Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-54] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC); Kol Mutiny (1831); Pahariyas’ Rebellion; Kuka Movement; Indian Association; Periyar E.V. Ramasamy; Swadhyay Parivar movement; Adi Movement; Rise of Feudalism; Main aims of the Indian National Congress in the initial stage; Bangabhasa Prakashika Sabha; Result of the Non-Cooperation Movement;
By IASToppers
May 02, 2020

Gandhi’s sudden decision to stop the Non-Cooperation Movement was met with discontent by leaders like Subhash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Result of the Non-Cooperation Movement:

  • The Non-Cooperation movement saw definite success despite its abrupt end. The movement and unified the nation in an unprecedented feat of protest against the Government.
  • In the first few weeks of the movements, around 9 thousand students had left government-backed schools and colleges.
  • About 800 national institutions were established across the country to accommodate students under the leadership of Acharya Narendra Dev, C.R. Das, Zakir Hussain, Lala LajpatRai, and Subhash Bose.
  • Renowned institutions like Jamia Millia at Aligarh, Kashi Vidyapeeth, Gujarat Vidyapeeth and Bihar Vidyapeeth were established during this period.
  • The educational boycott was most successful in Bengal followed by the Punjab. Areas of Bihar, Bombay, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Assam also saw active participation in the programs.
  • The boycott of educational institutes was more successful than the boycott of law courts by the lawyers. Many prominent lawyers like, C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru, M.R. Jayakar, V. Patel, A. Khan, Saifuddin Kitchlew and many others gave up their flourishing law practices, which inspired many more to follow suit.
  • The Congress Volunteer Corpse was declared illegal. By December 1921 more than thirty thousand people were arrested from all over India. Except Mohanlal Karamchand Gandhi, most of the prominent leaders were inside jail.
  • In mid-December, Madan Mohan Malaviya initiated a negotiation with the British but that proved futile. The terms and conditions put forward by the British meant sacrificing the Khilafat leaders, which was unacceptable to Gandhi.
  • Gandhi’s sudden decision to stop the movement was met with discontent by leaders like Subhash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru who openly voiced their disappointments.
  • They argued that the movement which had garnered enough enthusiastic participation from the masses against the British government should have been allowed to continue to reach its culmination.
  • Gandhi sincerely believed that violence like the Cauri Chaura incident marks a deviation from the ideals behind the whole movement which if allowed would take the movement out of control and would be rendered useless against the powerful military strength the British Government would resort to in order to crush it.
  • After the movement was suspended, the Government decided to deal with Gandhi strongly. He was immediately arrested on 10th March, 1922. He was sentenced to six years imprisonment and sent to Yaravada Central Jail at Poona.
  • The Non-Cooperation resolution garnered mixed responses from national leaders. While the likes of Motilal Nehru and Ali Brothers supported Gandhi’s resolution, it received opposition from prominent figures like Annie Besant, Pt. Malaviya and C.R. Das.
  • They feared that large scale mass action against the British government would lead to violence on a wide scale, as occurred during the protest against the Rowlatt Act.

 

What was the objective of the Bangabhasa Prakashika Sabha?

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Answer:

Objectives: to promote Bengali education by means of polemics and build up public opinion.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bangabhasa Prakashika Sabha:

  • Bangabhasa Prakashika Sabha was started by Associates of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1836 in Calcutta.
  • It was launched in 1836 under the leadership of Gourishankar Tarkabagish.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy was one of the first Politically active leader in the modern sense.
  • He started agitations for demands like appointments of Indians to Higher Govt Offices, Freedom of Press, Prevent Zamindari Oppression of Ryots, etc.

Both the politicise and politically educate people were the aims of the Indian National Congress in the initial stage. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Main aims of the Indian National Congress in the initial stage:

  • Found a democratic, nationalist movement;
  • Politicise and politically educate people;
  • Establish the headquarters for a movement;
  • Promote friendly relations among nationalist political workers from different parts of the country;
  • Develop and propagate an anti-colonial nationalist ideology;
  • Formulate and present popular demands before the government with a view to unifying the people over a common economic and political programme;
  • Develop and consolidate a feeling of national unity among people irrespective of religion, caste or province.
  • Carefully promote and nurture indian nationhood.

What were the characteristics of Indian feudalism?

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Answer:

The fundamental features of feudalism in early India were namely king, landed aristocracy, slavery, forced labour, ties of obedience, and fragmentation of the royal authority, etc.

