Flash Cards

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-56] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Blockchain technology; Colombo Declaration; Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary; Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary; KHON Ramlila; C40 Clean Air Cities Declaration; Renewable Energy Management Centres (REMCs); Defence Acquisition Council (DAC); Quantum supremacy; India Justice Report (IJR); National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL);
By IASToppers
May 04, 2020

 

 

 

National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL) works under which ministry: (a) Ministry of Culture OR (b) Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD)?

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Answer:

  • National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL) works under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD).

Enrich Your Learning:

National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL):

  • It was set up in 1996 to promote, develop and propagate Urdu language.
  • It is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD), Department of Secondary and Higher Education.
  • It is the principal coordinating and monitoring authority for promotion of Urdu language and Urdu education in India.

Functions:

  • To undertake the production of literature in the Urdu language
  • To collect and evolve technical terms relating to various disciplines of knowledge in order to enrich the Urdu language.
  • To undertake and provide for publication, sale and exhibition of journals.
  • To help in development of computerization with a view to develop the Urdu language to meet the advanced technological requirements of the age.
  • To formulate/implement schemes for the teaching of the Urdu language through the mediums of English and Hindi and other Modern Indian Languages
  • To provide financial assistance to Non-Government Organizations for propagation of the Urdu language.

 

 

 

As per the India Justice Report 2019, which Indian state tops in India in delivering justice?

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Answer:

  • Maharashtra

Enrich Your Learning:

India Justice Report (IJR):

  • India Justice Report (IJR) 2019 is an initiative of Tata Trusts in collaboration with Centre for Social Justice, Common Cause, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, DAKSH, TISS- Prayas and Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy.

The report has divided states on the basis of the population into two parts:

  1. i) The large-medium states (Population 1 crore and above) and ii) the small states and Union Territories (Population less than 1 crore)

Its assed Indian states and UTs across four key pillars:

  • Police
  • Judiciary
  • Prisons
  • Legal aid

Highlights of the India Justice Report 

Top 5 large-medium States

  1. Maharashtra
  2. Kerala
  3. Tami Nadu
  4. Punjab
  5. Haryana

Bottommost states: Jharkhand (16th), Bihar (17th) and Uttar Pradesh (18th last)

Top 3 small states

  1. Goa
  2. Sikkim
  3. Himachal Pradesh

Issues in Indian judiciary

Police force training

  • Over the last five years, only 6.4% of the police force have been provided in-service training. That means that over 90% deal with the public without any upto-date training.

Women

  • Women are poorly represented across the Justice system. They account for 7 per cent of the Police (2017), 10 per cent of prison staff (2016) and about 26.5 per cent of all judges in high courts and subordinate courts (2017-18).

Diversity in police staff

  • Representation of SCs, STs, OBCs and women in the police is poor, with huge vacancies in the reserved positions. Only two states have met the 80% of SC/ST/OBC reservation required to be followed.

Pending court cases

  • There are 28 million cases pending in Indian subordinate courts and 25% have been pending for more than 5 years.

Undertrial prisoners

  • In 2016, 67.7% of India’s prison population were undertrial prisoners. This percentage is higher than what it was a decade ago, 66%.

Vacancies

  • The police have a vacancy of 23% (2017), and the judiciary between 20%-40% across the high courts and lower judiciary. Only Sikkim’s High Court has judge vacancy of below 20 per cent. 

Budgets

  • Most States are not able to fully utilise the funds given to them by the Centre. Punjab was the only large state whose police, prison and judiciary expenditures were able to increase at a pace higher than the increase in overall state expenditure (FY 2012-2016).
  • Punjab was the only large state whose police, prison and judiciary expenditures were able to increase at a pace higher than the increase in overall state expenditure (FY 2012-2016).
  • The per capita expenditureon legal aid is just 75 paise.

Prisons

  • Prisons are over-occupied at 114%, where 68% are undertrials awaiting investigation, inquiry or trial.

 

 

 

What do you understand by the term ‘Quantum supremacy’ and what are its applications?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Quantum supremacy:

  • Quantum supremacy describes the point where quantum computers can do things that classical computers cannot.
  • This term was proposed in 2012 by John Preskill, professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology.

What is Quantum Computer?

  • Quantum computer runs on the laws of quantum physicsas opposed to the classical computers (i.e. phones and laptops), which run on classical physics like Newton’s laws of motion and utilising the flow of electricity.
  • A quantum computer uses the laws that govern the behaviour of atoms and subatomic particles. At that tiny scale, many laws of classical physics do not apply, and the unique laws of quantum physics come into play.
  • The quantum computer was posited by Richard Feynmanfor modelling quantum systems.

