Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-59] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Mouling National Park; Mid-Day Meal Programme; National Food Security Act; Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act; Public Distribution System; Antyodaya Anna Yojana; Codex Alimentarius; Codex Alimentarius Commission; Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED); African Union (AU); Measles; Global Vaccine Action Plan; Fiscal Monitor Report; Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) technology; Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); Classification of drought in India;
By IASToppers
May 07, 2020

Mouling National Park is located in which Indian state?

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Answer:

Mouling National Park is located in the Upper Siang district of the state of Arunachal Pradesh.

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Mouling National Park

  • The national park is located in the Upper Siang district of the state of Arunachal Pradesh. The national park was created in 1986.
  • The name Mouling has been derived from highest peak named Moulingas per local faith and belief. The word Mouling has got a lot of curiosity among the people.
  • ‘Mouling’ literally means ‘red poison or red blood’, which is actually the red extract of a species of tree that is found there.
  • The national park has richness and varieties of flora and fauna. Mouling Park is also known for Red Pandas, Deers, Hoolock Gibbons and Tigers.
  • The area of Mouling National park and its surroundings are referred to as ‘the state’s cradle of biodiversity’for the colligation of remote natural beauty and the flora and fauna.
  • Ornamental plants like foxtail,orchids are abundant in this area.

State Government is the final authority when it comes to declaring a region as drought affected. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

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Drought:

  • Drought is generally considered as a deficiency in rainfall /precipitation over an extended period, usually a season or more, resulting in a water shortagecausing adverse impacts on vegetation, animals, and/or people.
  • The Supreme Court of India in its verdict (2016) in the matter of Swaraj Abhiyan Vs Union of India stated that drought would certainly fall within the definition of “disaster”as defined under Section 2(d) of the Disaster Management (DM) Act, 2005.
  • Disaster Management (DM) Act, 2005defines “disaster” to mean ‘a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.’
  • Since drought is a disaster, risk assessment and risk management as well as crisis management of a droughtfalls completely within the purview of the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
  • Supreme Court directed the National Disaster Management Authority to be the agency responsible for drought managementparticularly with respect to chalking out long term preventive and mitigation measures.
  • It is not as if a drought is required to be declared in the entire State or even in an entire district. If a drought-like situation or a drought exists in some village in a district or a taluka or tehsil or block, it should be so declared.

Classification of drought in India:

  • The 2009 Manual of Drought Management issued by Ministry of Agriculture, Union of India (prepared for Ministry by National Institute of Disaster Management) classifies droughts into three categories:
  • Meteorological droughtis defined as the deficiency of precipitation from expected or normal levels over an extended period of time.
  • It is said to occur when the seasonal rainfall received over an area is less than 25% of its long-term average value.
  • It is classified as moderate drought if the rainfall deficit is 26-50% and severe drought when the deficit exceeds 50% of the normal.
  • Hydrological droughtis best defined as deficiencies in surface and sub-surface water supplies leading to a lack of water for normal and specific needs.
  • Such conditions arise, even in times of average (or above average) precipitation when increased usage of water diminishes the existing reserves.
  • Agricultural droughtis usually triggered by meteorological and hydrological droughts and occurs when soil moisture and rainfall are inadequate during the crop growing season causing extreme crop stress and wilting. 
  • In India, it is defined as a period of four consecutive weeks (of severe meteorological drought) with a rainfall deficiency of more than 50 % of the long-term average or with a weekly rainfall of 5 cm or less from mid-May to mid-October (the kharif season) when 80% of India’s total crop is planted or six such consecutive weeks during the rest of the year.

Convention on Biological Diversity is aimed at?

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Answer: CBD or the Biodiversity Convention is a multilateral treaty with an objective to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

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Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD):

  • CBD or the Biodiversity Conventionis a multilateral treaty with an objective to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.
  • The Convention has three main goals including:
    • the conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity);
    • the sustainable use of its components; and
    • the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.
  • It is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development.
  • The Convention was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiroon 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993.
  • The convention is legally bindingand the countries that have joint it are obliged to implement its provisions.
  • India enacted Biological Diversity Act in 2002for giving effect to the provisions of the CBD.

Supplementary agreements:

  • CBD has two supplementary agreements – Cartagena Protocol and Nagoya Protocol.
  1. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity:
  • It is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another.
  • It was adopted on 29 January 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity and entered into force on 11 September 2003.
  1. Nagoya Protocol:
  • The Nagoya Protocolprovides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD: the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
  • The Nagoya Protocol on ABS was adopted on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan and entered into force on 12 October 2014.
  • Objective:Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) technology works on the basis of which principle?

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Answer:

Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) technology works on the basic principle of temperature gradient between two water bodies.

