Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-48] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Bhabha Kavach’; Locust Warning Organisation (LWO); ‘Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001’; Broadband Readiness Index (NRI); ‘Paramarsh’ scheme; ‘Deeksharambh’ programme; ‘Hand-in-Hand Military Exercise; IndSpaceEx; Polymetallic nodules; Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram; UNSC (United Nations Security Council) Resolution 47;
By IASToppers
April 26, 2020

The UNSC (United Nations Security Council) Resolution 47 is related with?

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Answer:

UNSC Resolution 47 is one of the resolution concerning with the Jammu and Kashmir dispute between Indian and Pakistan.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is the United Nations Security Council Resolution 47?

  • The United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 is the compalint made by India to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on January 1948 concerning the dispute over the state of J&K between India and Pakistan.
  • In October 1947, after the invasion of Pakistani soldiers in plain clothes and tribesmen in J&K, the Maharaja Hari Singh sought assistance from India and signed the Instrument of Accession.
  • India then acted upon it and sent military troops to J&K and finally made a complaint to UNSC regarding the dispute in J&K. That becomes resolution 47 in UNSC documents.

Which UNSC members are overseeing the issue?

The UNSC formed the investigating council consisting of five Permanent members and six other members.

  • The Permanent members include China, France, UK, US and Russia
  • While the six other membersinclude Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Syria and Ukraine

What are the UNSC orders under resolution 47?

For Pakistan

  • Withdraw tribesmen and Pakistan nationals who had entered the state for fighting.
  • Prevent future intrusion
  • Prevent furnishing of material aid to fighters

For India

  • After Pakistan withdrawal, India had to submit a plan for withdrawing its troop from the valley.
  • The withdrawal shall be gradual until the minimum troops required to maintain the law and order in the state.

For J&K

  • Full freedom to all subjects of the State, regardless of creed, caste or party, to express their views
  • Freedom to vote on the issue of the accession of the state.

Which initiative of Indian government targets the livelihood generation for tribal population by harnessing the wealth of forests?

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Answer:

Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram

Enrich Your Learning:

Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram

  • Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram is an initiative which targets the livelihood generation for tribal populationby harnessing the wealth of forest i.e. Van Dhan.
  • The programme was launched by PM of India in April 2018 at Bijapur, Chhattisgarhand one Van Dhan Vikas Kendra was set up as a pilot project.
  • This Van Dhan Vikas Kendra is to cater to ten Self Help Groupsof thirty tribal gathers each. This Kendras will act as implementation centre for the programme.
  • The programme seeks to promote and leverage the collective strength of tribal people to achieve a viable scale.
  • Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram was initiated to tap into the traditional knowledge and skill sets of tribal peopleby adding technology and Information Technology for up gradation of output at each stage and to convert the tribal wisdom into a remunerative economic activity.

The rare materials like Zirconium and Molybdenum are part of Polymetallic nodules. True OR False.

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Answer:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

Polymetallic nodules:

  • Polymetallic nodules are also called as Manganese nodules.
  • Polymetallic nodules are rounded accretion of minerals and metals.
  • They are found in the seabed and often found underneath the thin layer of sediments.
  • The extraction process of these nodules requires high technical procedures and mechanism.
  • The iron and manganese nodules forms the major part of the vast ocean reserves. 
  • These nodules also occur with the commercially valuable Copper, Nickel and Cobalt nodules.
  • The other rare materials like Zirconium and Molybdenum are also the part of Polymetallic nodules.

How is it formed?

  • The dissolved metal compounds in the sea water precipitate over time around a substance or nucleus on the seabed.
  • The formation of nodules is extremely slow and could take million of years to just form a few centimetre nodules.
  • The formation of nodules takes place in two ways: Hydrogenous Process and Diagenetic Growth.

Recent developments:

  • In 2017, India received the extension of 5 years from United Nation for extracting Polymetallic nodules from 75,000 sq. km area of Central Indian Ocean
  • If India succeeds in extracting even 10% of the reserve, it will be sufficient for India’s next 100 year’s needs.
  • The Central Indian Ocean has the largest Manganese nodule reserves (commercially viable) found on sea floor of the world.

What do you know about IndspaceEx, a term recently mentioned in news?

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Answer:

IndspaceEx is first ever space war exercise. The aim of IndspaceEx is to gain a better understanding of the current and emerging challenges in the space security domain.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is IndSpaceEx?

