Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-51] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Ladakh Climate; North Star as a guide; Mahi River; Coal in India; Tropical Deciduous Forests; Leh–Manali Highway; Antecedent Drainage; Superimposed Drainage; Satluj river; River Banas; Chambal River; Cotton textile industry in India; Eleven Degree Channel;
By IASToppers
April 29, 2020

The Eleven Degree Channel separates the two islands of Andaman and Nicobar. Do you agree?

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Answer:

  • No, it is the Ten Degree Channel that separates the two islands of Andaman and Nicobar.

Enrich Your Learning:

About island groups in India:

There are two major island groups in India – one in the Bay of Bengal and the other in the Arabian Sea.

  • The Bay of Bengal island groups consist of about 572 islands/islets. These are situated roughly between 6°N-14°N and 92°E -94°E.
  • The two principal groups of islets include the Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island. The entire group of island is divided into two broad categories – the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south. They are separated by a water body which is called the Ten degree channel. It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.
    • However, some smaller islands are volcanic in origin. Barren island, the only active volcano in India is also situated in the Nicobar Islands. The coastal line has some coral deposits, and beautiful beaches. These islands receive convectional rainfall and have an equatorial type of vegetation.
    • The islands of the Arabian sea include Lakshadweep and Minicoy. These are scattered between 8°N-12°N and 71°E -74°E longitude.
  • These islands are located at a distance of 280 km-480 km off the Kerala coast. The entire island group is built of coral deposits. There are approximately 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited. Minicoy is the largest island with an area of 453 sq. km.
  • The entire group of islands is broadly divided by the Eleventh degree channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south of the Canannore Island.
  • The Islands of this archipelago have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders on the eastern seaboard.

Which are the basic factors for the development of cotton textile industry in India?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The cotton textile industry is one of the traditional industries of India. In the ancient and the medieval times, it used to be only a cottage industry.
  • India was famous worldwide for the production of muslin, a very fine variety of cotton cloth, calicos, chintz and other different varieties of fine cotton cloth.
  • The development of this industry in India was due to several factors. One, it is a tropical country and cotton is the most comfortable fabric for a hot and humid climate.
  • Second, large quantity of cotton was grown in India. Abundant skilled labour required for this industry was available in this country. In fact, in some areas the people were producing cotton textiles for generations and transferred the skill from one generation to the other and in the process perfected their skills.

Which is the only significant tributary of the river Chambal that originates from the Aravalli in the west?

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Answer:

  • Banas is the only significant tributary of the river Chambal that originates from the Aravalli in the west.

Enrich Your Learning:

About river Banas:

  • Banas River originates from Aravalli Hills, Rajasthan and meets into little rann of kuchchh.
  • The Banas river lies entirely within the state of Rajasthan in western India.
  • It is a tributary of the Chambal River, itself a tributary of the Yamuna, which in turn merges into the Ganga.
  • The river drains the eastern slope of the central portion of Aravalli Range.
  • Sipu is right bank’s main tributary and Khari is left bank’s main tributary of Banas.
  • Sukli, Balaram, Suket, Sevaran and Batriya are another tributaries of Banas on left bank.
  • There is Dantiwada Dam on Banas river.

About Chambal River:

  • The Chambal River is located in northern India and flows through three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Chambal also forms part of the Rajasthan-Madhya Pradesh boundary.
  • It rises in the old Vindhya Range and flows in northeastern direction. There, it becomes the second biggest tributary of the Yamuna River, which is the largest tributary of the Ganges.
  • The Chambal River’s passage across the Madhya Bharat Patar plateau is marked by a series of gorges and by the Chambal ravine system below its junction with the Banas River.
  • The main tributaries of Chambal include the Banas and Mej rivers on the left and the Parbati, Kali Sindh and Shipra rivers on the right.
  • The Gandhi Sagar dam lies on the Chambal River in the Neemuch district of Madhya Pradesh.

Satluj is which type of river- (a) Antecedent OR (b) Superimposed?

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Answer:

  • Satluj is an antecedent river.

Enrich Your Learning:

Antecedent Drainage:

  • The Rivers that existed before the upheaval of the Himalayas and cut their courses southward by making gorges in the mountains are known as the antecedent rivers.
  • Examples:The Indus, Satluj, Ganga, Sarju (Kali), Arun (a tributary of Kosi), Tista and Brahmaputra are some of the important antecedent rivers, originating from beyond the Greater Himalayas.

Superimposed Drainage

  • It is formed when a stream with a course originally established on a cover of rock now removed by erosion, so that the stream or drainage system is independent of the newly exposed rocks and structures.
  • Examples:The Damodar, the Subarnarekha, the Chambal, the Banas and the rivers flowing at the Rewa Plateau present some good examples of superimposed drainage.

About Satluj river:

  • The Satluj originates in the Rakas lake near Mansarovar at an altitude of 4,555 m in Tibet where it is known as Langchen Khambab.
  • It flows almost parallel to the Indus for about 400 km before entering India, and comes out of a gorge at Rupar.
  • It passes through the Shipki La on the Himalayan ranges and enters the Punjab plains.
  • It is a very important tributary as it feeds the canal system of the Bhakra Nangal project

Which mountains passes are located on Leh–Manali Highway?

