Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-53] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Queen Victoria's Proclamation; All-India Muslim Ladies Conference (Anjuman-E-Khawatn-E-Islam); Objective of the Richard Strachey Commission of 1878; Federal Court of India; Mahar Movement; Textile Labour Association (TLA); 'Khurki system’ during British era; Forest Satyagraha; Justice Party; Justice Movement; Belgaum session of Indian National Congress;
By IASToppers
May 01, 2020

Which was the only session of Indian National Congress, presided by Mahatma Gandhi?

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Answer:

Belgaum session

Gandhiji became the president of Indian National Congress in 1924 at the Belgaum session of Indian National Congress.

Enrich Your Learning:

Congress session presided over by Mahatma Gandhi:

  • There was a government crackdown on revolutionary terrorists and the Swarajists towards the end of 1924; this angered Gandhi and he expressed his solidarity with the Swarajists by surrendering to their wishes.
  • Both sides came to an agreement in 1924 (endorsed at the Belgaum session of the Congress in December 1924 over which Gandhi—the only time—presided over the Congress session) that the Swarajists would work in the councils as an integral part of the Congress.
  • The Congress session of 1924 can be heralded as a great step in promotion of the peasant consciousness.

 

Which political party was known as the South Indian Liberal Federation?

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Answer: The Justice Party

Enrich Your Learning:

Justice Party:

  • The Justice Party, earlier South Indian Liberal Federation, was a political party in the Madras Presidency of British India. It was established in 1916 by Natesa Mudaliar and co-founded by T. M. Nair and P. Theagaraya Chetty as a result of a series of non-Brahmin conferences and meetings in the presidency. 
  • South Indian Liberation Federation (SILF) became ‘Justice Party’after it launched ‘Justice Newspaper’ to propagate the ideals of the Justice movement.
  • Justice party contested the election and for the first time in 1921 Indian cabinet was formed in Madras Presidency.

Justice Movement:

  • Communal division between Brahmins and non-Brahminsbegan in the Madras presidency during the late-19th and early-20th century, mainly due to caste prejudices and disproportionate Brahminical representation in government jobs.
  • The Justice Party was aimed to establish an organisation to represent the non-Brahmins in Madrasand hence, is seen as the start of the Dravidian Movement.

 

What was the main objective of forest Satyagraha?

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Answer:

To protest against the tyranny of the empire. Forest Satyagraha was the integral part of Civil Disobedience Movement. Basically the aim of the study is to bring out the impact of Gandhian Movement in regional areas like Chhattisgarh.

Enrich Your Learning:

Forest Satyagraha:

  • Forest Satyagraha was a unique feature of Gandhian Movement in Chhattisgarh region in 1930. Forest satyagraha was basically inspired by Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • It deals the novel feature of Civil Disobedience Movement was forest Satyagraha which meant violation of the forest laws.
  • The features of the Chhattisgarh region, with its extensive forests, suggested this course of action as a form of civil-Disobedience.
  • In the forest Satyagraha the forest laws were disobeyed in several ways, such as:
  • by leaving the cattle for grazing in the prohibited forests
  • by collecting firewood and tree leaves from these forests without obtaining permission from the forest authorities
  • by social boycott of the Forest and Revenue employees of the government.
  • The main theme was to cut grass and twigs from the forests so as protest and disobeys the government laws.
  • The most prominent feature of this movement the Peasants, Villagers, Tribal’s men and women played an active, important and role. Such was the spirit that the government was taken a back and took stern measures to curb it.

 

What is Khurki system with reference to land revenue policies during British era?

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Answer:

Under Khurki system, the British planters used to pay some money to the farmers (Raiyyat) by mortgaging their lands and houses and compelling them to sow indigo.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Khurki system’ during British era:

  • Under Khurki system, the British planters used to pay some money to the farmers (Raiyyat) by mortgaging their lands and houses and compelling them to sow indigo.
  • Britishers had confiscated more than one lakh crore fertile lands and set up their kothis in Champaran region.
  • Farmers were being exploited and oppressed in different ways by Britishers under Khurki and Teenkathiya systems.
  • British administration and Jamindar had established Teen Kathiya’ system under which teen katha land out of one bigha was reserved for indigo (Neel) farming.
  • The farmers had to bear the cost of indigo farming and the British planters used to keep the yields without compensating the farmers.

 

 

Who founded Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association in 1918? a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak OR b) Mahatma Gandhi

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Answer: Mahatma Gandhi

Enrich Your Learning:

Textile Labour Association (TLA):

  • In the year 1918 father of the nation Mahatma Gandhi along with Anasuya Sarabhai and Shankerlal Banker founded the Ahmadabad textile labour association.
  • The Textile Labour Association came into existence when, in 1917, a group of textile labourers held a non-violent protest organised under Gandhi leadership.
  • It was the Majoor Mahajan which imbibed Bapu’s principle of trusteeship and the very first non-violent protest organized under Bapu’s leadership.
  • Textile workers in Ahmedabad were demanding a 50 percent increase in salary from factory and mill owners as a plague bonus and a long string of non-violent protests ensued which became known as “ek tek”, “one resolve”.
  • The mill owners finally relented and the victory led to the creation of the Majoor Mahajan Sangh.

What was the Mahar movement during the early twentieth century?

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Answer:

A number of Mahars during the twentieth century converted to Buddhism, Ambedkar being one of them. They rose against the upper-caste domination in the early twentieth century and revolt was called the Mahar movement.