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Rise of Feudalism:

  • One of the most important changes that took place after the decline of the Gupta Empire was the growth of the feudal states.
  • The government officials of the Gupta Empire, local chiefs, defeated rajas and their supporters− who were paid by assigning to them reveneue-yielding villages−reasserted their independence once the Gutna kjngdoin disintegrated.
  • They were able to carve out a sphere of authority with the help of armed support, and later began to not only gradually collecting land revnue.
  • But also, assuming increased amounts of administrative powers, such as the right of awarding punishments and exacting fines on their own which were considered royal privileges during the Gupta period.
  • They constantly contended against each other and tried to enhance their spheres of authority and privileges.

Who organized the All India Trade Union Congress in 1920?

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Answer:

Lala Lajpat Rai

Enrich Your Learning:

All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC):

  • The All India Trade Union Congress was founded on October 31, 1920.
  • The Indian National Congress president for the year, Lala Lajpat Rai, was elected as the first president of AITUC and Dewan Chaman Lal as the first general secretary.
  • The prominent Congress and swarajist leader C.R. Das presided over the third and the fourth sessions of the AITUC.
  • The Gaya session of the Congress (1922) welcomed the formation of the AITUC and a committee was formed to assist it.
  • R. Das advocated that the Congress should take up the workers’ and peasants’ cause and incorporate them in the struggle for swaraj or else they would get isolated from the movement.
  • Other leaders who kept close contacts with the AITUC included Nehru, Subhas Bose, C.F. Andrews, J.M. Sengupta, Satyamurthy, V.V. Giri and Sarojini Naidu.
  • In the beginning, the AITUC was influenced by social democratic ideas of the British Labour Party.
  • The Gandhian philosophy of non-violence, trusteeship and class-collaboration had great influence on the movement.

 

Which movement was absorbed into Ambedkar’s Scheduled Caste Federation, which by the 1940s was providing an all-India umbrella to such dalits movements?

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Answer: Adi Movement.

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Adi Movement:

  • There was a rise of dalit movements in various parts of the India in 1920s.
  • The Montagu Chelmsford reforms and massive economic and political upheavals of the post- World War I period, provided the background for most of their organisations.
  • Their common theme was adi, or a definition of themselves as the original inhabitants of the country, a claim that their own inherenttraditions were those of equality and unity, and a total rejection of castes as the imposition of the conquering Aryans who used this to subjugate and divide the natives.
  • The most important were the Adi Dravida movement in Tamil Nadu of these; the Adi Andhra movement in Andhra, Adi Karnataka movement; the organization of Purayas and Cherumans in Kerala; and the Adi Hindu movement, mainly centred around Kanpur in U.P.
  • In Punjab, the Adi Dharma movement claimed that untouchables formed a distinct religious community like Hindus, Muslims or Sikhs and that this had existed even before the arrival of the Hindus.

Who among the following established the Swadhyay Movement and the Swadhyay Parivar organization? a) Satsvarupa dasa Goswami OR b) Pandurang Shastri Athavale

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Answer: Pandurang Shastri Athavale

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Swadhyay Parivar movement:

  • The Swadhyaya Movement or Swadhyaya Parivara is a new religious movement that started in mid-20th-century in the western states of India, particularly Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  • Founded by Pandurang Shastri Athavale (1920-2003), the movement emphasizes self-study (swadhyaya), selfless devotion (bhakti) and application of Hindu scriptures such as the Upanishads and Bhagavad gita for spiritual, social and economic liberation.
  • The movement focuses on the Upanishadic mahāvākyas (great teachings) related with Hindu belief that god is within oneself.

 

Who is known as the father of the Dravidian Movement?

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Answer: Periyar Erode Venkatappa Ramasamy

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Periyar E.V. Ramasamy:

  • He is remembered for the Self Respect Movement to redeem the identity and self-respect of Tamils. He was born in 1879.
  • He quarreled with Gandhi over the question of separate dining for Brahmin and non-Brahmin students.
  • He resigned from the congress party in 1925, and associated himself with the Justice Party and the Self Respect Movement, which opposed the dominance of Brahmins in social life.
  • Periyar participated in the Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924, a mass movement to demand that lower caste persons be given the right to use a public path in front of the famous Vaikom temple. Then, he referred to as Vaikom Veerar (Hero of Vaikom).
  • Periyar launched a political party in 1940s, Dravidar Kazhagam (DK), which adopted an independent Dravida Nadu comprising Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, and Kannada speakers.
  • Periyar is revered as Thanthai Periyar, the father figure of modern Tamil Nadu. 

Who founded the Indian Association?

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Answer: Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose.

