Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-51] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Mechi River; Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana; Colistin; JATAN; Inn Din massacre; International Seabed Authority (ISA); O-SMART Scheme; Kosi – Mechi River linking project; Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS); Seed Bank for Conserving Native Crops; ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR); National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA);
By IASToppers
April 29, 2020

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority fixes prices of which medical devices that are currently existing in the National List of Essential Medicines?

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Answer:

Four medical devices- cardiac stents, drug eluting stents, condoms and intra uterine devices are in in the National List of Essential Medicines.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

  • For high prices of commonly used medical devices, the government is set to identify a list of essential medical devices.
  • At present, India imports over 75%of all its medical device needs and around 80% of the imports include high-end products used in critical care.

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA):

  • Established in August 1997, it was set up as an attached office of the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals(now Department of Pharmaceuticals).
  • The authority is engaged with the regulation of the prices of drugs in the country.
  • The NPPA currently fixes prices of drugs placed in the National List of Essential Medicines(NLEM).
  • Four medical devices– cardiac stents, drug eluting stents, condoms and intra uterine devices are in in the National List of Essential Medicines.

Functions of NPPA:

  • To implement and enforce the provisions of the Drugs Price Control Order (DPCO),1995/2013.
  • To undertake and/or sponsor relevantstudies in respect of pricing of drugs/formulations.
  • To monitor the availability of drugs, identify shortages, if any, and to take remedial steps.
  • To collect/maintain data on production, exports and imports, market share of individual companies, profitability of companies etc. for bulk drugs and formulations.
  • To deal with all legal mattersarising out of the decisions of the Authority.
  • To render advice to the Central Government on changes/revisions in the drug policy.
  • To render assistance to the Central Government in the parliamentary mattersrelating to the drug pricing.

Which Indian institution is conserving seed germplasm for long-term conservation?

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Answer:

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR)

Enrich Your Learning:

Seed Bank for Conserving Native Crops:

  • A seed bank is defined as a place where seeds are stored in order to preserve genetic diversityand so it is a type of gene bank.
  • ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) is conserving seed germplasm for long-term conservation (at -20°C) in its National Gene Bank (NGB).
  • Seed banks offer a way to preserve that historical and cultural valuelike seed libraries that contain valuable information about evolution strategies of plants.
  • It also prevents the loss of genetic diversity in rare plant species.

Indian Scenario:

  • National Gene Bankis responsible for the conservation of plant genetic resources for posterity and sustainable use.
  • It includes landraces and traditional varietieswhich are potential sources of agriculturally important genes.
  • The Protection of Plant Varieties & Farmers Right Authorityunder the PPV & FR Act, 2001 annually confers awards to farmers or farming communities engaged in conservation of plant genetic resources and which have been used as donor of genes in varieties registerable under the Act.
  • Total 1597 farmer’s varieties have been registered with PPV&FRA and certificates of registration have been issued till date.

ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR):

  • The establishment of the Bureau coincided with the advent of the Green Revolutionand was in response to the realization of perceived effects of the Green Revolution on agro biodiversity.
  • It has its headquarters at New Delhi.
  • The Bureau has five Divisions, three units and an experimental farm and 10 Regional Stations located in different geographical zones of the country.

Objective:

  • To undertake activities of plant introduction and germplasm augmentation for use in crop improvement.

Key Facts:

  • National Centre for Genetic Resources (NGCR), Colorado, is one of the world’s largest gene banks, and it preserves both seeds and various types of germ plasms, or collections of genetic information.
  • A seeds may be viable for hundreds and even thousands of years.

Recently, an agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support was signed between India and?

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Answer:  
India and Russia have signed the Reciprocal Logistics Support Agreement. This Agreement calls for Navy and Air force logistics sharing between India and Russia similar to the India- USA logistic support agreement.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is the Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS)?

  • Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ALRS) is a defence logistic sharing pactbetween India and Russia. It aims to simplify the interoperability and also enable military platforms to receive support and supplies across military bases in both the nation.
  • India has similar pacts with the USA and France.

Which is the second major river interlinking project in India which was recently approved by Central Government after the Ken-Betwa project in Madhya Pradesh?

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Answer:

Kosi – Mechi River linking project

Enrich Your Learning:

Where is Mechi River located?

  • It is the tributary of Mahananda River.
  • It originates in the Mahabharat range in Nepaland flows through Nepal and then Bihar to finally join the Mahananda River.
  • The river has braiding channels and well developed alluvial fans.

What is Kosi – Mechi River linking project?

  • It is a second river linking project of India linking two river basins i.e. Kosi Basin and Mechi basin. Recently, the government of India has given the nod to undertake the project at a cost of Rs 4,900 crore approximately.
  • The first river linking project in India is the KEN- BETWA river linking Project in Madhya Pradesh.

The O-SMART Scheme is launched by which Indian Ministry? What are its objectives?

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Answer:

‘O-SMART’ Scheme is launched by Ministry of Earth Sciences. The mission aims to harness various living and non-living (water, mineral and energy) resources from the seabed and deep water.

Enrich Your Learning:

 Ocean Services, Technology, Observations, Resources Modelling and Science (O-SMART) Scheme

  • It is an umbrella scheme which encompasses a total of 16 sub-projects addressing ocean development activities such as Services, Technology, Resources, Observations and Science.
  • The scheme was launched on Ministry of Earth Sciences(MoES) foundation day.
  • The implementation duration of the scheme is from 2017-18 to 2019-20.
  • All the existing schemes are likely to be continued in a focused way as a part of umbrella scheme of (O-SMART).
  • The mission will help India to harness various living and non-living(water, mineral and energy) resources from the seabed and deep water.

