Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-61] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Toda shawl; Yogyakarta Principles; Dokra metalwork; Agroforestry; Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT); Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS); Location of Myanmar; Mega Food Park Scheme; SnowEx; National Milk Safety and Quality Survey; Aflatoxin; Cape Town Agreement;
By IASToppers
May 09, 2020

Cape Town Agreement of 2012 bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction within a specified period of time. True OR False.

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Answer: False

Correct Answer: 

  • The Cape Town Agreement was adopted by the International Maritime Organisation in 2012 to help combat illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing.

Enrich Your Learning:

Cape Town Agreement

What is the Cape Town Agreement?

  • The Cape Town Agreement was adopted by the International Maritime Organisation in 2012to help combat illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU)
  • It seeks to introduce mandatory safety measures for fishing vessels of 24 metres and over in length.
  • The Cape Town Agreement includes mandatory international requirements for stability and associated seaworthiness, machinery and electrical installations, life-saving appliances, communications equipment and fire protection, as well as fishing vessel construction.
  • It is aimed at facilitating better control of fishing vessel safety by flag, port and coastal states.
  • The treaty will enter into force 12 months after at least 22 nations, with an aggregate 3,600 fishing vessels of 24 metres and over in length operating on the high seas, have expressed their consent to be bound by it.
  • India is yet to ratify the Cape Town Agreement.

 

 

Aflatoxin M1, a carcinogenic substance, is found in Milk of mammals. True OR False.

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Answer: True

Enrich Your Learning:

Aflatoxin

 

Why in news?

  • The National Milk Safety and Quality Survey were declared that three out of four samples tested in Coimbatore district were found to be unsafe for consumption and not up to quality standards.
  • The National Milk Safety and Quality Survey, 2018was conducted by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
  • The samples were tested for 13 common adulterants and three contaminants — pesticides, aflatoxin M1 and antibiotics.

Highlights of National Milk Safety and Quality Survey

  • Aflatoxin M1was more widely present in processed milk samples than in raw milk.
  • In the survey of ‘raw milk’ samples, about 47% missed one quality parameter or another, while another 4.8% had safety issues.
  • In the survey of ‘processed milk’ samples, 10 % had safety issues while another 37 % missed at least one quality standard.
  • Only 12 milk samples were adulteratedto the extent that it made it unsafe for human consumption. The adulterated samples were from just three States: Telangana (nine), Madhya Pradesh (two) and Kerala (one).
  • Maltodextrin, a food additive, was also found in 156 out of 6,432 samples. Although it is not lethal, its presence increases the levels of fat and Solids-not-Fat (SNF).
  • Maltodextrin and Sugar were mainly found in processed milk.

Aflatoxin:

  • Aflatoxins are a family of toxins produced by a fungus that are found on agricultural cropssuch as maize (corn), peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts. 
  • The main fungi that produce aflatoxins are Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are abundant in warm and humid regions of the world.
  • Aflatoxin ingestion over the long term by humans is known to cause multiple health problems like liver damage, edema and indigestion.
  • Aflatoxin M1 is a metabolite present in the milk of dairy cattle which is fed with a diet contaminated with Aflatoxin B1.
  • Aflatoxin M1 carcinogenic potency is estimated to be about a one-tenth of aflatoxin B1.
  • Aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products is a public health concern especially in infants and young children as milk constitutes one of the major sources of nutrients.
  • Exposure to aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products is especially high in areas where the grain quality used as animal feed is poor.

 

What is the objective of NASA funded ‘SnowEx program’?

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Answer:

  • It aims to assess where snow has fallen, how much there is and how its characteristics change as it melts.
  • It will provide key insights into optimal strategies for mapping global SWE (Snow Water Equivalent) with remote sensing, which willenable a proposal for a Decadal Survey “Earth System Explorer” mission.

 

Enrich Your Learning:

What is SnowEx?