  • India organised its first ever simulated space warfare exercise in July 2019.
  • The purpose of the exercise is to understand the possible challenges in space warfare and to counter China’s growing influence in this domain, which poses a major threat to India’s national security interest.
  • It was held under the aegis of the Integrated Defence Staff of the defence ministry.

Hand in Hand military exercise was recently carried out between India and?

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Answer:

The military exercise ‘Hand in Hand is carried out between China and India.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Hand-in-Hand Military Exercise?

  • ‘Hand-in-Hand’ Military Exercise is carried out between India and China. The focus areas will be based on counter terrorism and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations.
  • The exercise aims to build close relations between the armies of the two countries.
  • The exercise was suspended in 2017 amid heightened tensions between the two countries following the disengagement of a standoff between their armed forces on the Doklam plateau.
  • Doklam is a piece of territory claimed by India-aligned Bhutan that is also claimed by China. 

What is the name of India’s lightest bullet proof jacket?

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Answer:

The name of India’s lightest bullet proof jacket is “Bhabha Kavach”.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Bhabha Kavach’

  • Bhabha Kavach is India’s lightest bullet-proof jacket.
  • It was developed jointly by the Ordnance Factories Boardand 
  • The Kavach weighs 9.2 kg, which is half kilogram less than the weight for a bullet-proof jacket.

What is the objective of the Paramarsh scheme?

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Answer:

The scheme aims to address a national challenge of improving the quality of Higher Education in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is ‘Paramarsh’ scheme?

  • Paramarsh’ is a University Grants Commission (UGC) scheme, under Ministry of Human Resource Development, for Mentoring National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) Accreditation Aspirant Institutions to promote Quality Assurance in Higher Education.
  • It aims to target 1000 Higher Education Institutionsfor mentoring with a specific focus on quality as enumerated in the UGC Quality Mandate.
  • The Scheme will be implemented through a “Hub & Spoke” model wherein the Mentor Institution, called the “Hub” is centralized and will have the responsibility of guiding the Mentee institution through the secondary branches the “Spoke”
  • It will facilitate the sharing of knowledge, information and opportunities for research collaboration and faculty development in Mentee Institutions

What is ‘Deeksharambh’ programme?

  • Deeksharambh is a Ministry of Human Resource Development initiative. It is a guide to the Student Induction Programme. 
  • The aim of the programme is to help new students adjust and feel comfortable in the new environment, inculcate in them the ethos and culture of the institutionhelp them build bonds with other studentsand faculty members, and expose them to a sense of larger purpose and self-exploration.

Which Index assesses the underlying digital infrastructure at the State/UT level in India?

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Solution:

Broadband Readiness Index

Enrich Your Learning:

Broadband Readiness Index (NRI)

  • The Department of Telecom(DoT) and the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER) signed a MoU to develop a Broadband Readiness Index (BRI) for Indian States and Union Territories (UT)
  • The National Digital Communication Policy (NDCP) 2018acknowledged the need for building a robust digital communications infrastructure leveraging existing assets of the broadcasting and power sectors including collaborative models involving state, local bodies and the private sector. 
  • This index will appraise the condition of the underlying digital infrastructureand related factors at the State/UT level.
  • The BRI consists of two partsPart I will focus on infrastructure developmentbased on the measurement of nine parameters. Part II consists of demand side parameters which will be captured through primary surveys.
  • The development of BRI will be a collaborative exercise with stakeholders including State governmentsand industry associations like the Tower and Infrastructure Providers                       Association (TAIPA) the Internet Service Providers Association of India (ISPAI) and the Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI).

Significance of BRI

  • Such an exercise provides useful insights into strategic choices made by States for investment allocations in ICT programmes.
  • In the spirit of competitive federalism, the index encourages states to cross learn and jointly participate in achieving the overall objective of digital inclusion and development in India.
  • The framework not only evaluate a state’s relative development butalso allow for better understanding of a state’s strengths and weaknesses that can feed into evidence-based policy making.
  • The methodology developed as a part of this research will be adapted and used on an annual basis for systematic evaluation of state-performance on metrics set out as the goals for 2022 under the new policy.

The ‘Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001’ grants intellectual property rights to farmers only. True or False?

