Flash Cards

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-56] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Bal Gangadhar Tilak; Transfer of a judge; OBC reservation; Grounds of removal for a Supreme Court judge; Madras Session 1927; Cheraw Dance (known as bamboo dance); India’s GDP per capita; Balance of Payments; ‘Kani tribe’; Production of Natural Rubber (NR);
By IASToppers
May 04, 2020

 

 

 

Which Indian State has the highest production of Natural Rubber?

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Answer:

Karnataka

Enrich Your Learning:

State-wise production of Natural Rubber:

  • Kerala became the highest NR producing state this year. It consecutively producing highest NR since three years.
  • Although Kerala produced less amount of NR as compare to last two years.
  • Amongst the total North East production of NR, Tripura topped the list.
  • From the rest NR producing states, Karnataka is the highest producer. Maharashtra ranked second.
  • A&N Islands produced the least amount, however, there is an increase in the produce compare to its past two year’s production.
  • In state category, West Bengal produced the least
  • In traditional production of NR, Kerala and Tamil Nadu are included.
  • While total Non-Traditional production is less than half the amount of traditional production.

Production of Natural Rubber (NR):

  • The prices of Natural Rubber have been at relatively at low levels during the past few years in domestic and international markets.
  • The Natural Rubber prices are determined by market forces like:
    • Trends in economic growth in major consuming countries
    • Oil/synthetic rubber prices
    • Weather conditions
    • Developments in future markets
  • The Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) has imposed port restriction on the import of Natural Rubber by restricting the port of entry to Chennai and NhavaSheva (Jawaharlal Nehru Port) since January, 2016.

 

 

 

The ‘Kani tribe’ can be found in which region of India?

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Answer:

‘Kani tribe’ is the tribe from Western Ghats area of Kerala.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Kani tribe’

  • Kani tribe is a small nomadic community living in the Western Ghats area of Kerala, India.
  • Their use of the forest plant arogyapacha (trichopus zeylanicus) as a key ingredient in a herbal remedy called Jeevani was noted by visiting scientists in the 1980s.
  • Jeevani is known for its immunity-enhancing, liver-protective, anti-fatigue, and DNA-protective properties.
  • The formula was eventually developed as a commercial enterprise by Arya Vaidya Pharmacy, with the tribe’s Kerala Kani Welfare Trust receiving license fees and royalties.

Why in news?

  • A recently discovered species of tree-dwelling crab has been named Kani maranjandu after the tribe.

 

 

 

The balance of payments includes all transactions in goods (visible items), services (invisible) and assets (flow of capital) during a period of time. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Balance of Payments:

  • The balance of payments (BOP) is a statement of all transactions made between entities in one country and the rest of the world over a defined period of time, such as a quarter or a year.
  • The balance of payments includes both the current account and capital account.
  • The current account includes a nation’s net trade in goods and services, its net earnings on cross-border investments, and its net transfer payments.
  • The capital account consists of a nation’s imports and exports of capital and foreign aid.
  • The sum of all transactions recorded in the balance of payments should be zero; however, exchange rate fluctuations and differences in accounting practices may hinder this in practice.
  • The balance of payments (BOP), also known as balance of international payments, summarizes all transactions that a country’s individuals, companies, and government bodies complete with individuals, companies, and government bodies outside the country.
  • These transactions consist of imports and exports of goods, services, and capital, as well as transfer payments, such as foreign aid and remittances.
  • A country’s balance of payments and its net international investment position together constitute its international accounts.

 

 

 

In 1990, India’s GDP per capita was higher than that of China’s and total GDP almost equal to that of China. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Key facts:

  • China’s enviable growth has been primarily driven by the manufacturing sector, which contributes more than a quarter to the global manufacturing GDP.
  • Through the Made in China 2025 strategic plan, China is incentivising Chinese companies to leapfrog on the technology forefront by encouraging manufacturers to upgrade their factories in terms of quality, productivity and digitisation.
  • South Korea has transitioned into a high-tech manufacturing country by focusing heavily on purchase of technology, and subsidies on R&D investments made by the public and private sectors.
  • India’s manufacturing sector has underperformed compared to the overall GDP growth in the past decades. As a result, the share of manufacturing in India’s GDP has stagnated at 16-17%.
  • Manufacturing accounts for 29% of GDP in China and South Korea, and 27% in Thailand.
  • In terms of quality of power, India ranks 80 out of 137 countries as per World Economic Forum.
  • According to the World Bank, access to electricity is the second-most important obstacle for manufacturing firms and is holding back corporate investment in the sector.
  • India faces the highest transmission and distribution losses in electric power in Emerging Asia due to low technological investment in innovations.
  • Indian logistics costs are estimated to be of around 14-15% of GDP, almost double of the 7-8% of GDP in developed countries.
  • In India, nearly 60% of the cargo travels by road. This is because of over-saturated railway networks, high rail freights, long transit times, inadequate port depths, high turnaround time at ports, and poor warehousing facility.
  • 62% of India’s population is in the working age group and more than 54% of the total population is below 25 years of age.
  • However, it is estimated that only 4.7% of India’s workforce is formally skilled, as against 52% in the US, 68% in the UK, 75% in Germany, 80% in Japan, 96% in South Korea and 24% in China.

 

 

 

What is the main form musical instrument that is used in Cheraw Dance of Mizoram?

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Answer:

The main form musical instrument used in this dance form includes two crossed pairs of bamboo staves that the performers hold in their hands.

Enrich Your Learning:

Cheraw Dance (known as bamboo dance):

  • Cheraw dance is a traditional cultural dance performed in Mizoram. This dance is performed on every occasion by the Mizo people of Mizoram.
  • It is consisting of mostly six to eight people holding a pairs of bamboo staves on another horizontally placed bamboo on the ground.
  • It is considered as one of the oldest dances of Mizoram and believed to be originated as early as the 1st century AD.
  • The main form musical instrument used in this dance form includes two crossed pairs of bamboo staves that the performers hold in their hands.
  • The dance is being performed by an individual family on the occasion of `Buhza Aih` that is the bumper harvest.

 

 

 

For the first time, the Congress declares the goal of the Indian people to get complete national independence in which session? a) Madras session 1927 OR b) Lahore session 1929

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Answer: Madras session 1927

Enrich Your Learning:

Madras Session 1927:

  • During the Madras Session in December 1927, young leaders like Jawahar Lal Nehru had proposed the resolution for complete independence which was however defeated and the action of Jawahar Lal was not appreciated by Gandhi.
  • It was here that for the first time the Congress called for Purna Swaraj, or complete freedom, with Jawaharlal Nehru moving the Independence Resolution.
  • It was organized in Madras and presided by Dr. Mohammad Ali Ansari.
  • A large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the Muslim League session and evolved four proposals for their demands to be incorporated into the draft constitution.

These proposals, which were accepted by the Madras session of the Congress (December 1927), came to be known as the ‘Delhi Proposals’. These were:

  • joint electorates in place of separate electorates with reserved seats for Muslims;
  • one-third representation to Muslims in Central Legislative Assembly;
  • representation to Muslims in Punjab and Bengal in proportion to their population;
  • formation of three new Muslim majority provinces— Sindh, Baluchistan and North-West Frontier Province

 

 

 

The books named ‘The Arctic Home in the Vedas’ and ‘The Orion’ were written by whom?

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Answer: Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Enrich Your Learning:

Bal Gangadhar Tilak:

  • He was an Indian social reformerand freedom activist.
  • Born in 1856 in Maharashtra, he was popularly known as Lokmanya Tilak.
  • He was called ‘The Father of the Indian Unrest’by the British people who ruled India till 1947.
  • He is known for his famous quote “Self Rule is our birthright, and We shall have it!”.
  • He joined the Indian National Congress Party in the year 1890.
  • Before independence, hestarted Kesari- a Marathi language weeklyand Mahratta- an English weekly.
  • He had popular leaders such as Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai as his political companions. The three were popularly known as ‘Lal-Bal-Pal triumvirate.’
  • When he was imprisoned during the freedom struggle, he wrote a book titled ‘Gita-Rahasya’.
  • Tilak proposed Grand celebrations on ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ and ‘Shivaji Jayanti’. He envisioned these celebrations inciting a sense of unity and inspiring nationalist sentiment among Indians. He also advocated the cause of women education and women empowerment.
  • He founded the Indian Home Rule Leagueand served as its president.
  • Books written by Bal Gangadhar Tilak:
  • The Arctic Home in the Vedas: he argued that the Vedas could only have been composed in the Arctics, and the Aryan people brought them south after the onset of the last ice age. He proposed a new way to determine the exact time of the Vedas.
  • The Orion: Calculate the time of Vedas by using the position of different Nakshatras.
  • Shrimadh Bhagvad Gita Rahasya: The analysis of ‘Karma Yoga’ in the Bhagavad Gita, which is known to be gift of the Vedas and the Upanishads.

