Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-50] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP); Bishkek Declaration; ‘Cirrochroa thais’; ‘Shtrum Ataka’; ‘One Country, Two Systems’ policy; Budj Bim; World Food Programme (WFP); ‘Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)’; Fairness for High-Skilled Immigrants Act (HR 1044); Draft Model Tenancy Act (MTA);
By IASToppers
April 28, 2020

Which Indian Ministry has come up with Draft Model Tenancy Act, 2019?

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Answer:

Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs

Enrich Your Learning:

Draft Model Tenancy Act (MTA)

  • Model Tenancy Act’, 2019, drafted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, envisages to balance the interest and rights of both the owner and tenant and to create an accountable and transparent ecosystem for renting the premises in disciplined and efficient manner.

Important points of the Act:

  • MTA stipulates a robust grievance redressal mechanism comprising of Rent Authority, Rent Court and Rent Tribunal.
  • It proposes to cap the security deposit equal to a maximum of two month’s rent in case of residential propertiesand, minimum of one month’s rent in case of non-residential property.
  • It also proposes that no person shall let or take on rent any premises except by an agreement in writing.
  • The Model Act provides for its applicability for the whole of the State i.e. urban as well as rural areas in the State.
  • Within two months of executing rental agreement both landowner and tenant are required to intimate to the Rent Authority about the agreement.
  • A digital platform will be set up in the local vernacular language of the State for submitting tenancy agreement and other documents.

Significance of the Act:

  • Enable creation of adequate rental housing stock for various income segments of society including migrants, formal and informal sector workers, professionals, students etc.
  • Increase access to quality rented accommodation.
  • Enable gradual formalization of rental housing market. 
  • Help overhaul the legal framework vis-à-vis rental housing across the country.
  • Give fillip to private participation in rental housing for addressing the huge housing shortage across the country.

Key Fact:

  • As per Census 2011, nearly 1.1 crore houses were lying vacant in the country and making these houses available on rent will complement the vision of ‘Housing for All’ by 2022.

Which Act of United States (USA) allows the issuance of Green Cards to immigrants?

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Answer:

Fairness for High-Skilled Immigrants Act (HR 1044)

Enrich Your Learning:

Fairness for High-Skilled Immigrants Act (HR 1044)

  • The Fairness for High-Skilled Immigrants Act of 2019 (H.R. 1044), was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives.
  • It was introduced with the purpose of removing the per-country percentage caps in the green card process.
  • It seeks to eliminate the per-country limit on employment-based immigrant visas(i.e., “green cards”).
  • The legislation proposes instead to treat all foreign nationals equally, regardless of country of birth.
  • The Fairness for High-Skilled Immigrants Act of 2019 attempts to change the distribution of green cards by eliminating the seven (7) percent per-country cap on all employment-based immigrant visas.
  • If passed into law, H.R. 1044 will subject employment-based green card applicants from all countries to a single waitlist for each employment-based immigrant visa category.
  • Countries with the longest green card waitlists mainly, India and China would see an immediate decrease in green card wait times.

Highlights

  • Currently, immigrants can be issued a maximum of 7 per cent Green Cards per year.
  • The new Bill seeks to increase this 7 per cent per-country limit to 15 per cent.
  • This would benefit thousands of highly-skilled Indian IT professionals in the US.

Key Facts:

  • A Green Card allows a person to live and work permanently in the US.

Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) is a sub component of the which scheme of government?

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Answer:

Deendayal Antodaya Yojana-NRLM (DAY-NRLM)

Enrich Your Learning:

Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)’:

  • ‘Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana’ (MKSP) is a sub component of the Deendayal Antodaya Yojana-NRLM (DAY-NRLM) aims to improve the present status of women in Agriculture.
  • It is launched by the Ministry of Rural Development.
  • The main focus of MKSP is to promote agriculture on sustainable basis where the inputs are localized, risks are mitigated, productivity is enhanced, food security is ensured and hence net income of family is increased.
  • MKSP recognizes the identity of “Mahila” as “Kisan” and strives to build the capacity of women in the domain of agro-ecologically sustainable practices.

