Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-57] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Drone Innovators Network (DIN); India’s Drone Regulations; Bioterrorism; United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC); Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs); Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC); United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA); Palestine Rufugees; Sabang Port; Umbrella Movement; Haifa; ‘Starlink Network Programme’;
By IASToppers
May 05, 2020

What are the characteristics of the recently seen news of ‘Starlink Network Programme’?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Space Internet

  • The SpaceX,the world’s leading private company in space technology,  fired a spray of 60 satellites into orbit, the first operational batch of what is intended to eventually evolve into a constellation of nearly 12,000 satellites aimed at providing low-cost and reliable space-based Internet services to the world.
  • The Starlink network, as the project is called, is one of several ongoing efforts to start beaming data signals from space, and also the most ambitious.
  • It has been launched by Space X,a leading private company in space technology.
  • It aims at providing low-cost and reliable space-based Internet services to the world.
  • The first batch of Starlink satellites — also numbering 60 and similar in configuration to the ones launched on November 11— went up on May 24, but they will not be part of the network.
  • SpaceX announced the satellite Internet constellation in January 2015, and launched two test satellites in February 2018. Following last week’s launch, the company has now deployed 122 satellites in orbit.
  • SpaceX appeared ready to scale up its ambition, telling the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in filings through the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) that it intends to deploy another 30,000 Starlink satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO)in coming years.

Benefit

  • This is mainly to ensure that reliable and uninterrupted Internet services.
  • And that is because the traditional ways to deliver the Internet — fibre-optic cables or wireless networks — cannot take it everywhere on Earth.
  • In many remote areas, or places with difficult terrain, it is not feasible or viable to set up cables or mobile towers.

Signals from satellites in space

The coastal city of Haifa is located in which country?

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Answer:

  • Haifa is located in Israel.

Enrich Your Learning:

Israel celebrations honour Indian soldiers who liberated Haifa city during World War I

  • The northern Israeli coastal city of Haifacelebrated the centenary year of its liberation from Ottoman rule during World War I, honouring the brave Indian soldiers who laid down their lives in what is considered ‘the last great cavalry campaign in history’.
  • The Indian Army commemorates September 23 every year as Haifa Dayto pay its respects to the three Indian Cavalry Regiments – Mysore, Hyderabad and Jodhpur Lancers, that helped liberate Haifa following a dashing cavalry action by the 15th Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade of the then British Indian Army at the Battle of Haifa in 1918.
  • Captain Aman Singh Bahadurand Dafadar Jor Singh were awarded the Indian Order of Merit (IOM) and Captain Anop Singh and 2nd Lt Sagat Singh were awarded the Military Cross (MC) as recognition for their bravery in this battle while Major Dalpat Singh was awarded a military cross for his bravery.
  • About 900 Indian soldiers are interred in cemeteries across Israel in Jerusalem, Ramle and Haifa.
  • Indian cavalry regiments armed with spears and swords displayed the highest tradition of valour and cleared the enemy from the rocky slopes of Mt Carmel.

The ‘Hong Kong Movement’ started in 2014 is also known by the name of: (a) Umbrella Movement OR (b) M 23 Rebellion OR (c) Fishball Revolution

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Answer:

Umbrella Movement

Enrich Your Learning:

Umbrella Movement

  • Umbrella Movement is another name for Hong Kong Protest.
  • The Umbrella Movement was a political movement that emerged during the Hong Kong democracy protests of 2014.
  • The name ‘Umbrella Revolution’ was coined by Adam Cottonon Twitter on 26 September 2014.
  • Its name arose from the use of umbrellas as a tool for passive resistance to the Hong Kong Police’s use of pepper sprayto disperse the crowd during a 79-day occupation of the city demanding more transparent elections, which was sparked by the decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPCSC) of 31 August 2014 that prescribed a selective pre-screening of candidates for the 2017 election of Hong Kong’s chief executive
  • The 2019–20 Hong Kong protestswere a series of protests triggered by the introduction of the Fugitive Offenders amendment bill by the Hong Kong government.

The ‘Sabong Port’ was recently in news. It is located in which country?

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Answer:

  • The Sabong port is located in Indonesia.

Enrich Your Learning:

Sabang Port

  • India is developing its maiden deep-sea port in Indonesia’s Sabang close to Andaman and Nicobar Islands making its maiden foray in the southeast Asian amid China’s slew of connectivity plans for ASEAN under BRI.
  • The Sabang port is being developed in partnership with neighbour and strategic partner Indonesia.
  • An Indian Coast Guard Ship Vijit,is currently on a visit to Sabang, Indonesia, from March 17-20. The deep sea port will give India wide access to Southeast Asia as a counter-balancing force. The port will be a key element in India’s Indo-Pacific strategy.
  • A joint initiative to develop deep-sea port in Sabang in Indonesia’s Aceh provinceto enhance maritime connectivity as part of respective Indo-Pacific strategies was launched last year.
  • India and Indonesia are trying to complement each other with proposed connectivity and infrastructure projects in the region.
  • During the visit of Prime Minister of India to Indonesia in May 2018, both sides had arrived at a “Shared Vision of Maritime Cooperation in the Indo Pacific” under which deepening 

economic and people-to-people exchanges, including connectivity with port of Sabang was identified as a key priority area. A series of steps have since been undertaken by both sides to implement the joint vision.

