Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-47] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

National AIDS Control Programme (NACP); ‘Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan’ (PMGDISHA); Influenza; Global Influenza Strategy for 2019-2030; ‘International Whaling Commission’ (IWC); ‘ISALEX 19’; Six-Day War; Inner Line Permit (ILP); 'Working on a Warmer Planet: The Impact of Heat Stress on Labour Productivity and Decent Work’; Shahtoosh wool;
By IASToppers
April 25, 2020

Shahtoosh wool is made from which animal?

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Answer:

Shahtoosh wool is procured from the skin of the chiru, a Tibetan antelope found on the Tibetan plateau.

Enrich Your Learning:

Shahtoosh’:

  • Shahtoosh is the name given to the wool of the Tibetan chiru antelopes. Shahtoosh is popularly known as the “king of wool“.
  • The Shahtoosh shawl was made by poaching of chiru in the wild.
  • It is said that four-five chirus have to be slaughtered to make one shahtoosh shawl. One adult animal yields about 125-150g of wool.
  • The shawl is processed and woven from the super-fine soft wool, can pass through a ring.
  • Only a handful of weavers in Kashmir are known to have the skills to weave such a shawl.

Bann on Shahtoosh wool:

  • In 1975, the UN Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Cites) banned all trade in Tibetan antelope wool.
  • Trade in shahtoosh was banned nationally in the early 1990s.

The report titled, ‘Working on a Warmer Planet: The Impact of Heat Stress on Labour Productivity and Decent Work’, was recently released by which international organization?  

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Answer:

International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Enrich Your Learning:

Working on a Warmer Planet Report:

  • A report named ‘Working on a Warmer Planet: The Impact of Heat Stress on Labour Productivity and Decent Work’ is released by International Labour Organisation(ILO).
  • The report stated that by 2030, the equivalent of more than two per cent of total working hours worldwide is projected to be lost every year.
  • This is either because it is too hot to workor because workers have to work at a slower 
  • This projected loss will be equivalent to 80 million full-time joband this loss is expected to reach USD 2,400 billion by 2030.
  • The projections are based on a global temperature rise of 1.50C by the end of the 21st century.
  • Southern Asian and western African Stateswill be the most affected suffer to up to 5.3 per cent of total working hours (the equivalent of 43 million full-time jobs), which is at least two per cent losses will faced by two-thirds of Southern Asian countries.

Effect of increased temperature on work efficiency:

  • Heat stress is defined as generally occurring at above 35 degrees Celsius, in places where there is high humidity. It affects all outdoor workers.
  • Excess heat at work is an occupational health risk and in extreme cases can lead to heatstroke, which can be fatal.
  • Above 390C, temperature can kill. Also such temperatures can leave many people unable to work or able to work only at a reduced rate.
  • Older workers have lower physiological resistance to high levels of heat.

Effects in India:

  • The report said that the country most affectedby heat stress is India.
  • India lost 4.3 per cent of working hours in 1995 and is projected to lose 8 per cent of working hours in 2030.
  • India is expected to lose the equivalent of 34 million full-time jobsin 2030 in productivity because of its large population.
  • And the most impact will be felt in the agricultural sector and in the construction sector as major population is associated with these sectors in India.

Sectors to be affected:

  • Farmers are set to be worst hit by rising temperatures and the agriculture sectorwill be responsible for 60 per cent of global working hours lost by 2030.
  • Other at-risk sectors include refuse collection, emergency services, transport, tourism and sports.

Currently, the Inner Line Permit (ILP) is operational in which Indian states?

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Answer:

Currently, the Inner Line Permit is operational in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland.

Enrich Your Learning:

Inner Line Permit (ILP):

  • Inner Line Permit is an official travel documentrequired by Indian citizens residing outside certain “protected” states while entering them.
  • The Government of India issues ILP.
  • It is obligatory for all those who reside outside the protected states.
  • With the ILP, the government regulates movement to certain areas located near the international border of India.
  • It can be issued for travel purposes solely. Visitors are not allowed to purchase property in these regions.

Background:

  • ILP originated from the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulations, 1873which prohibited “British subjects” or Indians from entering into these protected areas.
  • The regulations were formed as British Crown’s interest in tea, oil and elephant trade.
  • After Independence, in 1950, the word “British subjects” was replaced by Citizens of India.
  • Also, the focus of the ban on free movement was explainedas a bid to protect tribal cultures in northeastern India.