Objectives of MKSP are:

  • Create sustainable agricultural livelihood opportunitiesfor women in agriculture.
  • Ensure food and nutrition security at the householdand the community level.
  • Improve the skills and capabilitiesof women in agriculture to support farm-based activities.
  • Enhance the managerial capacitiesof women in agriculture for better management of bio-diversity.

Implementation:

  • MKSP is being implemented by DAY-NRLM in partnership with State Rural Livelihood Missions/ Community Based Organizations (CBOs)/NGOs.
  • Promotion of sustainable agriculture practices includes:
    • Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture (CMSA)
    • Non Pesticide Management (NPM)
    • Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF)
    • Pashu-Sakhi model for doorstep animal care services
    • Sustainable regeneration and harvesting of Non-Timber Forest Produce

 

Key Facts:

  • In the economy of majority of the developing nations including India, Rural women form the most productive work force.
  • More than 80% of rural women are engaged in agriculture activities for their livelihood and about 20 per cent of farm livelihoods are female headed.

Government of India launched the Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP) under which Act?

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Answer:

Government of India launched the Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP) under Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (CLND) Act, 2010.

Enrich Your Learning:

Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP):

  • General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC-Re), along with several other Indian Insurance Companies, launched the Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP) with a capacity of ?1500 crore to provide insuranceto cover the liability as prescribed under Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (CLND) Act, 2010. (Government has created INIP in 2015).
  • The poll has addressed issues related to Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (CLND) Actand had facilitated commencement of work in setting up new nuclear power projects.
  • New India Assurance issues the policyunder the pool and also deals with management of cover to the operators and suppliers, on behalf of all direct insurance companies participating in the pool.

Present nuclear power capacity:

  • The nuclear power capacity at present is 6780 MW comprising of 22 reactors.
  • There are 9 reactors with a capacity of 6700 MW under construction. 
  • On their completion, the installed nuclear capacity is expected to reach 8180 MW by 2020 and 22480 MW by 2031.

United Nation’s World Food Programme (WFP) has committed to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition by 2030. True OR False.

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Answer:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

World Food Programme (WFP):

  • World Food Programme is the UN agency focused on hunger alleviation and food security.
  • It delivers food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience.
  • Globally, it responds to emergencies making sure, food reaches where it is needed, especially in times of civil strife and natural disasters.
  • As the international community, it has committed to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition by 2030.
  • In 1965, WFP is enshrined as a fully-fledged UN programme: it is to last for “as long as multilateral food aid is found feasible and desirable”.
  • WFP is governed by a 36-member Executive Board.
  • It works closely with its two Rome-based sister organizations:
    • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    • International Fund for Agricultural Development
  • WFP relies entirely on voluntary contributions for its funding.
  • Its principal donors are governments, but the organization also receive donations from the private sector and individuals.

Area of Focus:

  • WFP’s efforts focus on emergency assistance, relief and rehabilitation, development aid and special operations.
  • Two-thirds of our work is in conflict-affected countries where people are three times more likely to be undernourished than those living in countries without conflict.

WHP in India:

  • WFP has been working in India since 1963.
  • In India, WFP has moved from providing direct food aid to providing technical assistance and capacity building services to the Government of India.
  • WFP is focusing on enabling the country’s food-based social safety nets to function more efficiently and effectively in providing food to their target population.

Key Fact:

  • Goals for Sustainable Development – Zero Hunger – pledges to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture which is the priority of the World Food Programme.

i) Budj Bim and ii) Prosecco hills, as recently listed in World Heritage as cultural landscape, are located in which two countries?

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Answer:

The Budj Bim Cultural Landscape is located at south-west Victoria in Australia whereas the Prosecco hills are located in Venice in Italy.