UNRWA was frequently appeared in news. What do you know about it?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA)

  • The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) is funded almost entirely by voluntary contributions from UN Member States.
  • UNRWA is the only UN agency dedicated to helping refugees from a specific regionor conflict and is separate from UNHCR.
  • It is the main UN Refugee Agency.UNRWA is a subsidiary organ of the United Nations General Assembly and its mandate is renewed every three years
  • UNRWA also receives some funding from the Regular Budget of the United Nations, which is used mostly for international staffing costs.
  • The Agency’s services encompass education, health care, relief and social services, camp infrastructure and improvement, microfinance and emergency assistance, including in times of armed conflict.
  • Aid is provided in five areas of operation: Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the Gaza Stripand the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. aid for Palestinian refugees outside these five areas is provided by UNHCR.
  • UNRWA is the largest agency of the United Nations, employing over 30,000 staff, 99% of which are locally recruited Palestinians.

Establishment

  • Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict,UNRWA was established by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949 to carry out direct relief and works programmes for Palestine refugees.
  • UNRWA also provides assistance, but not refugee status, to those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day War
  • The Agency began operations on 1 May 1950.
  • In the absence of a solution to the Palestine refugee problem, the General Assembly has repeatedly renewed UNRWA’s mandate, most recently extending it until 30 June 2023.

Palestine Rufugees

  • UNRWA is unique in terms of its long-standing commitment to one group of refugees. It has contributed to the welfare and human development of four generations of Palestine refugees, defined as “persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948, and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict.” The descendants of Palestine refugee males, including legally adopted children, are also eligible for registration. 
  • UNRWA services are available to all those living in its areas of operations who meet this definition, who are registered with the Agency and who need assistance. When the Agency began operations in 1950, it was responding to the needs of about 750,000 Palestine refugees.
  • UNRWA allows refugee status to be inherited by descendants of male refugee, including legally adopted children.
  • Today, some 5.6 million Palestine refugees are eligible for UNRWA services.

Which types of deposits are NOT insured by the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC)?

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Answer:

Deposits which are not insured by the DICGC:

  • Deposits of Foreign governments
  • Deposits of Central/state governments
  • Inter-bank deposits
  • Deposits made in Non-Banking Financial Corporations (NBFCs)
  • Deposits of the state land development banks with the state co-operative bank
  • Any amount due on account of any deposit received outside India
  • Any amount specifically exempted by the DICGC with previous approval of RBI.

Solution & Enrich Your Learning:

What is Deposit insurance?

  • Deposit insurance is providing insurance protection to the depositor’s money by receiving a premium.
  • The government has set up Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC) under RBI to protect depositors if a bank fails to repay their customers.
  • The agency does not directly charge any premium from bank depositors, but, every insured bank pays premium amounting to 0.001% of its deposits to DICGC every year.

About Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC):

  • DICGC is a wholly owned subsidiary of Reserve Bank of India.
  • It was established in 1978 under the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Act, 1961for the purpose of providing insurance of deposits and guaranteeing of credit facilities.
  • The deposit insurance scheme is mandatory for all banks and no bank can voluntarily withdraw from it.However, DICGC has the power to cancel the registration of an insured bank if it fails to pay the premium for three consecutive half-year periods.

Institutions covered under deposit insurance:

  • This scheme insures all types of bank deposits including savings, fixed, current and recurring with an insured bank.
  • DICGC covers all commercial banks, including Local Area Banks (LABs) and Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) in all the States and Union Territories (UTs).
  • All Co-operative Banksacross the country except three UTs of Lakshadweep, Chandigarh, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli are also covered by deposit insurance.
  • Primary cooperative societies are not insured by the DICGC.

What do you know about the Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

What are Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)? 

  • The objective of TRIMs is to ensure fair treatment of investment in all member countries.
  • The Agreement on TRIMs of the World Trade Organisation based on the belief that there is strong connection between trade and investment.  Restrictive measures on investment are trade distorting.
  • Several restrictive measures on investment are prohibiting trade and hence are not allowable. According to the TRIMs provision, countries should not adopt the investment measures which restrict and distort trade. 
  • Investment measures are those steps used traditionally against foreign investment by host countries. The TRIMs instruct that WTO members may not apply any measure that discriminates against foreign investment that violates basic WTO principles.
  • WTO gives a list of prohibited investment measures or TRIMs like local content requirement, export obligation, technology transfer requirement etc. that violates trade.  
  • The Committee on TRIMs monitors the operation and implementation of the TRIMs Agreement and offers consultation for member countries.
  • As per the TRIMs Agreement, members are required to notify the WTO Council for Trade in Goods of their existing TRIMs that are inconsistent with the agreement.  
  • WTO prohibit investment restricting measures that discriminates foreign investment
  • The argument of WTO is that such investment restricting steps are violating trade itself (WTO is an institution formed to promote trade).
  • Historically countries impose measures that restrict foreign investment (called as investment measures and WTO term this as Trade Related Investment Measures).
  • Under TRIMs, the WTO names the list of investment measures that discriminates foreign investment and hence violates the basic WTO principle of National Treatment.
  • These measures include – local content requirement, domestic employment, technology transfer requirement etc.

