Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-60] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

The International Court of Justice (ICJ); Van Dhan Scheme; GPS-aided Geo augmented navigation (GAGAN); World Heritage Committee; Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM); Location of North Korea; Location of South Korea; International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC); Chandrayaan-2 mission; Incremental Capital Output Ratio (ICOR); Oxytocin;
By IASToppers
May 08, 2020

A hormone named Oxytocin is secreted by which gland in human?

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Answer:  Oxytocin is secreted by Pituitary gland which is located at the base of the brain.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Oxytocin is a hormone that is made in the brain, in the hypothalamus.
  • It is transported to, and secreted by the pituitary glandwhich is located at the base of the brain.
  • It acts both as a hormone and as a brain neurotransmitter.
  • The release of oxytocin by the pituitary gland acts to regulate two female reproductive functions: Childbirth and Breast-feeding.


  • Oxytocin has also been dubbed the hug hormone, cuddle chemical, moral molecule, and the bliss hormone due to its effects on behavior, including its role in love and in female reproductive biological functions in reproduction.
  • The drug is used by dairy owners and farmers to boost milk production and make vegetables look bigger and fresher.But, it was found that indiscriminate use of Oxytocin in milch animals and by farmers was causing irreversible hormone damage.

Suppose the government targets an economic growth of 9% for next year and the capital output ratio in India is 4. To meet this target, should investment be increased or decreased at what rate?

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Suppose the government targets an economic growth of 9% for next year and the capital output ratio in India is 4. Here, to realize 9% growth, investment should be increased to 36% (9 x4).

Enrich Your Learning:

Incremental Capital Output Ratio (ICOR)

  • The incremental capital output ratio (ICOR) is a frequently used tool that explains the relationship between the value of capital invested and the value of output.
  • ICOR indicates the additional unit of capital or investment needed to produce an additional unit of output. ICOR reflects how efficiently capital is being usedto generate additional output.
  • For example, if the 10% additional capital is required to push the overall output by a percent, the ICOR will be 10.
  • Lower the ICOR, the better it is. So a country with ICOR of 3 is better than a country with ICOR of 5.
  • A lower capital output ratio shows that only low level of investment is neededto produce a given growth rate in the economy. This is considered as a desirable situation.
  • Lower capital output ratio shows that capital is very productive or efficient.
  • The Formula the Incremental Capital Output Ratio is

ICOR= Annual Investment/Annual Increase in GDP

Capital output ratio in economic planning

  • Capital output ratio has very good use in economic planning.
  • It explains the relationship between level of investment and the corresponding economic growth.
  • There is a simple equation in economics that shows the relationship between investment, capital output ratio and economic growth.

G = S/V

  • Here, G is economic growth, S is saving as a percentage of GDP and V is capital output ratio.

Chandrayaan-2 mission aimed to land at which region of the Moon?

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Answer: Chandrayaan-2 mission aimed to land on the south pole of the Moon.

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Chandrayaan-2 mission:


  • Chandrayaan 2 mission was a ?1000-crore ambitious mission of ISRO to explore the South Pole of Moon.
  • It was launched on 22 July 2019 and was expected to have soft landing on the moon on September 7, 2019.
  • It suffered partial failureafter its communication was lost with mission’s Vikram lander and Pragyan rover due to hard landing over the surface of moon.

India’s second mission to the Moon:

  • The Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar mission, after the previously successful Chandrayaan-1 missionthat was launched in 2008.
  • Chandrayaan-2 mission had three parts: an orbiter, a Lander (named Vikram) and a Rover (named Pragyan).
  • The orbiter aimed to perform mapping of moon from an altitude of 100 kilometres, while the lander was to made a soft landing in a high plain between two craters Manzinus C and Simpelius N and send out the rover on the moon surface.


  • The mission life of Orbiter is one yearwhereas the mission life of lander and rover was one Lunar day (14 earth days).
  • The mission also carried Laser retroreflector arrays(a passive experimental instrument of NASA) to calculate exact distance between moon and earth.


  • To study Moon’s topography, mineralogy, exospherealong with study of seismic activities.
  • To study the density of the electrons in the Moon’s ionosphere(the uppermost part of the atmosphere ionized by radiation).
  • To demonstrate the ability to have a soft landing on the lunar surfaceand operate a robotic rover on moon.
  • To study the water distributionusing infrared spectroscopy, synthetic aperture radiometry & polarimetry and mass spectroscopy techniques.

Significance of the mission:

  • It was first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surfacewith indigenous technology.
  • Earlier only three countries- US, Russia and China had made soft landing over Moon.
  • It was the first mission of any countryto land on the south pole of the Moon.