The Six-Day War was fought between which countries? What was the result of this war?

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Answer:

  • The Six-Day War was fought between Israel and the combined force of Egypt, Jordan, Syria. By the end of the war, Israel had annexed the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan and Golan Heights from SyriaThis war expanded Israel’s borders and caused widespread displacements, where over a million refugees from West Bank, Gaza and Golan Heights were forced to flee.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is the Six-Day War?

  • The Six-Day war began on June 5, 1967, resulting in a massive reorganisation of territories in the middle-east.
  • It was the third in the long line of Arab-Israeli warsthat started in 1948, around the time of the creation of the Israeli state.
  • The immediate spark that led to a war was the closure of the Straits of Tiran.
  • By the end of the war, Israel had annexed the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt,West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan and Golan Heights from Syria.

 

 

What is the Significance of the Straits of Tiran?

  • The Straits of Tiranis a narrow strip of sea between the Sinai Peninsula and Saudi Arabia. It is Israel’s lone point of access to the Red Sea and beyond.

 

Why is the war significant?

  • It expanded Israel’s borders on one hand, while on the other, caused widespread displacements, where over a million refugees from West Bank, Gaza and Golan Heights were forced to flee.

What do you know about ‘ISALEX 19’?

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Answer:

ISALEX 19 is the first joint exercise of International Security Alliance. It is hosted by the UAE Ministry of Interior.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘ISALEX 19’

  • In ISLAEX19, the teams of the ISA countries will operate according to different security theories and strategiesin order to test the readiness of the international teams in facing security threats.
  • It was simulated by attacks and security threats in a virtual context.
  • Teams worked in perfect harmony and come up with the most appropriate security practice.

International Whaling Commission (IWC) 2020 comes under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). True OR False.

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Answer:

False

Correct Statement: It does not come under UNEP. It is a decision making body of International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW).

Enrich Your Learning:

‘International Whaling Commission’ (IWC)

  • The IWC is the global body charged with the conservation of whalesand the management of whaling
  • It is a decision making body of International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling(ICRW).
  • The IWC currently has 88 member countriesall over the world.
  • The commission was established in 1946. It banned commercial whaling in 1986.
  • It has a full-time Secretariat with headquarters located in the City of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • The IWC meets annuallyand adopts regulations on catch limits, whaling methods and protected areas.
  • The Chair and Vice-chair are elected from among the Commissioners and usually serve for four years.
  • The last Commission meeting of the IWC was held in Florianopolis, Brazil in 2018.

Objective:

  • To provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry. 

Measures under IWC:

  • Catch limits by species and area
  • Designating specified areas as whale sanctuaries
  • Protection of calves and females accompanied by calves
  • Restrictions on hunting methods

Key Fact:

  • Whaling as an industry began around the 11th Century.
  • It was followed first by the Dutch and the British, and later by the Americans, Norwegians and many other nations.

What are the objectives of the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP-IV)?

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Answer:

NACP – IV – Objectives:

  • Reduce new infections by 50% (2007 Baseline of NACP III)
  • Provide comprehensive care and support to all persons living with HIV/AIDS and treatment services for all those who require it.

Enrich Your Learning:

National AIDS Control Programme (NACP):

  • The National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), launched in 1992, is being implemented as a comprehensive programme for prevention and control of HIV/ AIDS in India.
  • Over time, the focus has shifted from raising awareness to behaviour change, from a national response to a more decentralized response and to increasing involvement of NGOs and networks of People living with HIV (PLHIV).
  • The NACP Istarted in 1992 was implemented with an objective of slowing down the spread of HIV infections so as to reduce morbidity, mortality and impact of AIDS in the country.
  • In November 1999, the second National AIDS Control Project (NACP II)was launched to reduce the spread of HIV infection in India, and (ii) to increase India’s capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS on a long-term basis.
  • NACP III was launched in July 2007with the goal of Halting and Reversing the Epidemic over its five-year period.
  • NACP IV, launched in 2012, aims to accelerate the process of reversal and further strengthen the epidemic response in India through a cautious and well-defined integration process over the next five years.