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Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) technology

  • Low temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) is one process that uses the availability of a temperature gradient between two water bodies or flows.
  • The LTTD is a process under which the warm surface sea water is flash evaporatedat low pressure and the vapour is condensed with cold deep sea water.
  • The LTTD technology does not require any chemical pre and post-treatmentof seawater and thus the pollution problems are minimal and suitable for island territories.
  • The LTTD technology is completely indigenous, robust and environment friendly. It gives less operational maintenance problems compared to other desalination processes.
  • The technology has been developed by the Ministry of Earth Sciencesin India, through the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT).
  • Three water treatment plantsusing LTTD technology have been successfully opened in India at Kavaratti, Minicoy and Agatti islands in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep.
  • The 12-13oC cold water available at about 400m depth within 600m from the island is used along with the surface water at about 28oC to produce potable water in the Lakshadweep Islands.
  • Each LTTD plant will be able to produce 100,000 lts of drinking water per day, which is supplied via the local pipe network.
  • Six more of the plants at Amini, Androth, Chetlat, Kadamat, Kalpeni and Kiltan Islands and LTTD plant based on Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion at Kavaratti has also been approved.

The Fiscal Monitor Report’ is published by__________.  a) International Monetary Fund OR b) World Trade Organisation.

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Answer: International Monetary Fund

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Fiscal Monitor Report:

  • The Fiscal Monitor surveys and analyzes the latest public finance developments.
  • It updates fiscal implications of the crisis and medium-term fiscal projections, and assesses policies to put public finances on a sustainable footing.
  • The country classification in the Fiscal Monitor divides the world into three major groups:
  • 35 advanced economies,
  • 40 emerging market and middle-income economies, and
  • 40 low-income developing countries.
  • The Fiscal Monitor is prepared twice a year by the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs Department.
  • Its projections are based onthe same database used for the World Economic Outlook (WEO) and the Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR).

8 fiscal Indicators used:

  • Net lending/borrowing (also referred as overall balance) % of GDP
  • Primary net lending/borrowing (also referred as primary balance) % of GDP
  • Cyclically adjusted balance % of Potential GDP
  • Cyclically adjusted primary balance % of Potential GDP
  • Revenue % of GDP
  • Expenditure % of GDP
  • Gross debt position % of GDP
  • Net debt % of GDP

Global Vaccine Action Plan aims to eliminate Measles globally till which year?

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Answer: Global Vaccine Action Plan aims to eliminate Measles globally till 2020.

Enrich Your Learning:

Measles:

  • Measles is a highly contagious viral disease.

Transmission:

  • Measles is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth or throat of infected persons.
  • Symptoms include high fever, a runny nose, bloodshot eyes, and tiny white spots on the inside of the mouth and red rashes throughout the body.

Threat:

  • Severe measles is more likely among poorly nourished young children, especially those with insufficient vitamin A, or whose immune systems have been weakened by HIV/AIDS or other diseases.
  • It remains an important cause of death among young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine.
  • Routine measles vaccination for children, combined with mass immunization campaigns in countries with low routine coverage, are key public health strategies to reduce global measles deaths.

Vaccine:

  • The measles vaccine has been in use since the 1960s.
  • It is safe, effective and inexpensive.
  • WHO recommends immunization for all susceptible children and adults for whom measles vaccination is not contraindicated.

Global Vaccine Action Plan:

  • The Global Vaccine Action Plan(GVAP) ? endorsed by the 194 Member States of the World Health Assembly in May 2012 ? is a framework to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all communities.
  • Under the Global Vaccine Action Plan, measles and rubellaare targeted for elimination in five WHO Regions by 2020.
  • WHO is the lead technical agency responsible for coordination of immunization and surveillance activities supporting all countries to achieve this goal.

Need:

  • While vaccination has drastically reduced global measles deaths — a 73% drop between 2000-2018 worldwide — measles is still common in many developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia.
  • More than 140,000 people died from measles in 2018.
  • The overwhelming majority (more than 95%) of measles deaths occur in countries with low per capita incomes and weak health infrastructures.

Before the African Union (AU) launched, the activities of this body were carried out by whom?

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Answer:

Until the launch of a new body named African Union (AU), the Organisation of African Unity (1963-1999) carried out all the activities related to the peace, security, and stability of the continent.

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African Union (AU)

  • The African Union (AU) is a continental bodyconsisting of the 55 member states that make up the countries of the African Continent.
  • It was officially launched in 2002in Durban, South Africa as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (1963-1999).
  • The objective of AU is towards an Integrated, Prosperous and Peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the global arena.
  • It inaugurated as a pan-African parliament in March 2004 – one of a number of proposed institutions. The body debates continent-wide issuesand advises AU heads of state.
  • The AU believes that conflicts must be settled before there can be a chance of achieving prosperity. To this end, it set up a Peace and Security Councilin 2004. The council can deploy military forces in situations which include genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • The AU oversees the New Partnership for Africa’s Development(Nepad), an anti-poverty blueprint which offers a bargain with the West: the promotion of good political and economic practice in return for more aid and investment.

Background

  • The OAU was established on May 25, 1963,and its activities included diplomacy (especially in support of African liberation movements), mediation of boundary conflicts and regional and civil wars, and research in economics and communications.
  • The OAU was instrumental in bringing about the joint cooperation of African states in the work of the Group of 77.