Moon’s South Pole region:

  • The South Pole region of Moon is still unexplored, has craters that are cold traps and contain a fossil record of the early Solar System.
  • Due to the moon’s low angular tilted axis, few regions on the south pole of moon remains forever dark (sunlight cannot reach there or reached very few).
  • In other words, the lunar south pole remains in shadow than north pole.
  • Hence, it is more likely that water, in the form of ice, and some other volatile elements could be found in the south pole region.

Which countries established the International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) in 2000?

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INSTC is an ambitious multimodal transport system established in 2000 by Iran, Russia and India to promote transportation cooperation.

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International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC):

  • It is aimed to provide the shortest multi-model transportation route linking the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea via Iran and St Petersburg.
  • Objective:to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Bandar Abbas, Astrakhan, Bandar Anzali and etc.
  • The estimated capacity of the corridor is 20-30 million tonnes of goods per year.


  • It is planned to connect the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea through Iran and then onwards to St. Petersburg and northern Europe through Russia.
  • The route primarily involves moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail and road.

Which countries are located between the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and the Yellow Sea?

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The North Korea and the South Korea are located between the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and the Yellow Sea.

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Location of North Korea

  • North Korea is a country in East Asia. It occupies the northern portion of the Korean peninsula, which juts out from the Asian mainland.
  • It is located between the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and the Yellow Sea.
  • North Korea shares land borders with 3 countries: Russia, South Korea, China.
  • Pyongyang is the capital city of Korea, North.
  • North Korea faces South Korea across a demilitarized zone (DMZ)5 miles (4 km) wide.
  • North Korea is among the top 20 countries exporting fishery products.

Location of South Korea

  • The Republic of Korea (ROK) is a country in eastern Asiathat occupies the southern part of the Korean peninsula.
  • It is located between the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in east, the Yellow Sea in west. It has the Korea Strait,a sea passage between South Korea and Japan in the south.
  • South Korea has a land border with North Koreain north. The country also shares maritime borders with China and Japan.
  • Seoulis the capital city of South Korea.









Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM) is an initiative of which ministry?

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Answer: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

Enrich Your Learning:

Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM):

  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan Scheme is an initiative of Ministry of New and Renewable Energyfor farmers.
  • It is aimed to aid the farmers in installation of solar pumps and grid connected solar and other renewable power plants in the country.


The proposed scheme consists of three components:

  • Component-A: 10,000 MW of Decentralized Ground Mounted Grid Connected Renewable Power Plants.
  • Component-B: Installation of 17.50 lakh standalone Solar Powered Agriculture Pumps.
  • Component-C: Solarisation of 10 Lakh Grid-connected Solar Powered Agriculture Pumps.
  • All three components combined, the scheme aims to add a solar capacity of 25,750 MW by 2022.
  • The total central financial support provided under the scheme would be Rs. 34,422 crores.

Component A:

  • Under Component A, Renewable power plants of capacity 500 KW to 2 MW will be setup by individual farmers/ cooperatives/panchayats /farmer producer organisations (FPO) on their barren or cultivable lands.
  • The power generated will be purchased by the DISCOMsat Feed in tariffs determined by respective SERC.

Component B:

  • Under Component B, individual farmers will be supported to install standalone solar pumpsof capacity up to 7.5 HP.
  • Solar PV capacity in kW equal to the pump capacity in HP is allowed under the scheme.

Component C:

  • Under Component C of the scheme, individual farmers will be supported to solarise pumpsof capacity up to 7.5 HP.
  • Solar PV capacity up to two times of pump capacity in kW is allowed under the scheme.
  • The farmer will be able to use the generated energy to meet the irrigation needsand the excess available energy will be sold to DISCOM.


  • The scheme will open a stable and continuous source of income to the rural land ownersfor a period of 25 years by utilisation of their dry/uncultivable land.
  • Further, in case cultivated fields are chosen for setting up solar power project, the farmers could continue to grow crops as the solar panels are to be set up above a minimum height.
  • The proposed scheme would ensure that sufficient local solar/ other renewable energy based power is available for feeding rural load centresand agriculture pump-set loads, which require power mostly during the day time.
  • As these power plants will be located closer to the agriculture loads or to electrical substations in a decentralized manner, it will result in reduced Transmission losses for STUs and Discoms.
  • The solar pumps will save the expenditure incurred on diesel for running diesel pump and provide the farmers a reliable source of irrigationthrough solar pump apart from preventing harmful pollution from running diesel pump.
  • The scheme has direct employment potential. Besides increasing self-employment, the proposal is likely to generate employment opportunity equivalent to 6.31 lakh job years for skilled and unskilled workers. 

India is one of the members of World Heritage Committee’s 21 States Parties. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

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World Heritage Committee:

  • The World Heritage Committee is composed of representatives of 21 States Parties to the World Heritage Convention who meet annually.
  • The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites,including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger.
  • It examines reports on the state of conservation of inscribed propertiesand asks States Parties to take action when properties are not being properly managed.
  • It also decides on the inscription or deletion of properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
  • The Committee
  • is responsible for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention,
  • Defines the use of the World Heritage Fundand
  • allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.