Components of the O-SMART scheme:

  • Underwater robotics and ‘manned’ submersiblesare key components of the Mission.
  • Other components include early warning systemsfor oceanic disasters, setting up marine coastal observatories for monitoring marine pollution and acquisition of coastal research vessels.

Important deliverables under the Scheme:

  • Strengthening of Ocean Observations and Modelling 
  • Strengthening of Ocean Services for Fishermen
  • Setting up Marine Coastal Observatories for monitoring marine pollution
  • Setting up Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant (OTEC) in Kavaratti
  • Acquisition of 2 Coastal Research Vessels for Coastal research
  • Continuation of Ocean Survey and Exploration of Minerals and Living Resources
  • Technology Development for Deep Ocean Mining- Deep Mining System and Manned Submersibles
  • Setting up Six Desalination Plants in Lakshadweep

Impact:

  • It will provide economic benefits to a number of user communities in the coastal and ocean sectors such as fisheries, offshore industry, coastal states, Defence, Shipping, and Ports etc.
  • This will help in reducing the search time for fishermen resulting savings in the fuel cost.
  • The scheme will help in addressing issues relating to Sustainable Development Goal-14, which aims to conserve use of oceans, marine resources for sustainable development.
  • O-SMART also provide necessary scientific and technological backgroundrequired for implementation of various aspects of Blue Economy.
  • State of Art Early Warning Systemsestablished under the Scheme will help in effectively dealing with ocean disasters like Tsunami, storm surges.
  • Technologies developed under the scheme will help in harnessing the vast ocean resources of both living and non-living resources from the seas around India.

Which organization was formed by the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to regulate the deep seabed mining?

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Answer:

International Seabed Authority (ISA)

Enrich Your Learning:

International Seabed Authority (ISA):

  • It is an intergovernmental organization which regulates the deep seabed mining and ensures that marine ecosystem remains protected.
  • It is established in 1994, in Kingston, Jamaica when the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea(UNCLOS) came into force.
  • The area of regulation under its jurisdiction lies beyond the national jurisdiction of the countries of the world.
  • The total area under its regulation is more than 54% of the total area of the world’s oceans.
  • Currently, it has 168 membernations including India.
  • ISA has registered & voluntary commitments towards Agenda 2030 for sustainable development.

The Inn Din massacre occurred in which country?

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Answer:

The Inn Din massacre occurred in Myanmar.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Inn Din massacre?

  • Inn Din is located to the north of Rakhine’s capital Sittwe, between the Mayu mountains and the Bay of Bengal. 
  • Buddhist villagers and Myanmar’s armed forces killed 10 Rohingya men in a village called Inn Din in Rakhine state. The Inn Din massacre was uncovered by two Reuters reporters, Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo.
  • The International Criminal Court is considering its jurisdiction over the Rakhine state and there are calls for prosecuting Myanmar’s generals.

What is the name of a software that is used for creating digital archival tools that are used in background for managing National Portal and Digital Repository for Indian Museums?

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Answer:

JATAN, a Virtual Museum software, is used for creating digital collections in various museums and digital archival tools that are used in background for managing National Portal and Digital Repository for Indian Museums.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is JATAN?

  • The Human Centres Design and Computing Group developed JATAN: Virtual Museum software which is used for creating the digital collections in various museums and digital archival tools.
  • It is also used in the background for managing the National Portal and Digital Repository for Indian Museums.
  • The aim is to digitize 48 Archaeological Site Museums under Archaeological Survey of India.

Recently, a drug named Colistin was banned by government of India for which reason?

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Answer:

  • Overuse of Colistin has resulted in antibiotic resistance in the poultry industry.

Enrich Your Learning:

Colistin

  • Colistin and its formulations for food producing animals, poultry, aqua farming and animal feed supplements are banned by the Union Health Ministry. The ban has been imposed under provisions of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.
  • The aim is to preserve the drug’s efficacy in humans.

Which government entity has launched the Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana?

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Answer:

Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC)

Enrich Your Learning:

Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana

  • As per the ‘Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana’ (ABVKY), in case the Insured Person (IP) is rendered unemployedit will provide relief to the extent of 25% of the average per day earning during the previous four contribution periods.
  • It is to be paid up to maximum 90 days of unemploymentonce in lifetime of the Insured person.

The eligibility conditions and other features of the scheme are as under:

  • The Insured Person should have been in insurable employment for a minimum period of two years.
  • The Insured Person should have contributed not less than 78 days during each of the preceding four contribution periods.
  • The contribution in respect of him should have been paid or payable by the employer.
  • The contingency of the unemployment should not have been as a result of any punishment for misconduct or superannuation or voluntary retirement.
  • Aadhar and Bank Account of the Insured Person should be linked with insured person data base.
  • In case the IP is working for more than one employers and is covered under the ESI scheme he will be considered unemployed only in case he is rendered unemployed with all employers.
  • An IP who is in receipt of Relief under ABVKY shall not be entitled to receive any similar benefit admissible under the provisions of any other enactment.
  • The IP will be eligible for Medical benefit as provided under the Act for the period he is availing this relief.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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