and Treat’ Policy (2017):

  • The Government has launched the ‘Test and Treat Policy for HIV patients’ in April 2017.
  • As per this policy all people living with HIV (PLHIV) are to be treated with Antiretro Viral Therapy regardless of CD4 count, clinical stage, age or population.

Programme 90-90-90 by 2020:

  • The Joint United Nations Programmeon HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets set in 2014 prompted action to ensure that 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) know their status, 90% of PLHIV who know their status are on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of PLHIV on ART are achieving viral suppression by 2020.
  • The 2020 90-90-90 Targets Updateaims to review progress since the 2019 90-90-90 Targets Update, unpacking successes and discussing challenges to closing testing, treatment, and viral suppression gaps, while focusing on structural barriers and social determinants of health that can jeopardize further/sustained progress.

What is Chemical Vapour Deposition?

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Answer:

Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is a coating process that uses thermally induced chemical reactions at the surface of a heated substrate, with reagents supplied in gaseous form.

Enrich Your Learning:

Chemical Vapour Deposition:

  • Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a vacuum deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials.The process is often used in the semiconductor industry to produce thin films.
  • In typical CVD, the wafer (substrate) is exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit.
  • Frequently, volatile by-products are also produced, which are removed by gas flow through the reaction chamber.
  • Microfabrication processes widely use CVD to deposit materials in various forms, including: monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, and epitaxial.
  • CVD is practiced in a variety of formats. These processes generally differ in the means by which chemical reactions are initiated.
  • Classified by operating conditions:
  • Atmospheric pressure CVD(APCVD) – CVD at atmospheric pressure.
  • Low-pressure CVD (LPCVD) – CVD at sub-atmospheric pressures. Reduced pressures tend to reduce unwanted gas-phase reactions and improve film uniformity across the wafer.
  • Ultrahigh vacuum CVD(UHVCVD) – CVD at very low pressure, typically below 10−6 Pa.

Mention the name of the international classification systems of World Intellectual Property Organization.

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Answer:

International Patent Classification, Locarno Classification, Nice Classification, Vienna Classification.

Enrich Your Learning:

World Intellectual Property Organization’s (WIPO) international classification systems:

International Patent Classification:

  • The International Patent Classification (IPC) is used to classify patents and utility models according to the different areas of technology to which they pertain.
  • The IPC was established by the Strasbourg Agreement in 1971 and is continuously revised by the IPC Committee of Experts.

Locarno Classification:

  • The Locarno Classification (LOC) is an international system used to classify goods for the purposes of the registration of industrial designs.
  • It was established by the Locarno Agreement in 1968 and is continuously revised by the Committee of Experts of the Locarno Union.

Nice Classification:

  • The Nice Classification (NCL) is an international system used to classify goods and services for the purposes of the registration of marks.
  • The Nice Classification was established by the Nice Agreement in 1957 and is continuously revised by the Committee of Experts of the Nice Union.

Vienna Classification:

  • The Vienna Classification (VCL) is a hierarchical system that classifies the figurative elements of marks into categories, divisions and sections, on the basis of their shape.
  • It was established by the Vienna Agreement in 1973 and is continuously revised by the Committee of Experts of the Vienna Union.

Which country ranks first in 2020 edition of World Happiness Report? a) Finland OR b) Denmark

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Answer: Finland

Enrich Your Learning:

2020 edition of World Happiness Report:

Highlights of Report:

  • First rank: Finland
  • India’s rank: 144
  • Nordic states (Northern Europe and the North Atlantic) dominated the top ten, along with countries such as Switzerland, New Zealand and Austria.
  • The happiest countries are those “where people feel a sense of belonging, where they trust and enjoy each other and their shared institutions’. In happiest countries, there is also more resilience, because shared trust reduces the burden of hardships, and thereby lessens the inequality of well-being.
  • The countries at the bottom are those afflicted by violent conflicts and extreme poverty, with Zimbabwe, South Sudan and Afghanistanclassified as the world’s least happy nations.

About the report:

  • It is a survey of the state of global happiness that ranks 156 countriesby how happy their citizens perceive themselves to be.
  • It is released by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network for the United Nations by the UN General Assembly.

Key Feature of World Happiness Report 2020:

  • The World Happiness Report 2020 for the first time ranks cities around the world by their subjective well-being and digs more deeply into how the social, urban and natural environments combine to affect our happiness.

About Sustainable Development Solutions Network:

  • The Sustainable Development Solutions Network(SDSN) has been operating since 2012 under the United Nations to support the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.
  • The SDSN and the Bertelsmann Stiftung have been publishing the annual SDG Index & Dashboards Global Report since 2016.

Key Fact:

  • March 20 was designated as the World Happiness Day by the UN General Assembly in 2012.

The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) was launched by which Organisation?