Organisational structure:

  • Chairman:rotate on annual basis
  • Assembly:heads of state of member countries, meet at least once a year.
  • It is the AU’s main decision-making body. Members of the assembly elect an AU chairperson.
  • Executive Council:the foreign ministers of member states, who advise the assembly members.
  • Commission:The administrative branch comprises 10 commissioners, who hold individual portfolios. The commission elects its chairperson to a four-year term.

What is the basic objective of TRIFED?

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Answer: The basic objective of the TRIFED is to provide good price of the ‘Minor Forest Produce (MFP) collected by the tribes of the country.

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Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED):

  • The full form of TRIFED is The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India.
  • It was established in 1987 and became operational from April 1988.
  • The basic objectiveof the TRIFED is to provide good price of the ‘Minor Forest Produce (MFP) collected by the tribes of the country.
  • TRIFED is a national level apex organization functioning under the administrative control of Ministry of Tribal Affairs.

Objectives of the TRIFED are:

  • To provide fair price to the ‘Minor Forest Produce(MFP) collected by the tribes and enhance their level of income.
  • To ensure sustainable harvesting of ‘Minor Forest Produce(MFP).
  • To save the tribes from the exploitation of the business mediatorswho purchase the products of the tribes at cheap rate and sell at the higher prices. So TRIFED removed the mediators.
  • If the price of the products fluctuates then TRIFED arranges compensation for the tribes from the Ministry of Agriculture.
  • TRIFED also assures the tribes for purchasing their products at a particular price, primary processing of products, storage of products and transportation etc.
  • TRIFED provides information related to fair price markets for the ‘Minor Forest Produce(MFP)’.
  • TRIFED helps in increasing the bargaining power of the tribesto fetch good price of the MFP.
  • TRIFED provides adequate training to the tribes to make value addition to their products.

Which international organization established the Codex Alimentarius Commission?

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Answer:

It was established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), with the purpose of protecting the health of consumers and ensuring fair practices in the food trade.

Enrich Your Learning:

Codex Alimentarius:

  • The Codex Alimentarius (Food Code) is a collection of standards, guidelines and codes of practice adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC).
  • It is a collection of internationally adopted food standards presented in a uniform manner.These food standards aim at protecting consumer’s health and ensuring fair practices in the food trade.
  • It includes standards for all the principal foods, whether processed, semi-processed or raw for distribution to the consumer.
  • It also includes standardised provisions in respect of food additives, contaminants, pesticides residues, labelling and presentation, methods of analysis and sampling.

Codex Alimentarius Commission:

  • It is an intergovernmental body with over 180 members, within the framework of the Joint Food Standards Programme.
  • Its mandate is to prepare an international codex alimentation, based on principles outlined by itself.
  • The Commission also promotes coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Enlist some programmes and schemes through which government is securing the food and nutrition.

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Answer:

  • The programmes and schemes through which government is securing the food and nutrition are:
  • The National cooked Mid-day Meal Programme, National Food Security Act, 2013, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, Public Distribution System and Antyodaya Anna Yojana.

Enrich Your Learning:

Mid-Day Meal Programme

  • The Mid Day Meal is the world’s largest school feeding programmereaching out to about 12 crore children in over 12.65 lakh schools/EGS centres across the country.
  • Mid day Meal scheme is serving primary and upper primary school childrenin entire country.
  • The programme aims at enhancing enrolment, retention and attendanceand simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children studying in Government, Local Body and Government-aided schools and the Centres run under Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) / Alternative & Innovative Education (AIE) and National Children Labour Project (NCLP) schools across the country.
  • MDM is also served in drought-affected areas during summervacation also.

National Food Security Act

  • The National Food Security Act, 2013 was notified with the objective to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach.
  • It ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality foodat affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity.
  • The Act provides for coverage of up to 75% of the rural populationand up to 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized food grains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS).
  • The eligible persons will be entitled to receive 5 Kgs of food grains per person per month at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per Kg for rice/wheat/coarse grains.
  • The Act provides meal to pregnant women and lactating mothersduring pregnancy and six months after the child birth, such women will also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6000.
  • The Act provides for payment of food security allowanceto entitled persons by State Government in case of non-supply of entitled quantities of food grains.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

  • One of the long-standing demands of the right to food campaign is a national “employment guarantee act”.
  • This demand was partially met in mid-2005 with the enactment of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA 2005).
  • Under this Act, any adult willing to do casual labour at the minimum wage is entitled to employment on local public works within 15 days, subject to a limit of 100 days per household per year.

Public Distribution System

  • The Public Distribution System (PDS) plays an important role in the provision of food security. The PDS in India is perhaps the largest distribution network of its typein the world.
  • PDS is a network of more than 4 lakh Fair Price Shops (FPS) claiming to distribute annually commodities worth more than Rs 15,000 crore to about 16 crore families.

Antyodaya Anna Yojana

  • The “Antyodaya Anna Yojana” (AAY) was launched in December, 2000for one crore poorest of the poor families.
  • AAY contemplates identification of one crore poorest of the poor families from amongst the BPL families covered under TPDS within the States.
  • A priority group under this scheme is to receive 7 kg of subsidised food grainsper person per month i.e. 35 kg of food grain/family/month.
  • 46 percent of the rural and 28 percent of the urban population will be designated as priority households.

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