  • SnowEx is a 5-year programinitiated and funded by NASA THP (Terrestrial Hydrology program) to address the most important gaps in snow remote sensing knowledge.
  • The geographical focusof SnowEx is North America.
  • It will assess where snow has fallen, how much there is and how its characteristics change as it melts.
  • It will provide key insights into optimal strategies for mapping global SWE (Snow Water Equivalent) with remote sensing, which willenable a proposal for a Decadal Survey “Earth System Explorer” mission.

Need:

  • Industry and decision-makers need accurate snow information to respond to altering climate and water availability. They need to predict future snow resources.
  • The water equivalent of snow is also changing rapidly. However, remote sensing capabilities are not yet adequate.
  • Changes in snowfall amounts and timing are altering water discharges. Hence, snow predictions can tell about water discharge timings.

Projects under Mega Food Park scheme are merged under scheme of Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana. True OR False.

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Answer: True

Enrich Your Learning:

Mega Food Park Scheme

  • Mega Food Park is a scheme ofthe Ministry of Food Processing of the Government of India, aimed at providing a mechanism to link agricultural production to the market so as to ensure maximizing value addition and minimizing wastage.
  • Projects under it are merged under comprehensive flagship schemeof ‘Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana’.
  • The MFPS scheme envisages a one-time capital grant of 50% of the project cost subject to a maximum of Rs 50 crore in general areas and 75% of the project cost subject to a ceiling of Rs. 50 crore in difficult and hilly areas.
  • This project is implemented by a Special Purpose Vehicle(SPV) which is a Body Corporate registered under the Companies Act.
  • Its purpose is to increase processing of perishables from 6% to 20% and to increase India’s share in global food trade by at least 3% up to year 2015.

Myanmar shares land borders with which 5 Countries?

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Answer:

  • Myanmar shares land borders with 5 countries:India, China, Bangladesh, Thailand and Lao.

Enrich Your Learning:

Location of Myanmar

  • Myanmar, also called Burma,country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia.
  • Myanmar became an independent state in 1948,after gaining its sovereignty from The United Kingdom.
  • The currency of Myanmar is the Kyat (MMK). As well, the people of Myanmar are refered to as Burmese.
  • Myanmar shares land borders with 5 countries:India, China, Bangladesh, Thailand, Lao People’s Democratic Republic.
  • Nay Pyi Tawis the capital city of Myanmar.

What are the four pillars of the Participatory Guarantee Scheme (PGS)?

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Answer:

  • The government’s 2015 PGS manual underlines that the system in India is based on participatory approach, a shared vision, transparencyand

Enrich Your Learning:

Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS)

What is the Participatory Guarantee Scheme (PGS)?

  • PGS is a process of certifying organic products, which ensures that their production takes place in accordance with laid-down quality standards.
  • The certification is in the form of a documented logo or a statement.
  • According to a 2008 definition formulated by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM),PGSs are locally focused quality assurance systems that certify producers based on active participation of stakeholders and are built on a foundation of trust, social networks and knowledge exchange.

Four pillars of PGS

The government’s 2015 PGS manual underlines that the system in India is based on participatory approach, a shared vision, transparency and trust.

  • Participation: Stakeholders such as producers, consumers, retailers, traders etc are collectively responsible for designing and decision-making. Direct communication among the stakeholders helps create an integrity- and trust-based approach with transparency in decision-making.
  • Shared Vision: Each stakeholder organisation or PGS group can adopt its own vision conforming to the overall vision and standards of the PGS-India programme.
  • Transparency: Transparency is maintained through the active participation of producers in information-sharing at meetings and workshops, peer reviews, and involvement in decision-making.
  • Trust: A fundamental premise of PGS is the idea that producers can be trusted. The trustworthiness includes a producer pledge made through a witnessed signing of a declaration, and written collective undertakings by the group to abide by the standards of PGS.

Advantages of PGS:

  • Procedures are simple, documents are basic, and farmers understand the local language
  • All members live close to each other and are known to each other. As practising organic farmers themselves, they understand the processes well.
  • Because peer appraisers live in the same village, they have better access to surveillance; peer appraisal instead of third-party inspections also reduces costs
  • Mutual recognition and support between regional PGS groups ensures better networking for processing and marketing.
  • Unlike the grower group certification system, PGS offers every farmer individual certificates, and the farmer is free to market his own produce independent of the group.

