Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-55] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

‘Golden Triangle’ of South-East Asia; Corruption Perception Index (CPI); Techno Economic Approach for Africa–India Movement (TEAM–9); Hope Spots; Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019; Silk Mark; All India Tiger Estimation 2018 Report; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); Nuakhai; Wangala; Global Carbon Project;
By IASToppers
May 03, 2020

What is the Global Carbon Project?

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Answer:

Global Carbon Project is a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research Programme to quantify global greenhouse gas emissions and their causes.

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Carbon Project:

  • The Global Carbon Project was established in 2001by a shared partnership between the International Geosphee-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Ernvironmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas.
  • It is a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research Programme.
  • The GCP approach is to focus comprehensively on the global biogeochemical cycles which govern the main greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), their natural and human drivers, and opportunities for low carbon pathways.
  • To develop a small number of new research initiatives that are feasible within a 3-5-year time framework on difficult and highly interdisciplinary problems of the carbon cycle.

The Goals are:

  • The scientific goal of the Global Carbon Project is to develop a complete picture of the global carbon cycle, including both its biophysical and human dimensions together with the interactions and feedbacks between them. This will be:
  • Patterns and Variability
  • Processes and Interactions
  • Carbon Management

The two harvesting festivals namely Nuakhai and Wangala are celebrated in which states?

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Answer:

Nuakhai is the festival to celebrate newly harvested food celebrated in Odisha while Wangala is the festival of the Garo tribe, Meghalaya at end of the harvesting season.

Enrich Your Learning:

Nuakhai

  • Nuakhai is one of the most ancient festivals celebrated in Odisha to welcome the new crop of the season. People worship food grain on this auspicious day.
  • Nuakhai is a combination of two words, ‘nua’ meaning new and ‘khai’ means eat, it thus signifies “eating of new rice”.
  • The festival of nuakhai is a festival to celebrate newly harvested food by the farmers. One day after the celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi it is celebrated especially in the Western part of Odisha.
  • Nuakhai is also called Nuakhai Parab or Nuakahi Bhetghatand is a greeting exchanged on the special day. They eat delicious foods prepared from the newly harvested crops.
  • Nuakhai is understood to have nine coloursand as a consequence, nine sets of rituals are followed as a prelude to the actual day of celebration starting from Behrana to Nuakhai and all culminating in Juhar Bhet.

Wangala

  • Wangala is the most significant festival of the Garo tribe, the second-largest tribe in Meghalaya.
  • Wangala is also known as the Hundred Drums Festival.
  • The festival lasts several days and takes place in the second week of Novemberafter the harvest is finished.
  • In keeping with the other Garo festivals, it is an agricultural festival, a thanksgiving ceremony to Misi Saljong, also known as Pattigipa Ra’rongipa (The great Giver) for having blessed the human beings with a rich harvest of the season.
  • The festival signifies the beginning of winter, which also means the end of the harvesting season and labour in the fields.
  • In the Wangala dance, one performer—the nokma acts as the priest. The men of the Garo tribe play the horn and lok drums, and the women make formations around the nokma in honour of the Misi-Saljong.

 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is headquartered at?

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Answer: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is headquartered at Paris, France.

Enrich Your Learning:

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD):

  • OECD is an intergovernmental economic organisation with of 36-member countries.
  • It was established on Dec. 14, 1960, by 18 European nations plus the United States and Canada.

Headquarters: Paris, France

Objectives:

  • Restore confidence in marketsand the institutions that make them function.
  • Re-establish healthy public finances as a basis for future sustainable economic growth.
  • Foster and support new sources of growth through innovation, environmentally friendly ‘green growth’ strategiesand the development of emerging economies.
  • Ensure that people of all ages can develop the skills to work productively and satisfyingly in the jobs of tomorrow.
  • To recommend policies designed to improve the quality of people’s lives.

Significance:

  • It discusses and develops economic and social policy.
  • The OECD provides a forum in which governments can work together to share experiences and seek solutions to common problems.
  • It has expanded to include members from South America and the Asia-Pacific region.
  • It includes most of the highly developed economies.
  • its members are democratic countries that support free market economies.
  • It aims to foster economic development and cooperation; fighting poverty; and ensuring the environmental impact of growth and social development is always considered.

Functions:

  • It analyses and reports on the impact of social policy issuessuch as gender discrimination on economic growth and makes policy recommendations designed to foster growth with sensitivity to environmental issues.
  • The organization also seeks to eliminate bribery and other financial crime worldwide.
  • The OECD publishes economic reports, statistical databases, analyses and forecasts on the outlook for economic growth worldwide.
  • To maintain a so-called “black list” of nationsthat are considered uncooperative tax havens.