Member States of United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) are elected by the General Assembly of the United Nations. True OR False?

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Answer:

True.

Enrich Your Learning: 

UN Human Rights Council:

  • UNHRC is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations established by the UN General Assembly on March 15, 2006, to replace the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR).
  • It aims to promote and protect human rights around the world.
  • UNHRC has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis.
  • The 38th session of the UNHRC began June 18, 2018. It ended on July 7, 2018.
  • The headquarters of UNHRC is in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • There are subsidiary bodies that directly report to the Human Rights Council:
  • Universal Periodic Review Working Group
  • Advisory Committee
  • Complaint Procedure
  • UNHRC investigates allegations of breaches of human rights in UN member states and addresses important thematic human rights issues such as freedom of association and assembly, freedom of expression, freedom of belief and religion, women’s rights, LGBT rights, Criminals, drug lords in Philippines and the rights of racial and ethnic minorities.
  • The UNHRC works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and engages the UN’s special procedures.
  • The Council’s Membership is based on equitable geographical distribution. Seats are distributed as follows:
  • African States: 13 seats
  • Asia-Pacific States: 13 seats
  • Latin American and Caribbean States: 8 seats
  • Western European and other States: 7 seats
  • Eastern European States: 6 seats
  • Members of the Council serve for a period of three years and are not eligible for immediate re-election after serving two consecutive terms.

Among the three categories of Bioterrorism agents, Category C are high priority agents while Category A are emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Wrong.

Correct Statement:

Among the three categories of Bioterrorism agents, Category A are high priority agents while Category C are emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bioterrorism:

  • Bioterrorism is a planned and deliberate use of pathogenic strains of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or their toxins to spread life-threatening diseases on a mass scale in order to devastate the population of an area: big metropolitan cities, big urban conglomeration, and districts having international borders.

Factors:

  • Enhanced bio-production technologies, rapid and profound changes in genetic modifications in bio-molecular engineering, concentrated forms of biological agents such as dried spores and genetically modified organisms

Bioterrorism agents are classified as categories A, B, and C:

Category A:

  • High-priority agents include organisms that pose a risk to national security because they can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person
  • g. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin), plague (Yersinia pestis)

Category B:

  • Those that are moderately easy to disseminate, result in moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates
  • Brucellosis, Salmonella species Etc.

Category C:

  • Emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future.
  • Emerging infectious diseases such as Nipah virus, Hanta Virus etc.

Possible Mode of Attack:

  • Aerosol mechanism, Contamination of food and water sources. Deliberate infiltration of infected animals, pests or vectors.
  • Delivery of biological weapons: Scud missiles, motor vehicles with spray, hand pump sprayers, by an individual, book or letter, guns, remote control, robotic delivery.

Drone Innovators Network is started by which international organization/body to hasten and contribute to healthy drone policies in need of legislation?

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Answer:

World Economic Forum

Enrich Your Learning:

Drone Innovators Network:

  • The Drone Innovators Network (DIN) began development at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, as a community of progressive governments
  • Established to help overcome common challenges regulators are facing in enabling drones and unmanned aviation, such as how to enable beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) flights at scale, autonomous operations and flights over densely populated areas.
  • Composition: Government aviation agencies, academics, and established drone entities.
  • Inaugural Drone Innovators Network summit was held in Zurich in 2018.

India’s Drone Regulations:

India’s Directorate General of Civil Aviation announced the India’s first Civil Aviation requirements (CAR) for drones in 2018.

General Rules for Flying a Drone in India:

  • All drones except those in the Nano categorymust be registered and issued a Unique Identification Number (UIN).
  • A permit is required for commercial drone operations (except for those in the Nano category flown below 50 feet and those in the Micro category flown below 200 feet).
  • Drone pilots must maintain a direct visual line of sightat all times while flying.
  • Drones cannot be flown more than 400 feet
  • Drones cannot be flown in areas specified as “No Fly Zones”, which include areas near airports, international borders, State Secretariat Complex in State Capitals, strategic locations, and military installations.
  • Permission to fly in controlled airspace can be obtained by filing a flight plan and obtaining a unique Air Defense Clearance (ADC)/Flight Information Center (FIC) number.

Drone Categories in India:

Registration is required for all but the Nano category.

  • Nano: Less than or equal to 250 grams
  • Micro: From 250 grams to 2kg
  • Small: From 2kg to 25kg
  • Medium: From 25kg to 150kg
  • Large: Greater than 150kg

Required Drone Equipment in India

India has specific requirements regarding the types of features a drone must have to be flown in India (excluding those in the Nano category). These mandatory requirements include:

  • GPS (Global Positioning System)
  • Return-to-home (RTH)
  • Anti-collision light
  • ID plate
  • A flight controller with flight data logging capability
  • Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and SIM/No Permission No Takeoff (NPNT)

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