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Answer:

  • Rohtang la, Baralacha la, Lungalacha la and Tanglang la are the passes located on Leh–Manali Highway.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Leh–Manali Highway:

  • The Leh–Manali Highway  is a 490 km (300 mi) long highway in northernmost India connecting Leh in Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir state and Manali in Himachal Pradesh state.
  • It is open for only about four and a half months in a year in summer between May or June, when the snow is cleared, and mid-October when snowfall again blocks the high passes.
  • It connects Manali valley to Lahaul and Spiti valleys and Zanskar valley in Ladakh.

In which region of India, the moist deciduous forests are more pronounced?

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Answer:

  • The Moist deciduous forests are more pronounced in the regions which record rainfall between 100-200 cm.
  • These forests are found in the northeastern states along the foothills of Himalayas, eastern slopes of the Western Ghats and Odisha.
  • Teak, sal, shisham, hurra, mahua, amla, semul, kusum, and sandalwood etc. are the main species of these forests.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Tropical Deciduous Forests:

  • These are the most widespread forests in India. They are also called the monsoon forests.
  • They spread over regions which receive rainfall between 70-200 cm.
  • On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous.
  • Dry deciduous forest covers vast areas of the country, where rainfall ranges between 70 -100 cm. On the wetter margins, it has a transition to the moist deciduous, while on the drier margins to thorn forests. These forests are found in rainier areas of the Peninsula and the plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • In the higher rainfall regions of the Peninsular plateau and the northern Indian plain, these forests have a parkland landscape with open stretches in which teak and other trees interspersed with patches of grass are common.
  • As the dry season begins, the trees shed their leaves completely and the forest appears like a vast grassland with naked trees all around.
  • Tendu, palas, amaltas, bel, khair, axlewood, etc. are the common trees of these forests.

What rich components are contained by Gondwana rocks?

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Answer:

  • Gondwana rocks are rich in iron ore, copper, uranium and antimony. 98% of Indian coal is found in Gondwana rocks.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Coal in India:

  • In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana, a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old.
  • The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand). Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.
  • Over 97 per cent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari.
  • Tertiary coals occur in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

Why does Ladakh experience little rainfall though located in Himalayas?

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Answer:

  • As Ladakh lies in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, there is little rainfall, as low as 10 cm every year.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Ladakh Climate:

  • The altitude in Ladakh varies from about 3000 to 8000 m. Due to its high altitude the climate is extremely cold and dry. The air at this altitude is so thin that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely.
  • The day temperatures in summers are just above zero degree and the night temperatures are well below -30°C. It is freezing cold in the winters, with the temperatures remaining below -40°C for most of the time.
  • The area experiences freezing winds and burning hot sunlight.

Which Indian river crosses the Tropic of Cancer twice?

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Answer:

  • The Mahi River in India crosses the Tropic of Cancer twice.

Enrich Your Learning:

About the Mahi River:

  • Mahi River originates from Vindhyachal Hills, Madhya Pradesh and meets in Bay of Khambhat.
  • Mahi River rises in Madhya Pradesh and, after flowing through the Vagad region of Rajasthan, enters Gujarat and flows into the Arabian Sea.
  • It is one of the many west-flowing rivers in India, along with Tapti River, Sabarmati River, Luni River (Endorheic river) and the Narmada River.
  • Bhadar is right bank tributary & Panam, Kun and Goma are left bank tributories of Mahi river.
  • On Mahi river Kadana dam is situated.
  • The silt brought down by the Mahi has contributed to the shallowing of the Gulf of Khambhat and the abandonment of its once-prosperous ports.

While travelling to North, what is the status of the North Star when viewed?

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Answer:

  • If travelled to the north, the North Star climbs progressively higher the farther north travelled. When headed south, the star drops lower and ultimately disappears once you cross the equator and head into the Southern Hemisphere.

Enrich Your Learning:

Enrich Your Learning:

About Using the North Star as a guide:

  • Exactly where you see Polaris in your northern sky depends on your latitude.  From New York it stands 41 degrees above the northern horizon, which also corresponds to the latitude of New York.
  • Since 10 degrees is roughly equal to your clenched fist held at arm’s length, from New York Polaris would appear to stand about “four fists” above the northern horizon.  At the North Pole, you would find it overhead.
  • At the equator, Polaris would appear to sit right on the horizon.  So if you travel to the north, the North Star climbs progressively higher the farther north you go.  When you head south, the star drops lower and ultimately disappears once you cross the equator and head into the Southern Hemisphere.
  • And always keep this fact in mind: Polaris is more accurate than any compass.  A compass is subject to periodic variations and can only show you the direction of the lines of the strongest magnetic force for a particular spot and for a particular time. But even Polaris isn’t positioned exactly due north.  
  • Only about 0.7 degree separates Polaris from the pivot point directly in the north – called the North Celestial Pole – around which the stars go daily. In case you’re wondering, 0.7 degree amounts to less than the apparent width of 1½ full moons.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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