Applications:

  • Use in labs for modelling systems, under extreme conditions, like in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
  • Data mining and artificial intelligence
  • Sciences which deal in volumes of data
  • Optimization, planning, and logistics
  • Forecasting
  • Financial modelling and Molecular modelling
  • Genomics, Drug design and discovery
  • Cybersecurity and cryptography

Why in news?

  • Recently, Google announced that it had reached quantum supremacy. Google’s quantum computer, called Sycamore which is a 54-qubit processor, solved a particularly difficult problem in 200 seconds.

 

 

 

The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) of Government of India is headed by: (a) Prime Minister OR (b) Home Minister OR (c) Defence Minister OR (d) Chief of Defence Staff?

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Answer:

  • Defence Minister

Enrich Your Learning:

Defence Acquisition Council (DAC):

  • To counter corruption and speed up decision- making in military procurement, the government of India in 2001 decided to set up an integrated DAC.
  • It is headed by the Defence Minister.
  • The DAC is responsible to give policy guidelines to acquisitions, based on long-term procurement plans.
  • It also clears all acquisitions, which includes both imported and those produced indigenously or under a foreign license.

Objective of DAC:

  • The objective of the Defence Acquisition Council is to ensure expeditious procurement of the approved requirements of the Armed Forces in terms of capabilities sought, and time frame prescribed, by optimally utilizing the allocated budgetary resources.

Functions of the DAC include:

  • In-principle approval of 15 Year Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan for Defence Forces;
  • accord of Acceptance of Necessity to acquisition proposals;
  • categorization of the acquisition proposals relating to ‘Buy’, ‘Buy & Make’ and ‘Make’;
  • issues relating to Single vendor clearance;
  • decision regarding ‘offset’ provisions in respect of acquisition proposals above Rs. 300 crores;
  • decisions regarding Transfer of Technology under ‘Buy & Make’ category of acquisition proposals; and
  • Field Trial evaluation.

 

 

 

Is the information shared in block chain mutable or immutable?

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Answer:

  • The information shared in block chain is immutable.

Enrich Your Learning:

Blockchain technology:

  • Blockchain is a sort of distributed ledger or decentralized database that keeps records of digital transactions.
  • Blockchain technology was first developed in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto.
  • Since its inception, it has been used as the basis for several cryptocurrencies from around the world, including Bitcoin and Bitshares.
  • Once a transaction is entered in the blockchain, it cannot be erased or modified.
  • Blockchain removes the need for using a trusted third party such as a bank to make a transaction by directly connecting the customers and suppliers.
  • Each transaction is recorded to the ledger after verification by the network participants, mainly a chain of computers, called nodes.

Advantages of blockchain technology:

  • A blockchain is anonymous, protecting the identities of the users. This makes blockchain a more secure way to carry out transactions.
  • The algorithm used in blockchain reduces the dependence on people to verify the transactions.
  • Blockchains, like Bitcoin and Ethereum, have not yet been hacked. They are considered to be very secure.
  • It is very challenging, almost impossible, to change any transaction information once it is validated and becomes part of a block.
  • Bitcoin is commonly referred to as digital gold. Referring to bitcoin as insecure or unsafe is like calling gold insecure or unsafe.

Disadvantages of blockchain technology:

  • Blockchain is still relatively a new technology. There are ongoing concerns about privacy in the settlement and storage of securities – blockchain providers are working hard to address.
  • Banks are also at threat with blockchain, since more and more firms (using their IT service providers from India and elsewhere) will build systems that can create and exchange ‘blocks’ with one another completely legally, without ever having to use the banks as a financial intermediary.

 

 

 

Renewable Energy Management Centres (REMCs) are being managed by National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Wrong.

Correct Statement:

  • REMCs are being managed by Power System Operation Corporation of India Ltd. (POSOCO).

Enrich Your Learning:

Renewable Energy Management Centres (REMCs):

  • As part of India’s Green Energy Corridor scheme, the Ministry of Power has set up a host of REMCs across the country to help integrate renewables as their penetration increases.
  • REMCs separated into the Southern, Western and Northern regions across the seven major resource rich states and various projects of the Green Energy Corridor scheme.
  • The REMCs’ functions include:
  • Forecast renewable energy generation at state and regional levels
  • Schedule renewable generation with real time tracking and SCADA systems
  • Coordinate with the relevant load dispatch center.
  • India with eleven dedicated REMCs is among a league of few nations, which have state-of-the-art management centres for renewable energy integration.
  • REMCs are co-located with the State Load Dispatch Centers (SLDCs) in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat & Rajasthan and in RLDCs at Bengaluru, Mumbai and New Delhi and at the NLDC.
  • Presently, 55 GW of Renewable Energy(Solar and Wind) is being monitored through the eleven REMCs. 
  • Government of India had approved the implementation of the REMCs as a Central Schemeand had mandated POWERGRID, a Maharatna CPSE under Ministry of Power as Implementing Agency.
  • These REMCs are being managed by Power System Operation Corporation of India Ltd. (POSOCO)at Regional and National level and at State level by State Load Despatch Centres (SLDCs).