 

As per the All India Tiger Estimation 2018 Report, Karnataka has the highest number of tigers in India. True OR False.

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Answer: False.

Correct Statements: Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

All India Tiger Estimation 2018 Report:

  • The report states that India achieved its target of doubling the tiger population four years early ahead of 2022.
  • India has more than 2900 tigers, which has been the result of a growth of 33 per cent in the fourth cycle of the Tiger Census.
  • India ishome to almost 75 per cent of the global tiger

Key findings about States:

  • Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers(526), followed by Karnataka (524) and Uttarakhand (442).
  • Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Mizoram and Telangana have recorded adecline in their tiger populations.

Status of Tiger reserve:

  • Pench Tiger Reserve(Madhya Pradesh) recorded the highest number of tigers.
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve(Tamil Nadu) registered the maximum improvement since 2014.
  • Extirpation of tigers in three reserves andno tiger was recorded in Buxa (West Bengal), Dampa (Mizoram) and Palamu (Jharkhand) tiger reserves.

Continuing loss of tiger-occupied areas:

  • The decline tiger landscapes:
  • The Shivalik
  • Western Ghats
  • North East
  • Increase tiger landscape:
  • Central India
  • Sundarbans landscapes

Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris):

  • IUCN Red List: Endangered
  • Largest populations in Indiaand some smaller groups of tigers in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan.
  • Habitats: tropical rainforests, marshes, and tall grasses.

 

 

Who manages the Silk Mark certification given to the silk textiles in India?

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Answer:

The certification is managed by the ‘Silk Mark Organisation of India’, a society set up by the state-controlled Central Silk Board of India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Silk Mark

  • Silk Mark is a certification mark in India for silk textiles.
  • The mark certifies that the piece of textile which bears the mark is made of pure natural silk.
  • The mark is only advisory in natureand is not legally endorsed.
  • The certification scheme was founded by the Central Silk Board in 2004.
  • In the original format, the mark included a silk mark logo woven on a hang-on tag on which a unique numbered hologram would be affixed. But the hang-on tag tended to be faked (reused) hence, a new method with the mark woven onto the textile itselfhas been proposed.
  • The certification scheme assures the consumer a facility for free testing of the marked product in Silk Mark Chapters (accredited labs) in case of doubt.

 

Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 contains which main provision?

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Answer: The J&K Reorganisation Act, which contains provisions to divide the state into two Union Territories came into effect from October 31, 2019.

Enrich Your Learning:

Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019

  • On August 5, 2019, Indian government took a historic decision by scrapping special status to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370.
  • The J&K Reorganisation Act, which contains provisions to divide the state into two Union Territories, comes into effect from October 31, 2019.

 

Salient Features of the Act:

Reorganisation of Jammu and Kashmir:

  • The Act reorganises the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) into:
  • the Union Territory (UT) of J&K with a legislature,
  • the UT without a legislature. The UT of Ladakh will comprise Kargil and Leh districts, and the UT of J&K will comprise the remaining territories of the existing state of J&K. 
  • The UT of J&K will have a legislature like Puducherry and will be headed by a Lieutenant Governor.
  • Ladakh will not have an Assembly and will be directly governed by the Union Home Ministry through the Lieutenant Governor (LG) like in case of Chandigarh.
  • The Indian Constitution and the Indian laws would be applicable in the UTs.

Legislative Assembly:

  • The act provides for a Legislative Assembly for the UT of J&K
  • The total number of seats in the Assembly will be 107
  • Of these, 24 seats will remain vacant on account of certain areas of J&K being under the occupation of Pakistan.
  • Further, seats will be reserved in the Assembly for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population in the UT of J&K
  • The Assembly will have a term of five years, and the Lieutenant Governor(LG) must summon the Assembly at least once in six months.
  • The Legislative Assembly may make laws for any part of the UT of J&K related to:
  • any matters specified in the State List of the Constitution, except “Police” and “Public Order”,
  • any matter in the Concurrent List applicable to UTs.

 

Council of Ministers:

  • The UT of J&K will have a Council of Ministers of not more than 10% of the total number of members in the Assembly. The Council will aide and advise the LG on matters that the Assembly has powers to make laws.  The Chief Minister will communicate all decisions of the Council to the LG.        

High Court:

  • The High Court of J&K will be the common High Court for the two UTS.Further, the UT of J&K will have an Advocate General to provide legal advice to the government of the UT.
      

Legislative Council:

  • The Legislative Council of the state of J&Kwill be abolished and all acts pending in the Council will lapse. 

