Answer: Centre-state relation.
Enrich Your Learning:
In 1983, the Central government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-state relations under the chairmanship of R S Sarkaria, a retired judge of the Supreme Court.
- Set a permanent Inter-State Council (Inter-Governmental Council) under Article 263.
- Article 356 (President’s Rule) to be used in extreme cases, as a last resort.
- Strengthen All-India Services and create other such services.
- Residuary powers of taxation to remain with the Parliament, while other residuary powers to be placed in the Concurrent List.
- The reason why president withheld assent to state bills, to be communicated to the state government.
- National Development Council (NDC) to be reconstituted as the National Economic and Development Council (NEDC).
- Reconstitution of zonal councils to promote the spirit of federalism.
- Centre should deploy its armed forces, even without the consent of states.
- Centre should consult states before making a law on Concurrent List.
- The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution.
- Net proceeds of the corporation tax made permissibly shareable with the states.
- The governor cannot dismiss the council of ministers so long as it commands a majority in the assembly.
- The governor’s term of five years in a state should not be disturbed except for some extremely compelling reasons.
- Unless a demand is made by the Parliament, no commission of enquiry should be set up against a state minister.
- Steps to be taken to uniformly implement the three-language formula in its true spirit.
- No change in the role of Rajya Sabha and Centre’s power to reorganise the states.
- The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated.
M M Punchhi Commission:
In April 2007, a commission headed by the former chief justice of India M.M. Punchhi was set up by the Government to take a fresh look at relative roles and responsibilities of various levels of government and their inter-relations.
- Evolution of Centre-state relations
- Constitutional scheme of relations, covering recommendations regarding Article 19, Article 355 and 356 and Article 263.
- Economic and financial relations and recommendations include upgrading of the planning model to remove regional imbalances.
- Recommendations regarding 73rd and 74th amendments and the Sixth Schedule.
- Internal security, covering issues like terror, Naxalism, insurgency and communal violence.
- Environment issues and resource-sharing, particularly of rivers and minerals
- Social development and good governance.
In 1969, the Tamil Nadu Government appointed a three-member committee under the chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar to examine the entire question of Centre–state relations and to suggest amendments to the Constitution so as to secure utmost autonomy to the states.
- An Inter-State Council should be set up immediately;
- Finance Commission should be made a permanent body;
- Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be taken by a statutory body;
- Articles 356, 357 and 365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be totally omitted;
- The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure of the governor should be omitted;
- Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be transferred to the State List;
- The residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and
- All-India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished.