Answer: Human Immunodeficiency Viruses
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National Aids Control Organisation (NACO):
- Established in 1992is a division of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare that provides leadership to HIV/AIDS control programme in India through 35 HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Societies.
- It is the nodal organisation for formulation of policy and implementation of programs for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in India.
- NACO was set up by the government of India to introduce comprehensive strategies, and to realise the goal of HIV prevention and control among the high-risk populations.
National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS and STIs 2017-2024:
- The National Strategic Plan aims to attain universal coverage of HIV prevention, treatment to care continuum of services that are effective, inclusive, equitable, and adapted to needs of the people living with HIV.
- The National Strategic Plan aims to working towards reaching the UN Sustainable Development Goals. “Mission Sampark” launched to bring back people living with HIV who have left treatment after starting Anti Retro Viral Treatment (ART).
- Aims to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and Syphilis as well as elimination of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination by 2020.
- For preventing new infections, National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) aims to achieve 80 % reduction in new HIV infections by 2024 from baseline value of 2010.
- Further, by 2024, the target is to ensure that 95 % of those who are HIV positive in the country know their status, 95 % of those who know their status are on treatment and 95 % of those who are on treatment experience effective viral load suppression.
Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT) program 2002:
- The Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT) programme was launched in the country in the year 2002 following a feasibility study in 11 major hospitals in the five high HIV prevalence states.
- The PPTCT programme aims to prevent the perinatal transmission of HIV from an HIV infected pregnant mother to her newborn baby.The programme entails counselling and testing of pregnant women in the ICTCs.
‘Test and Treat’ Policy (2017):
- The Government has launched the ‘Test and Treat Policy for HIV patients’ in April 2017.
- As per this policy all people living with HIV (PLHIV) are to be treated with Antiretro Viral Therapy regardless of CD4 count, clinical stage, age or population.
Programme 90-90-90 by 2020:
- The Joint United Nations Programmeon HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets set in 2014 prompted action to ensure that 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) know their status, 90% of PLHIV who know their status are on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of PLHIV on ART are achieving viral suppression by 2020.
- The 2020 90-90-90 Targets Updateaims to review progress since the 2019 90-90-90 Targets Update, unpacking successes and discussing challenges to closing testing, treatment, and viral suppression gaps, while focusing on structural barriers and social determinants of health that can jeopardize further/sustained progress.