Extent of laws:

  • The Schedule lists 106 central lawsthat will be made applicable to the two UTs on a date notified by the central government.
  • These include the Aadhaar Act, 2016, the Indian Penal Code, 1860, and the Right to Education Act, 2009
  • Further, it repeals 153 state laws of J&K
  • In addition, 166 state laws will remain in force, and seven laws will be applicable with amendments.
  • These amendments include lifting of prohibitions on lease of land to persons who are not permanent residents of J&K.

 

Which Indian island/islands have been named as hope spots by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)?

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Answer:

In 2015, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep islands have been named as the new “hope spots” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Mission Blue.

Enrich Your Learning:

Hope Spots:

  • Hope Spots are special places that are critical to the health of the ocean– Earth’s blue heart. Hope Spots are about recognizing, empowering and supporting individuals and communities around the world in their efforts to protect the ocean.
  • Sylvia Earle(founder of Mission Blue, a non-profit organization) introduced the concept of Hope Spot in 2009.
  • Hope Spots can be Marine Protected Areas(MPA) that need attention or new sites. They are chosen for their contributions to biodiversity, the carbon sink, and important habitat.
  • There are 76 Hope Spots worldwide 

Hope Spots provide hope due to:

  • A special abundance or diversity of species, unusual or representative species, habitats or ecosystems
  • Particular populations of rare, threatened or endemic species
  • A site with potential to reverse damage from negative human impacts
  • The presence of natural processes such as major migration corridors or spawning grounds
  • Significant historical, cultural or spiritual values
  • Particular economic importance to the community
  • About 12 per cent of land around the world is under some form of protection(as national parks, world heritage sites, monuments) while less than one per cent of the oceans is protected.

 

Which are the eight west African countries with which India recently launched Techno Economic Approach for Africa–India Movement (TEAM–9)?

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Answer:

  • Techno Economic Approach for Africa–India Movement (TEAM–9) is recently launched for special co-operation amongst the eight West African Countries, viz, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote DIvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Senegal with India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Techno Economic Approach for Africa–India Movement (TEAM–9)

  • Africa, particularly West Africa, has remained a relatively neglected area in India’s foreign policy.
  • It might be due to fewer People of Indian Origin (PIO) in the region compared to eastern and southern Africa, or due the language barrier.
  • A recent initiative, the Techno-Economic Approach for Africa-India Movement or Team 9 is a welcome move to extend relations with West African Countries.
  • Team 9 envisages special co-operation amongst the eight West African Countries, viz, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote DIvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Senegal, and India.
  • The first ministerial meeting of Team 9 countries held in New Delhi. The meeting ended with the agreement to identify and implement priority projects and corporate schemes.
  • A highlight of the Team 9 initiative is that while the government will play the role of facilitator, a major role for the private sector is also envisaged.

 

 

Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is released by which international organization?

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Answer:

  • Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is published by Transparency International.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is the Corruption Perception Index (CPI)?

  • Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is published by Transparency International.
  • The index ranks 180 countriesand territories by their perceived levels of public sector corruption according to experts and businesspeople.
  • Corruption Perceptions Index was originally launched in 1995, uses expert assessments and opinion surveys to determine how corrupt a country is.
  • It uses a scale of 0 to 100, where 0 is highly corrupt and 100 is very clean.
  • The latest report released was in February, 2018. India rose by three points to 78in the list of 180 countries in the world, while China ranked 87 and Pakistan 117 in 2018.
  • More than two-thirds of countries score below 50on 2018’s CPI, with an average score of just 43.

Least corrupt countries as per the latest report:

  1. Denmark
  2. New Zealand
  3. Finland, Singapore, Sweden and Switzerland

Most corrupt countries according to report:

  1. Somalia
  2. South Sudan
  3. Syria
  4. Afghanistan and Yemen

 

What is the name of a place which is located at the border of three countries and known for ‘Illicit Poppy cultivation’?

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Solution:

The Golden Triangle is located at the border of three countries and known for ‘Illicit Poppy cultivation.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Golden Triangle’ of South-East Asia

  • The Golden Triangle is an area covering 367,000 square miles in Southeast Asiawhere a significant portion of the world’s opium has been produced.
  • This area is centred around the meeting point of the borders that separate Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand.
  • The Golden Triangle’s mountainous terrain and distance from major urban centres make it an ideal location for illicit poppy cultivationand transnational opium smuggling.
  • The Golden Triangle was the world’s largest producer of opium and heroin till the end of 20th
  • In the late 1990s, drug-control programs headed by the United Nations and by individual governments contributed to a reduction in opium poppy cultivation in the Golden Triangle.
  • However, the region subsequently became a major producer of other illicit substances, including methamphetamines.


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