Enrich Your Learning:

Mahar Movement:

  • The Mahars were one of the Barah Balutas (12 artisan / servant castes) of Maharashtra. They were an untouchable caste of inferior village servants.
  • The Mahar movement was organized by Gopal Baba Walangkar who in 1894 drafted a petition claiming Kshatriya status and thereby demanding more jobs in the army and the services.
  • The Mahars later formed the backbone of Dr. Ambedkar’s movement.
  • The ideology of the Mahar movement reflects a total rejection of the religion of the caste Hindus, which was identified with hierarchy and inequality.
  • Mahar movement brought the smaller and untouchable castes onto a single platform and also brought a degree of awareness and unity enabling them to:  
  • create a separate political party;
  • a system of education including schools and colleges, hostels; and
  • an effective Buddhist conversion movement.

 

Federal Court of India was established by which act?

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Answer:

The Federal Court of India was established in Delhi by the Government of India Act, 1935.

Enrich Your Learning:

Federal Court of India:

  • The Federal Court of India was to act as an intermediate appellant between the High Courts and the Privy Council in regard to matters involving the interpretation of the Indian constitution.
  • In addition to this appellate jurisdiction, the Federal Court had advisory as well as original jurisdiction in certain other matters.
  • Originally it was empowered to hear appeals from the High Courts of the provinces in the cases which involved the interpretation of any Section of the Government of India Act, 1935.
  • This court continued to function until 26 January 1950, the day the independent India’s constitution came into force.
  • The Supreme Court succeeded the federal court of India established under the Government of India Act of 1935.

The first Famine Commission was constituted under _________. a) Richard Strachey OR b) Neville Chamberlain.

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Answer: Richard Strachey

Enrich Your Learning:

Objective of the Richard Strachey Commission of 1878:

  • It was set up in 1878 under the Chairmanship of Sir Richard Strachey.
  • The commission recommended state interference in food trade in the event of famine.
  • It was created to develop a general strategy and principles to deal with the famines.
  • It was the first Famine commission and was constituted during the period of Lord Lytton.
  • The recommendations included provision of funds for famine relief and construction work in the annual budget.

Where was the all India women’s conference established?

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Answer:

  • It was founded inLahore on 24 September 1884 in a mosque known as Masjid Bakan inside Mochi Gate, Lahore, by Khalifa Hameed-ud-Din.

Enrich Your Learning:

All-India Muslim Ladies Conference (Anjuman-E-Khawatn-E-Islam)

  • It is an Islamicintellectual and social welfare organisation with branches both in India and 
  • It was founded inLahore on 24 September 1884 in a mosque known as Masjid Bakan inside Mochi Gate, Lahore, by Khalifa Hameed-ud-Din.

History and Background:

  • The Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam was a body that representeda spontaneous desire on the part of middle-class Muslims of Lahore to cooperate with each other for common good.
  • One of its major efforts was the foundation of a number of schools for Muslim girlsand orphanages in the Punjab, where girls were taught Urdu, the Qur’an, mathematics, needlework, and crafts.
  • It started a publishing house for appropriate textbooks for Muslim girls’and boys’ schools, and these textbooks were used all over the Punjab and beyond.
  • In 1939, it founded the Islamia College for Women in Lahore, the only one of its kind in the region, whose curriculum was the standard Bachelor of Arts program, supplemented by Islamic education.
  • It also founded Islamia College Lahore in 1892.
  • One of such most prominent schools which gained recognition and was later turned into a full-fledged government-run public high school is the Himayat-ul-Islam High Schoolin Hyderabad, Sindh, which has two distinct sections, the Himayat-ul-Islam Boys and Girls High Schools

Activities:

  • The association is composed of Muslim intellectuals and politicians seeking to reform Muslim societyand work on its development.
  • Some of its most prominent members included the famous poet Sir Muhammad Iqbal, who recited his first poems at the sessions of the Anjuman. 
  • Its purpose is the educational uplift of Muslims of the Indian subcontinent.

 

Queen Victoria’s proclamation was read at Allahabad Durbar on ______. (a) 6 July 1844 OR (b) November 1, 1858?

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Answer:  November 1, 1858

  • The Queen’s Proclamation incorporating the transfer of governance from East India Company to the British Crown was made public at Allahabad, on November 1, 1858by Lord Canning, the first Viceroy of India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Queen Victoria’s Proclamation

  • Queen Victoria’s Proclamation of 1 November 1858declared that thereafter India would be governed by and in the name of the British Monarch through a Secretary of State.
  • It was read at the Durbar by Lord Canning, who was the last Governor Generaland the first Viceroy of India.
  • The purpose of Queen Victoria’s Proclamation was to announce that England was assuming control of its Indian colonies, removing them from the administration of the British East India Company.
  • The important features of the Queen’s Proclamation were as follows:
  • The Act laid downthat henceforth India shall be governed by and in the name of the Queen.
  • It abolished the Board of Control and Court of Directors.The post of a Secretary of State was created. He was to be assisted by a Council of Indians which was to consist of fifteen members.
  • The Doctrine of Lapse was cancelled and the British stopped the policy of annexation.
  • A general amnesty (pardon)was granted to the rebels except those who were directly involved in.
  • The office of theGovernor General was changed to that of Viceroy of India.

 


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