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Answer: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Enrich Your Learning:

Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI):

  • The OECD Development Centre’sSocial Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) measures discrimination against women in social institutions across 180 countries.
  • By taking into account laws, social norms and practices, the SIGI captures the underlying drivers of gender inequality with the aim to provide the data necessary for transformative policy-change.
  • The SIGI is also one of the official data sources for monitoring SDG:“Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor gender equality and women’s empowerment.”
  • The SIGI covers four dimensions of discriminatory social institutions, spanning major socio-economic areas that affect women’s lives:
  • Discrimination in the family;
  • Restricted physical integrity;
  • Restricted access to productive and financial resources; and
  • Restricted civil liberties.

El Nino is the cold phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle (ENSO). True OR False.

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Answer: False.

Correct statement:

El Nino is the warm phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle (ENSO).

Enrich Your Learning:

El Nino:

  • El Nino refers to a band of warm ocean water that develops in the Pacific Ocean and causes global changes of both temperatures and rainfall.
  • El Nino is the warm phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle (ENSO).
  • The ENSO cycle is the way scientists describe the fluctuations in temperature between the atmosphere and the ocean in the east-central Equatorial Pacific.
  • Basically, El Nino is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific.
  • El Nino is Spanish for “the boy child,” which is often used to refer to Jesus Christ, and the phenomenon earned this name because it typically occurs in December around Christmas.
  • El Nino occurs every 2-7 years, and can last anywhere between nine months and two years.

La Niña:

  • La Niña episodes represent periods of below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific.
  • Global climate La Niña impacts tend to be opposite those of El Niño impacts.
  • In the tropics, ocean temperature variations in La Niña also tend to be opposite those of El Niño.
  • During a La Niña year, winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the Southeast and cooler than normal in the Northwest.

https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/ninonina.html 

Global Energy Transition Index is released by which Organization? a) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OR b) World Economic Forum (WEF).

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Answer: World Economic Forum (WEF).

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Energy Transition Index 2019:

  • Sweden has topped the index and is followed by Switzerland and Norway in the top three.
  • India has moved up two places to rank 76th.
  • China is ranked at the 82nd position.
  • This index is released by the World Economic Forum (WEF).
  • The index compares the energy sectors of 115 countries and then analyses their readiness for energy transition.
  • The Index considers both the current state of the countries’ energy system and their structural readiness to adapt to future energy needs.
  • The index takes into account six individual indicators: capital and investment, regulation and political commitment, institutions and governance, institutions and innovative business environment, human capital and consumer participation, and energy system structure.

India’s performance:

  • India scores well in the area of regulation and political commitment towards energy transition.
  • Among BRICS nation, India is the second best(after Brazil) and only one to improve its ranking.
  • In terms of system performance, India has ranked low (ranking 97 and 86, respectively) and has been ranked considerably higher when it comes to readiness i.e. 45 and 61.
  • The report shows an optimism for India’s casein terms that despite the current outdated energy system not being ready for the transition it is being built to support the future transition.
  • India has made significant strides to improve energy access in recent years.
  • India scores well in the area of regulation and political commitment towards energy transition.

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched by_________. a) European Space Agency OR b) National Space and Aeronautics Agency

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Answer: National Space and Aeronautics Agency

Enrich Your Learning:

NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO):

  • NASA LRO captures images of Chandrayaan 2 Lander Vikram’s attempted landing site.
  • A NASA`s robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon.
  • Launched in 2009.  Payload contains Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and among other instruments.

Purpose:

  • LRO was launched to help identify sites with high scientific value, characterization of deep space radiation in lunar orbit and map out favourable terrain and the environment necessary for safe future robotic and human lunar missions.

Outcome:

  • The data gathered provided a deeper understanding of the lunar environment.
  • Also provided information about the moon `s day-night temperature, a global geodetic grid, high resolution colour image and the moon’s UV albedo.

Key Facts:

Moons Poles:

Moon`s North Pole

 

Moon`s South Pole

  • A Lunar Night lasts for 14 days.
  • Temperatures could be as low as -200C.

What is the Indian Science, Technology and Engineering Facilities Map (I-STEM) portal?

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Answer:

The I-STEM Web Portal: a National Portal that is the gateway for researchers to locate the specific facilities they need for their R&D work and identify the one that is either located closest to them or available the soonest.

Enrich Your Learning:

Indian Science, Technology and Engineering Facilities Map (I-STEM) portal:

  • The portal will act as a gateway for the researchers and users to locate facilities that are required for their research and development work.
  • After locating the facility, the researcher can make an online reservation in order to use the facility.
  • With this, the start-ups can leverage public and private investments and come up with successful services and products.
  • Initially, similar facility was operating at IISc Bengaluru and IIT Bombay.
  • The I-STEM portal is a replica of these facilities. The facility at IISc Bengaluru was called the Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE).

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020 LAKSHYA-75
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