Enrich Your Learning:

Budj Bim:

  • The Budj Bim Cultural Landscape is an extinct volcano in south-west Victoria, Australia.
  • It became Australia’s first Aboriginal cultural site to receive World Heritage status and 20thWorld Heritage place of Australia.
  • The site was created about 6,600 years ago by the Gunditjmara Aboriginal peopleand is considered one of the world’s oldest freshwater aquaculture systems which is developed on the remains of a lava flow.
  • The Budj Bim lava flows provide the basis for the complex system of channels, weirs and dams developed by the Gunditjmara in order to trap, store and harvest kooyang.
  • It features the remnants of about 300 round stone huts that are the only remaining permanent houses built by an indigenous community in Australia.
  • This cultural landscape was added to the UNESCO world heritage list.

Prosecco Hills:

  • Prosecco hills is situated at the northeast of Venice in Italy.
  • This coveted designation safeguards the cultural landscape of a small agriculturalarea in northeast Italy, known principally for its Prosecco wine.
  • The landscape is characterized by ‘hogback’ hills, ciglioni which are small plots of wines on narrow grassy forests.’
  • Since the 17thcentury, the use of ciglioni has created a particular chequerboard landscape consisting of rows of wines parallel and vertical to the slopes.
  • The Hills of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene are the 55thUNESCO World Heritage site in Italy and the 10th site in the world to be registered under the category of “cultural landscape”.

The concept of ‘One country, two systems’, as often seen in news, is related with which countries?

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Answer:

  • China and Hong Kong. China applied the “One Country, Two Systems” principle to Hong Kong on July 1, 1997, when the sovereignty of the territory was passed from Britain to China.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is ‘One Country, Two Systems’ policy?

  • ‘One country, two systems’ policy is a fundamental state policy formulated by Deng Xiaoping. The purpose of the policy is to accomplish the peaceful reunification of China by resolving, the sovereignty questions of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.
  • The “One Country, Two Systems” model came into effect following the 1997 handover from the UK to China.

The Shtrum Ataka, as recently seen in news, is a) Radar defence system b) Anti-tank missile or c) Attack submarine.

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Answer:

The Shtrum Ataka, as recently seen in news, is an Anti-tank missile.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

  • Recently, Indian Air Force is set to get ‘Strum Ataka’ anti-tank missile from Russia.

About ‘Shtrum Ataka’

  • Ataka is a long-range anti-tank guided missile system.
  • It was developed in the 1980s in the Soviet Union.
  • It is the next major generation in the 9K114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) family.
  • Launchers with Ataka missiles can be mounted on helicopters, vehicles and watercraft.
  • The missile has radio command guidance and is also a Beam riding SACLOS (Semi-automatic command to line of sight).
  • It is stored in a glass reinforced plastic tube, which also acts as its launcher.

Recently, which Indian state declared ‘Cirrochroa thais’ as its state butterfly?

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Answer:

Tamil Nadu

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Cirrochroa thais’:

  • Cirrochroa thais is commonly called yeomen, is a genus of butterfliesfrom the family Nymphalidae found in southeast Asia.
  • It is uniformly orange in colourwith a dark brown outer ring.
  • It is a common butterfly in evergreen forests and on the plateau.
  • It is the fifth state in the country to do so.
  • The butterfly is found in Western Ghats.

Key Facts:

  • Maharashtra was the firstto declare Blue Mormon as its state butterfly, followed by Uttarakhand (Common peacock), Karnataka (Southern bird wings) and Kerala (Malabar banded peacock).

What is the Bishkek Declaration all about?

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Answer:

Bishkek declaration is multilateral negotiations on an international convention aimed at combating acts of chemical and biological terrorism at the Conference on Disarmament.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bishkek Declaration

  • Bishkek Declaration was issued at 19thannual summit of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) held in Bishkek, capital of Kyrgyzstan.
  • It was launched as multilateral negotiations on an international conventionaimed at combating acts of chemical and biological terrorism at the Conference on Disarmament.
  • As per the declaration, interfering in other countries’ domestic affairs under the pretext of fighting terrorism and extremism as well as using terrorist, extremist and radical groups to achieve one’s own mercenary ends is unacceptable.
  • It is a priority to step up the international community’s joint efforts to counter the attempts to involve young people in the activities of terrorist, separatist and extremist groups.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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