Answer: United Nations Development Programme
Enrich Your Learning:
Human Development Index (HDI):
- It is a statistical tool used to measure a country’s overall achievement. It compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.
- It is launched annually by the United Nations Development Programme.
- Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haqcreated HDI in 1990.
Calculation of the index combines four major indicators:
- Life expectancy for health,
- Expected years of schooling,
- Mean of years of schooling for education and
- Gross National Income per capita for standard of living.
Highlights of Human Development Index (HDI) 2019:
Top 3 countries: Norway (1st), Switzerland (2nd) and Ireland (3rd).
- At 71, Sri Lanka is ranked much higher than China (85th). Maldives is ranked at 104, much ahead of its South Asian counterparts like Bhutan (134), Bangladesh (135), Nepal (147) and Pakistan (152).
- As the number of people coming out of old poverty (based on access to health services) is increasing, the world is going towards another type of poverty based on technology, education and climate.
India specific Highlights:
Rank of India: 129th out of 189 countries
- India remains the home to 28% poor peopleout of a global population of the 1.3 billion.
- South Asia, of which India is the largest country, constitutes 41 % of the world’s poor.
- Between 1990 and 2018, India’s HDI value increased by 50 % (from 0.431 to 0.647), which places it above the average for countries in the medium human development group and above the average for other South Asian countries.
Despite progress of India, group-based inequalities persist on the Indian Subcontinent, especially affecting women and girls.