Limitations:

  • PGS certification is only for farmers or communities that can organise and perform as a group within a villageor a cluster of contiguous villages, and is applicable only to farm activities such as crop production, processing, and livestock rearing, and off-farm processing by PGS farmers of their direct products.
  • Individual farmers or group of farmers smaller than five members are not coveredunder PGS. They either have to opt for third party certification or join the existing PGS local group.
  • PGS ensures traceability until the product is in the custody of the PGS group, which makes PGS ideal for local direct sales and direct trade between producers and consumers.

Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT) is an initiative of global cyber alliance. True OR False.

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Answer: False

Correct Statement: It is an initiative of four major tech companies: Face book, Microsoft, Twitter and YouTube.

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT)

  • The Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT) was established in 2017as a group of companies, dedicated to disrupting terrorist abuse of members’ digital platforms.
  • It was founded by four major tech companies: Face book, Microsoft, Twitter and YouTube.
  • Its membership is limited to companies operating internet platforms and services which meet the specified requirements including explicit prohibitions on terrorist and violent extremist content, a commitment to transparency, and a pledge to respect human rights.
  • It has made partnership with ‘Tech against Terrorism’, launched by the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (UN CTED)in

What is Agroforestry?

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Answer: Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems involving trees combined with crops and/or animals on the same unit of land.

Enrich Your Learning:

Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems involving trees combined with crops and/or animals on the same unit of land. It combines:

  • Production of multiple outputs with protection of the resource base;
  • Places emphasis on the use of multiple indigenous trees and shrubs;
  • Particularly suitable for low-input conditions and fragile environments;
  • It involves the interplay of socio-cultural values more than in most other land-use systems; and
  • It is structurally and functionally more complex than monoculture.

Functional Classification of Agroforestry Systems:

  • Two fundamental attributes of all AF systems are productivity and sustainability.
  1. Productive functions(producing one or more products):
  • Food,
  • Fodder,
  • Fuelwood,
  • Other woods,
  • Other products.
  1. Protective functions(protecting and maintaining production systems):
  • Wind-break,
  • Shelter-belt,
  • Soil conservation,
  • Moisture conservation,
  • Soil improvement,
  • Shade (for crop, animal and man)

Types of Agro forestry in non-forest areas:

  1. Farm Forestry: It refers to programmes which promote commercial tree growing by farmerson their own land. It is defined as the practice of forestry in all its aspects in and the around the farms or village lands integrated with other farm operations.
  2. Extension Forestry: It is the practice of forestry in areas devoid of tree growth and other vegetationsituated in places away from the conventional forest areas with the object of increasing the area under tree growth. It includes the following.
  • Mixed forestry: It is the practice of forestry for raising fodder grass with scattered fodder trees, fruit trees and fuel wood trees on suitable wastelands, panchayat lands and village commons.
  • Shelter belts: Shelter belt is defined as a belt of trees and or shrubs maintained for the purpose of shelter from wind, sun, snow drift, etc.
  • Linear Strip plantations: These are the plantations of fast growing species on linear strips of land.
  1. Rehabilitation of Degraded forests: The degraded area under forests needs immediate attention for ecological restoration and for meeting the socio economic needs of the communities living in and around such areas.
  2. Recreation Forestry: It is the practice of forestry with the object of raising flowering trees and shrubs mainly to serve as recreation forests for the urban and rural population. This type of forestry is also known as Aesthetic forestry.

Toda Embroidery and Dokra metalwork, both the artworks are protected under Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999. True or False?

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Answer:

Toda Embroidery and Dokra metalwork both artworks are protected under Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999.

