Enrich Your Learning:
India Justice Report (IJR):
- India Justice Report (IJR) 2019 is an initiative of Tata Trusts in collaboration with Centre for Social Justice, Common Cause, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, DAKSH, TISS- Prayas and Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy.
The report has divided states on the basis of the population into two parts:
- i) The large-medium states (Population 1 crore and above) and ii) the small states and Union Territories (Population less than 1 crore)
Its assed Indian states and UTs across four key pillars:
- Legal aid
Highlights of the India Justice Report
Top 5 large-medium States
- Tami Nadu
Bottommost states: Jharkhand (16th), Bihar (17th) and Uttar Pradesh (18th last)
Top 3 small states
- Himachal Pradesh
Issues in Indian judiciary
Police force training
- Over the last five years, only 6.4% of the police force have been provided in-service training. That means that over 90% deal with the public without any upto-date training.
- Women are poorly represented across the Justice system. They account for 7 per cent of the Police (2017), 10 per cent of prison staff (2016) and about 26.5 per cent of all judges in high courts and subordinate courts (2017-18).
Diversity in police staff
- Representation of SCs, STs, OBCs and women in the police is poor, with huge vacancies in the reserved positions. Only two states have met the 80% of SC/ST/OBC reservation required to be followed.
Pending court cases
- There are 28 million cases pending in Indian subordinate courts and 25% have been pending for more than 5 years.
- In 2016, 67.7% of India’s prison population were undertrial prisoners. This percentage is higher than what it was a decade ago, 66%.
- The police have a vacancy of 23% (2017), and the judiciary between 20%-40% across the high courts and lower judiciary. Only Sikkim’s High Court has judge vacancy of below 20 per cent.
- Most States are not able to fully utilise the funds given to them by the Centre. Punjab was the only large state whose police, prison and judiciary expenditures were able to increase at a pace higher than the increase in overall state expenditure (FY 2012-2016).
- Punjab was the only large state whose police, prison and judiciary expenditures were able to increase at a pace higher than the increase in overall state expenditure (FY 2012-2016).
- The per capita expenditureon legal aid is just 75 paise.
- Prisons are over-occupied at 114%, where 68% are undertrials awaiting investigation, inquiry or trial.