 

 

 

Which type of majority is required for removal of a judge of the Supreme Court in each House of Parliament?

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Answer:

The address of removal of a judge of the Supreme Court must be supported by a special majority of each House of Parliament (a majority of the total membership of that House and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting).

Enrich Your Learning:

Grounds of removal for a Supreme Court judge:

  • A judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from his Office by an order of the president. The President can issue the removal order only after an address by Parliament has been presented to him in the same session for such removal.
  • The grounds of removal are two: proved misbehaviour or incapacity. The Judges Enquiry Act (1968) regulates the procedure relating to the removal of a judge of the Supreme Court by the process of impeachment:
  • A removal motion signed by 100 members (in the case of Lok Sabha) or 50 members (in the case of Rajya Sabha) is to be given to the Speaker/Chairman.
  • The Speaker/Chairman may admit the motion or refuse to admit it.
  • If it is admitted, then the Speaker/Chairman is to constitute a threemember committee to investigate into the charges.
  • The committee should consist of (a) the chief justice or a judge of the Supreme Court, (b) a chief justice of a high court, and (c) a distinguished jurist.
  • If the committee finds the judge to be guilty of misbehaviour or suffering from an incapacity, the House can take up the consideration of the motion.
  • After the motion is passed by each House of Parliament by special majority, an address is presented to the president for removal of the judge.
  • Finally, the president passes an order removing the judge.
  • The first and the only case of impeachment is that of Justice V Ramaswami of the Supreme Court (1991–1993). Though the enquiry Committee found him guilty of misbehaviour, he could not be removed as the impeachment motion was defeated in the Lok Sabha.

 

 

 

OBC reservation became a reality after the implementation of the_________ Commission report, which categorised many castes as constituting backward classes and deserving of quotas.

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Answer: Mandal Commission

Enrich Your Learning:

OBC reservation:

  • The Union Cabinet approved the setting up of a commission to examine the issue of sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes (OBC) in 2017.
  • The Cabinet has approved the setting up of the commission to report on the extent of inequalities within castes listed as OBCs on the Central list and find out scientific ways of sub-categorising the most backward among them.
  • This will pave the way for the provision of sub-quotas for the most backward castes within the OBCs. This means that the most backward OBC groups will compete among themselves for government jobs, educational seats, fellowships and so on rather than with the better-off OBC castes.
  • At present, there is a single Central OBC list, with entries from each State. People belonging to all of these castes can seek reservation from within the single 27% OBC reservation pie for Central government jobs and Central educational institutions.
  • Nine States have already sub-categorised OBCs. These are Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Puducherry, Karnataka, Haryana, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Since the Supreme Court had imposed a cap of 50% on reservation, OBC quotas at the Centre cannot exceed the present 27%.

 

 

Which article of the Constitution makes provision for the transfer of a Judge (including Chief Justice) from one High Court to any other High Court?

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Answer: Article 222.

Enrich Your Learning:

Can Judicial review apply on the Transfer of a judge from one high court to another?

  • The issues regarding transfer of Judges and the scope of judicial review were considered by the Apex Court in the earlier judgments.
  • Article 222: ‘The President, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, may transfer a judge from one High Court to any other High Court.’ The transfer provisions in the Constitution were meant for transfer by consent where exigencies required.
  • It is only the Chief Justice of India who can examine the circumstances in a given case and reach a conclusion as to whether it is in public interest to transfer or retransfer a Judge from one Court to another. 
  • In the formation of his opinion for the transfer of a Judge, other than the Chief Justice, the CJI is expected to take into account the views of the Chief Justice of the High Court from which the Judge is to be transferred and Chief Justice of the High Court to which the transfer is to be effected.
  • The views on the proposed transfer of a Judge or a Chief Justice of the High Court should be expressed in writing and should be considered by the CJI and the four senior most Judges of the Supreme Court. 
Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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