Enrich Your Learning:

Toda shawl

  • Toda Embroidery is an art work among the Toda tribe of Nilgiris, in Tamil Nadu.
  • The Toda women embroider the traditional draped garment called poothkuli or shawl. The word Pugur in Toda language means flower.
  • It is a thick white cotton clothused as a mantle by both men and women. The main material of unbleached, white cotton, is hand woven in single width and the embroidery is done by counting of threads of red and black colour.
  • The embroidery is worked on the reverse of the cloth to produce a rich, embossed effect on the surface.
  • They create the design on the cloth without tracing the pattern or referringto a book. The finished cloth is reversible, in the sense that both sides have a neat design.
  • This handicraft product is listed as a geographically tagged product and is protected under the Geographical Indications of Goods(Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999 of the Government of India.

Dokra metalwork

  • Dokra metalwork an ancient metal craft that is popular in the tribal regions of the states Odisha, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, India.
  • The uniqueness of this art form is that no two sculptures are the same, as they are not made out of a pre-designed cast.
  • As part of this technique, the craftsmen use clay and design a modelof the sculpture that they want to create.
  • They wrap the clay with wax threads before baking the mould, so that the wax melts away and the molten metal is poured into the mould.
  • It is also known as the lost-wax technique. Apart from India it was used in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, China and Greece.
  • This metal craft is protected under Geographical Indications of Goods(Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999 of the Government of India.

    Answer:

    Toda Embroidery and Dokra metalwork both artworks are protected under Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999.

    Enrich Your Learning:

    Toda shawl

    • Toda Embroidery is an art work among the Toda tribe of Nilgiris, in Tamil Nadu.
    • The Toda women embroider the traditional draped garment called poothkuli or shawl. The word Pugur in Toda language means flower.
    • It is a thick white cotton clothused as a mantle by both men and women. The main material of unbleached, white cotton, is hand woven in single width and the embroidery is done by counting of threads of red and black colour.
    • The embroidery is worked on the reverse of the cloth to produce a rich, embossed effect on the surface.
    • They create the design on the cloth without tracing the pattern or referringto a book. The finished cloth is reversible, in the sense that both sides have a neat design.
    • This handicraft product is listed as a geographically tagged product and is protected under the Geographical Indications of Goods(Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999 of the Government of India.

    Dokra metalwork

    • Dokra metalwork an ancient metal craft that is popular in the tribal regions of the states Odisha, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, India.
    • The uniqueness of this art form is that no two sculptures are the same, as they are not made out of a pre-designed cast.
    • As part of this technique, the craftsmen use clay and design a modelof the sculpture that they want to create.
    • They wrap the clay with wax threads before baking the mould, so that the wax melts away and the molten metal is poured into the mould.
    • It is also known as the lost-wax technique. Apart from India it was used in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, China and Greece.
    • This metal craft is protected under Geographical Indications of Goods(Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999 of the Government of India.

Yogyakarta Principles are related to?

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Answer:  Yogyakarta Principles are the standards of international human rights law to address the abuse of human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and intersex people.

Enrich Your Learning:

Yogyakarta Principles:

  • The Yogyakarta Principles is a document about human rights in the areas of sexual orientation and gender identity, published as the outcome of an international meeting of human rights groups in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in November 2006.
  • The Principles were supplemented in 2017, expanding to include new grounds of gender expression and sex characteristics, and a number of new principles.
  • The Principles affirm binding international legal standards with which all States must comply.
  • The Principles and the supplement contains a set of precepts intended to apply the standards of international human rights law to address the abuse of human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and intersex people.

Coverage:

  • The Yogyakarta Principles address the broad range of human rights standardsand their application to issues of sexual orientation and gender identity.
  • These includeextrajudicial executions, violence and torture, access to justice, privacy, non-discrimination, rights to freedom of expression and assembly, employment, health, education, immigration and refugee issues, public participation, and a variety of other rights.

Principles:

  1. The Right to the Universal Enjoyment of Human Rights and Non-Discrimination and Recognition before the Law.
  2. Rights to Human and Personal Security
  3. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  4. Rights to Expression, Opinion and Association
  5. Freedom of Movement and Asylum
  6. Rights of Participation in Cultural and Family Life
  7. Rights of Human Rights Defenders
  8. Rights of Redress and Accountability etc.

Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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