  • The Indian National Associationalso known as Indian Association was the first avowed nationalist organization founded in British India by Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose in  

Enrich Your Learning:

Indian Association

  • The Indian National Associationalso known as Indian Association was the first avowed nationalist organization founded in British India by Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose in  
  • The objectives of this Association were “promoting by every legitimate means the political, intellectual and material advancement of the people”.
  • This organisation was later merged with the Indian National Congress.
  • The Association started its programme with a number of objects:
  • The creation of a strong body of public opinion in the country;
  • The unity of the Indian races and peoples on the basis of common political interest and aspirations
  • The promotion of friendly feeling between Hindus and Muslims and
  • The inclusion of the masses in the great public movement of the time.

Background:

  • Prior to the Indian Association, Sisir Kumar Ghosh along with Sambhu Charan Mukherjee founded ‘The India League’in Calcutta on 25 September 1875.
  • The nationalist leaders like Ananda Mohan Bose, Durgamohan Das, Nabagopal Mitra, Surendranath Banerjeeand others were associated with this organisation.
  • The League representedthe middle class and worked to stimulate the sense of nationalism among the people and to encourage political education.
  • But soonthe League foundered and shortly afterwards Surendranath Banerjee founded the Indian Association along with his friend Ananda Mohan Bose on 26 September 1876.

 

In context of Civil Rebellions and Tribal Uprisings in India against British Rule, which movement was founded in 1831: (a) Kol Mutiny OR (b) Pahariyas’ Rebellion OR (c) Kuka Movement?

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Answer: Kol Mutiny

  • Kol Mutiny: 1831
  • Pahariyas’ Rebellion: 1778
  • Kuka Movement: 1840

Enrich Your Learning:

Kol Mutiny (1831)

  • The Kol uprisingKol rebellion, also known in British Indian records as the Kol mutinywas a revolt of the indigenous Kol people of Chhota Nagpur during 1831 as a reaction to unfair treatment brought on by the systems of land tenure and administration that had been introduced by British powers in the area.
  • The Kol people were joined by other communities including the Mundas, Oraons, Hos leading to some authors also calling it the Munda uprising.
  • This covered Ranchi,Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Palmar and the western parts of Manbhum. 
  • The trouble started with large-scale transfers of land from Kol headmen (Mundas) to outsiders like Sikh and Muslim farmers.
  • The Kols of Chhotanagpur resented this and in 1831, the Kol rebels killedor burnt about a thousand outsiders.
  • Only after large-scale military operations could order is restored.

Pahariyas’ Rebellion

  • 1778:Revolt of the Pahariyas Sardar of Chota Nagpur against the British Government.
  • The Pahariyas were a martial tribe of Rajmahal hills.
  • They waged a long struggle against the Britishto resist the encroachment. 
  • The British realised the limitations of the use of force and adopted a policy of peace with them. Augustus,who took over as Collector of Rajmahal Hills, in 1778, had shown unusual love towards the Pahariyas and worked out a workable plan.
  • By using his good offices with Wanen Hastings,Mr. Cleveland managed to place the entire range of hills inhabited by Pahariyas under a uniform administration of a hill assembly.
  • To prevent the grabbing of land by Zamindars, Mahajans and others Cleveland formed lands heki by the Pahariyas in to government estate.
  • Under this system the land was held direct from the government and free of rent. This special treatment extended to Pahariyas was known as Damin-i-Koh.
  • Damin-I-Koh was made a non-regulation area.
  • This was the first experimentin providing a simple administration to the tribals and may be regarded as the precursor and the prototype of the non-regulation areas which were subsequently carved out as the Scheduled Districts, the Backward Tracts and Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas.

Kuka Movement

  • The Kuka Movement was founded in 1840 by Bhagat Jawahar Mai (also called Sian Saheb) in western Punjab.After the British took the Punjab, the movement transformed from a religious purification campaign to a political one.
  • Sian Saheband his disciple, Balak Singh, gathered around them a band of followers and fixed their headquarters at Hazro in NWFP.
  • Its basic tenets were abolition of casteand similar discriminations among Sikhs, discouraging the eating of meat and taking of alcohol and drugs, and encouraging women to step out of seclusion.
  • In 1872,one of their leaders, Ram Singh, was deported to Rangoon.
  • Weaknesses of These Uprisings:
  • These uprisings were massive in totality but were, in fact, localised and isolated.
  • They were the result mostly of local grievances.
  • The leadership was semi-feudal in character, backward- looking, traditional in outlook and their resistance represented no societal alternative.
  • These rebellions were centuries old in form and ideological-cultural content.
  • The less recalcitrant of these were pacified through concessions by the authorities.
  • On the whole, however, these rebellions were able to establish valuable traditions of local resistance to authoritarianism.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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