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Answer:

False

Correct statement:

The act grants intellectual property rights to plant breeders and researchers also.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001’

  • It is an act of Parliament that was enacted to:
  1. provide for the establishment of an effective system for protection of plant varieties
  2. provide for the establishment of an effective system for the rights of farmers and plant breeders
  3. to encourage the development and cultivation of new plant varieties.
  • The PPV&FR Act, 2001 was enacted to grant intellectual property rights to plant breedersresearchers and farmerswho have developed any new or extant plant varieties.
  • The Intellectual Property Right granted under PPV&FR Act, 2001 is adual right – one is for the variety and the other is for the denomination assigned to it by the breeder.
  • The rights granted under this Act are heritable and assignableand only registration of a plant variety confers the right.
  • Essentially Derived Varieties(EDV) can also be registered under this Act and it may be new or extant.
  • The period of protection for field crops is 15 years and for trees and vines is 18 years and for notified varieties it is 15 years from the date of notification under section 5 of Seeds Act, 1966.
  • Annual fee has to be paid every year for maintaining the registration and renewal fee has to be paid for the extended period of registration.
  • Compensation is also provided for village or rural communities if any registered variety has been developed using any variety in whose evolution such village or local community has contributed significantly.

Rights under the Act

  • Breeders’ Rights: 
  1. Breeders will have exclusive rights to produce, sell, market, distribute, import or export the protected variety.
  2. Breeder can appoint agent/ licensee and may exercise for civil remedy in case of infringement of rights.
  3. Civil and criminal remedies are provided for enforcement of breeders’ rights and provisions relating to benefit sharing and compulsory licence in case registered variety is not made available to the public at reasonable price are provided.
  • Researchers’ Rights:
  1. Researcher can use any of the registered variety under the Act for conducting experiment or research.
  2. This includes the use of a variety as an initial source of variety for the purpose of developing another variety but repeated use needs prior permission of the registered breeder.
  • Farmers’ Rights
  1. A farmer who has evolved or developed a new variety is entitled for registration and protection in like manner as a breeder of a variety;
  2. Farmers variety can also be registered as an extant variety;
  3. A farmer can save, use, sow, re-sow, exchange, share or sell his farm produce including seed of a variety protected under the PPV&FR Act, 2001 in the same manner as he was entitled before the coming into force of this Act provided farmer shall not be entitled to sell branded seed of a variety protected under the PPV&FR Act, 2001;
  4. Farmers are eligible for recognition and rewards for the conservation of Plant Genetic Resources of land races and wild relatives of economic plants.
  5. There is also a provision for compensation to the farmers for non-performance of variety under Section 39 (2) of the Act, 2001.
  6. Farmer shall not be liable to pay any fee in any proceeding before the Authority or Registrar or the Tribunal or the High Court under the Act.

Answer:

False

Correct statement:

Locust Warning Organisation (LWO) monitor and controls the locust situation in Scheduled Desert Areas in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why is it in news?

  • A major attack by locust, a tropical grasshopper, has been reported from Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan, after a gap of 26 years.

Locust Warning Organisation (LWO)

  • The LWO implements the Locust Control and Research scheme.
  • The LWO was established in 1939 and amalgamated in 1946 with the Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage (PPQS) of the Ministry of Agriculture.
  • The LWO’s responsibility is monitoring and control of the locust situation in Scheduled Desert Areasmainly in Rajasthan and Gujarat, and partly in Punjab and Haryana.
  • The LWO publishes a fortnightly bulletin on the locust situation.
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India Meteorological Department monitor and controls the locust situation in Scheduled Desert Areas in India. True or False.

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Answer:

False

Correct statement:

Locust Warning Organisation (LWO) monitor and controls the locust situation in Scheduled Desert Areas in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why is it in news?

  • A major attack by locust, a tropical grasshopper, has been reported from Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan, after a gap of 26 years.

Locust Warning Organisation (LWO)

  • The LWO implements the Locust Control and Research scheme.
  • The LWO was established in 1939 and amalgamated in 1946 with the Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage (PPQS) of the Ministry of Agriculture.
  • The LWO’s responsibility is monitoring and control of the locust situation in Scheduled Desert Areasmainly in Rajasthan and Gujarat, and partly in Punjab and Haryana.
  • The LWO publishes a fortnightly bulletin on the locust situation.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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