Key strategies:

  • Intensifying and consolidating prevention services, with a focus on High Risk Groups(HRGs) and vulnerable population.
  • Increasing accessand promoting comprehensive care, support and treatment
  • Expanding IEC servicesfor (a) general population and (b) high risk groups with a focus on behavior change and demand generation.
  • Building capacities at national, state, district and facility levels
  • Strengthening Strategic Information Management System

A global influenza pandemic was listed as one of the WHO’s top ten threats to global health in 2019. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Influenza Strategy for 2019-2030:

  • It aims at protecting people in all countries from the threat of influenza. The goal of the strategy is to prevent seasonal influenza, control the spread of influenza from animals to humans, and prepare for the next influenza pandemic.
  • The new strategy outlines a path to protect populations every year and helps prepare for a pandemic through strengthening routine programmes.
  • It has two overarching goals:
  • Build stronger country capacities for disease surveillance and response, prevention and control, and preparedness. To achieve this, it calls for everycountry to have a tailored influenza programme that contributes to national and global preparedness and health security.
  • Develop better tools to prevent, detect, control and treat influenza,such as more effective vaccines, antivirals and treatments, with the goal of making these accessible for all
  • The strategy meets one of WHO’s mandates to improve core capacities for public health, and increase global preparedness and was developed through a consultative process with input from Member States, academia, civil society, industry, and internal and external experts.
  • Through the implementation of the new WHO global influenza strategy, the world will be closer to reducing the impact of influenza every yearand be more prepared for an influenza pandemic and other public health emergencies.

Define the Zoonotic Influenza.

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Answer:

Zoonotic influenza refers to disease caused by animal influenza viruses that cross the animal–human divide to infect people.

Enrich Your Learning:

Influenza:

  • Influenza is a contagious respiratory infection caused by a variety of flu viruses. Symptoms of flu involve muscle aches and soreness, headache, and fever.
  • There are three types of flu viruses: A, B, and C. Type A and B cause the annual influenza epidemics that have up to 20% of the population sniffling, aching, coughing, and running high fevers.
  • Type C also causes flu; however, type C flu symptoms are much less severe.
  • Seasonal influenza: Seasonal influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses which circulate in all parts of the world.
  • Zoonotic Influenza: Zoonotic influenza refers to disease caused by animal influenza viruses that cross the animal–human divide to infect people.
  • Pandemic Influenza:An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic caused by a new influenza virus to which there is little or no pre-existing immunity in the human population.

Types of Influenza virus: A, B and C

  • Type A flu or influenza Aviruses are capable of infecting animals, although it is more common for people to suffer the ailments associated with this type of flu. Wild birds commonly act as the hosts for this flu virus.
  • Type Bflu is found only in humans. Type B flu may cause a less severe reaction than type A flu virus, but occasionally, type B flu can still be extremely harmful. Influenza type B viruses are not classified by subtype and do not cause pandemics.
  • Influenza C virusesare also found in people. They are, however, milder than either type A or B. People generally do not become very ill from the influenza type C viruses. Type C flu viruses do not cause epidemics.

Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyaan scheme is applicable only for rural areas of the country. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan’ (PMGDISHA):

  • It is the scheme to make six crore persons in rural areas, across States/UTs, digitally literate,reaching to around 40% of rural households by covering one member from every eligible household by 31st March, 2019.
  • Under the scheme, 25 lakh candidates will be trained in the FY 2016-17; 275 lakh in the FY 2017-18; and 300 lakh in the FY 2018-19.
  • To ensure equitable geographical reach, each of the 250,000 Gram Panchayats would be expected to register an average of 200-300 candidates.
  • Under it, people in rural area will be trained to operate a computer, tablet, smartphones, etc and how to access the Internet, government services, undertake digital payment, compose e-mails, etc.
  • Illiterate people between the age group 14-60 years, nominated from every eligible rural household, are qualified for the scheme.
  • The marginalised sections of society like SCs/STs, Minorities, BPL familiers, differently-abled (divyangs) all will be a part of this scheme.
  • The Scheme is applicable only for rural areas of the country.
  • Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA) is the scheme aims at imparting digital literacy to citizens in rural areas free of cost.
  • The implementation of the Scheme would be carried out under the overall supervision of Ministry of Electronics and ITin active collaboration with States/UTs through their designated State Implementing Agencies, District e-Governance Society (DeGS), etc.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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