Necessity:

  • The Government of India’s target of 175 GW RE Capacity by 2022 driving accelerated RE penetration poses challenges to the grid management due to intermittent and variable nature of RE generation.
  • The renewable energy management centres are equipped with Artificial Intelligencebased RE forecasting and scheduling tools and provide greater visualization and enhanced situational awareness to the grid operators.

 

 

 

Which Indian cities are part of the C40 Clean Air Cities?

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Answer:

Cities of India in C40:

  • Delhi NCT
  • Jaipur
  • Chennai
  • Bengaluru
  • Kolkata

Enrich Your Learning:

C40 Clean Air Cities Declaration:

  • Mayors from around the world signed the C40 Clean Air Cities Declaration and commit to a shared vision of meeting World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines by 2030.
  • This declaration was unveiled at the C40 World Mayors Summit in Copenhagen.
  • Through this, mayors commit to using their power and influence to reduce air pollution and work towards meeting the World Health Organization’s Air Quality Guidelines.

Signatories of the declaration pledge to:

  • Set ambitious pollution reduction targets within two years that meet or exceed national commitments
  • Implement substantive clean air policies by 2025 that address the unique causes of pollution in their cities
  • Publicly report progress on achieving these goals

Expected outcomes:

  • If the 35 signatories reduce annual average PM2.5 levels to WHO guidelines (10 ug/m3) it could avoid 40,000 deaths each year.
  • C40 research shows that if all C40 cities cleaned their transport, buildings and industry this would reduce GHG emissions by 87%, PM2.5 by nearly 50% and would avoid over 220,000 premature deaths per year.

 

 

 

Is KHON Ramlila included in UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage?

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Answer:

Yes. KHON Ramlila of Thailand is included in the list of UNESCO’s Intangible cultural heritage.

Enrich Your Learning:

KHON Ramlila:

  • KHON (Thai word) Ramlila is a masked form of Ramlila art of Thailand.
  • It is a form of masked dance depicting the scenes of Ramlila.
  • It has no dialogues and background voices narrate the whole story of Ramayana.
  • KHON Ramlila’s performance is also a visual delight famous for its beautiful attire and golden masks.

 

 

 

The Wildlife Sanctuaries named Sri Lankamalleswara and Kamlang are located in which Indian states respectively?

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Answer:

  • Andhra Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh

Enrich Your Learning:

Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • It is located in Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is the only habitat in the world which provides home for the Jerdon’s courser (nocturnal bird), a highly endangered bird species that found locally in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It has dry deciduous mixed thorn forests with deep gorges and steep slopes. Red Sanders, an endemic species, can be found here.
  • Its fauna includes the panther, sloth bear, cheetal, sambar, chowsingha, chinkara, nilgai, wild boar, fox and the Jerdon’s courser.

Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • It is situated in the South-Eastern part of Lohit District of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The name comes from the River Kamlang, which flows through the Sanctuary and joins Brahmaputra.
  • he Mishmi, Digaru, and Mizo tribal people who reside around the periphery of the sanctuary claim their descent from the King Rukmo of the epic Mahabharata.
  • It lies in between Lang River on the North side and famous Namdapha National Park on its south.
  • An important body of water in the sanctuary is the Glow Lake.
  • Located in tropical and sub-tropical climatic zones, the sanctuary is the habitat of the four big cat species of India: tiger, leopard, clouded leopard and snow leopard.

 

 

The member states of the United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP) recently adopted the “Colombo Declaration”. What is the aim of the declaration?

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Answer:

  • Aim: to halve the nitrogen waste by 2030.

Enrich Your Learning:

Colombo Declaration:

  • The Colombo Declaration was developed with the support of the International Nitrogen Management System (INMS), a joint activity of the UN Environment Programme and the ‘International Nitrogen Initiative’ supported by the Global Environment Facility.
  • As part of the Declaration, environment ministers and officials endorsed UN plans for a campaign on sustainable nitrogen management called ‘Nitrogen for Life’.
  • The Declaration calls upon UN agencies, other international organizations, development partners, philanthropic agencies, academic and civil society organizations to support its implementation.
  • It also urges countries to conduct a comprehensive assessment on nitrogen cycling covering policy, implementation, regulation, and scientific aspects at a national level plus sensitize the citizens to understand the natural nitrogen cycle and how human impacts alter its balance.
Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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