India’s successful payloads of GPS-aided Geo augmented navigation (GAGAN) is currently operational through which satellites?

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GPS-aided Geo augmented navigation (GAGAN) Payload is operational through GSAT-8, GSAT-10 and GSAT-15 satellites.

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GPS-aided Geo augmented navigation (GAGAN)

  • GAGAN is a step by the Indian Government towards initial Satellite-based Navigation Services in India.
  • It is a system to improve the accuracy of a global navigation satellite system(GNSS) receiver by providing reference signals.
  • The Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)have collaborated to develop the GAGAN as a regional Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS).
  • The GAGAN’s goal is to provide a navigation system to assist aircraft in accurate landing over the Indian airspace and in the adjoining area and applicable to safety-to-life civil operations.
  • The system is inter-operable with other international SBAS systemslike US-WAAS, European EGNOS, and Japanese MSAS etc.
  • GAGAN GEO footprint extends from Africa to Australia and has expansion capability for seamless navigation services across the region.
  • GAGAN provides the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary for all phases of flight, from enroute through approach for all qualified airports within the GAGAN service volume.
  • GAGAN is the firstSatellite-Based Augmentation System in the world which has been certified for approach with vertical guidance operating in the equatorial ionospheric region.
  • One essential component of the GAGAN project is the study of the ionospheric behaviourover the Indian region. This makes India the third country in the world which has such precision approach capabilities.
  • GAGAN has been developed for aviation but it will provide benefits to other sectors as well like transportation, railways, surveying, maritime, highways, telecom industry, and security agencies.

Name the official languages of the International Court of Justice (ICJ).

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The official languages of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) are English and French.

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The International Court of Justice (ICJ):

  • It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations(UN). It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946.
  • The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands).Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York (United States of America).
  • The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by Statesand to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
  • The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council.It is assisted by a Registry, its administrative organ.

What is the main objective of the Van Dhan Scheme?

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Answer: Van Dhan Scheme is aimed to improve tribal incomes through value addition of tribal products.

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Van Dhan Scheme:

  • The Van Dhan Scheme is an initiative of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs and Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Limited (TRIFED).
  • It was launched on April, 2018 and seeks to improve tribal incomes through value addition of tribal products.


  • The scheme will be implemented through Ministry of Tribal Affairs as Nodal Department at theCentral Level and TRIFED as Nodal Agency at the National Level.
  • At State level, the State Nodal Agency for MFPs and the District collectors are envisaged to play a pivot role in scheme implementation at grassroots level.

Minor Forest Produce and tribal livelihoods:

  • Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is a major source of livelihood for tribals living in forest areas.
  • The importance of MFPs for this section of the society can be gauged from the fact that around 100 million forest dwellers depend on MFPs for food, shelter, medicines and cash income.
  • It provides them critical subsistence during the lean seasons, particularly for primitive tribal groups such as hunter gatherers, and the landless.
  • Tribals derive 20-40% of their annual income from MFPon which they spend major portion of their time.
  • This activity has strong linkage to women’s financial empowermentas most of the MFPs are collected and used/sold by women.

Key Highlights of Van Dhan Initiative:

  • At unit level, aggregation of produce would be done by SHGs having about 30 members each forming Van Dhan Vikas ‘Samuh’.
  • Provision for required building/ infrastructure support to be established in one of the beneficiary’s house/ part of house or Government/ gram panchayat building.
  • Equipment/ Tool Kit comprising of equipment such as small cutting and sieving tools, decorticator, dryer, packaging tool etc. based on MFPs available in the area.
  • Provisioning of working capital for the SHGs through tie up with financial institutions, banks, NSTFDC etc.
  • A cluster of ten such SHGs within the same village shall form a Van Dhan Vikas Kendra.
  • Subject to successful operations of the samuhs in a Kendra, common infrastructure facilities may be provided to the Kendra in the next phase in terms of building, warehouse, etc. for use of the samuh members.

Implementation of the scheme:

  • Under Van Dhan, 10 Self Help Groups of 30 Tribal gatherers is constituted.
  • The establishment of “Van Dhan Vikas Kendra” is for providing skill upgradation and capacity building training and setting up of primary processing and value addition facility.
  • They are then trained and provided with working capital to add value to the products, which they collect from the jungle.
  • Working under the leadership of Collector these groups can then market their products not only within the States but also outside the States.
  • Training and technical support is provided by TRIFED. It is proposed to develop 3,000 such centres in the country.
  • The Van Dhan Vikas Kendras will be important milestone in economic development of tribalsinvolved in collection of MFPs by helping them in optimum utilization of natural resources and provide sustainable MFP-based livelihood in MFP-rich districts.

Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020

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