Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-61] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Anglo Burma Wars; Phagotroph, Osmotrophs, Autotroph; Phytoremediation; Dhap Dance; Special Leave Petition (SLP); 'Procedure established by law'; Saan people/Bushmen; Water Demand and Utilisation; Small Finance Banks (SFBs); Sterilization;
By IASToppers
May 09, 2020

Define the term Sterilization in context of economy.

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Answer:

Sterilization is a form of monetary action in which a central bank seeks to limit the effect of inflows and outflows of capital on the money supply.

Enrich Your Learning:

Sterilization:

  • Sterilisation is the intervention by the monetary authority (like RBI) of a country in the money market to keep the money supply stable against exogenous or sometimes external shocks as an increase in foreign exchange inflow.
  • It refers to the process by which the RBI takes away money from the banking system to neutralise the fresh money that enters the system.
  • It counters the effects on the money supply caused by a balance of paymentssurplus or deficit.
  • This can involve open market operationsundertaken by RBI to neutralize the impact of associated foreign exchange operations.
  • Sterilization is most often used to negate potentially harmful impacts of capital inflowssuch as currency appreciation and inflation, both of which can reduce export competitiveness.
  • It seeks to hold the domestic money supplyunchanged despite external shocks or other changes.
  • The sterilization process is used to manipulate the value of one domestic currencyrelative to another, and is initiated in the foreign exchange market.

Idea behind sterilization:

  • Suppose the RBI decides to buy US dollars (USD) from the market. Now, the money held by the RBI does not form part of the banking system. So, if the RBI releases rupees from its coffers to buy dollars, the money supply in the banking system increases. That can be a problem.
  • More money in the banking system means higher bond prices, because banks will have more money, they will buy more bonds.
  • And that will push up bond prices. Since bonds carry an inverse price-yield relationship, higher bond prices mean lower yields.
  • The problem is that lower yields will force the RBI to cut interest rates further.
  • If the RBI does not want to cut rates, it will reduce liquidity (sterilize) that causes the yields to fall by selling the government bonds that it holds in its books.
  • This means that sterilisation is possible only to the extent that the RBI holds government bonds in its portfolio.

 

Can Small Finance Banks be converted into universal banks?

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Answer:

If small finance bank aspires to transit into a universal bank, such transition will not be automatic, but would be subject to fulfilling minimum paid-up voting equity capital / net worth requirement as applicable to universal banks; its satisfactory track record of performance as a small finance bank for a minimum period of five years and the outcome of RBI’s due diligence exercise.

Enrich Your Learning:

Small Finance Banks (SFBs):

  • Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India. Banks with a small finance bank license can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending.
  • The Reserve Bank of India issued guidelines for setting up SFBs in 2014.
  • SFBs clients include small business units, small farmers, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)and various other unorganised sectors.
  • The minimum paid-up equity capital for small finance banks shall be Rs. 100 crore.

Activities of SFBs:

  • Undertake basic banking activities of acceptance of deposits and lending to unserved and underserved sectionsincluding small business units, small and marginal farmers, micro and small industries and unorganised sector entities.
  • There will not be any restriction in the area of operations of small finance banks.

Objective of establishment of Small Finance Banks (SFBs)

  • Provision of savings vehicles
  • Supply of credit to small business units, small and marginal farmers, micro and small industries and other unorganized sector entities, through high technology-low cost operations.

Key facts:

  • There are two types of licenses which are granted by the RBI namely ‘Universal bank licenses’ and ‘Differentiated bank licenses’.
  • Differentiated banks licenses serves a specific demographic region instead of the general mass as a whole.
  • Small Finance Bank caters different type of customers, mainly the ones who are not being serviced by the big commercial banks.

The share of industrial sector in using surface water is higher than the ground-water utilization while the share of domestic sector using surface water is lower than the ground-water utilization. True OR False.

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Answer: False

Correct statement:

The share of industrial sector is limited to 2 per cent of the surface water utilisation and 5 per cent of the ground-water.

The share of domestic sector is higher (9 per cent) in surface water utilisation as compared to groundwater.

 

Enrich Your Learning:

Water Demand and Utilisation:

India has traditionally been an agrarian economy and about two-third of its population have been dependent on agriculture.

Hence, development of irrigation to increase agricultural production has been assigned a very high priority in the Five-Year Plans.

Multipurpose river valleys projects like the Bhakra-Nangal, Hirakud, Damodar Valley, Nagarjuna Sagar, Indira Gandhi Canal Project, etc. have been taken up.

In fact, India’s water demand at present is dominated by irrigational needs.

Agriculture accounts for most of the surface and ground water utilisation, it accounts for 89 per cent of the surface water and 92 per cent of the groundwater utilisation.

While the share of industrial sector is limited to 2 per cent of the surface water utilisation and 5 per cent of the ground-water.

The share of domestic sector is higher (9 per cent) in surface water utilisation as compared to groundwater.

The share of agricultural sector in total water utilisation is much higher than other sectors.

However, in future, with development, the shares of industrial and domestic sectors in the country are likely to increase.

The San or Saan peoples are the indigenous peoples of a) Southern Africa OR b) Australia?

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Answer: The San or Saan peoples are the indigenous peoples of Southern Africa.

Enrich Your Learning:

Saan people/Bushmen:

The San or Saan peoples, also known as the Bushmen are members of various Khoisan-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa.

Their territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa.

There is a significant linguistic difference between the northern peoples living between the Okavango River in Botswana and Etosha National Park in northwestern Namibia.

The hunter-gatherer Sān are among the oldest cultures on Earth and are thought to be descended from the first inhabitants of what is now Botswana and South Africa.

The historical presence of the San in Botswana is particularly evident in northern Botswana’s Tsodilo Hills region.

Sān were traditionally semi-nomadic, moving seasonally within certain defined areas based on the availability of resources such as water, game animals, and edible plants.

What is the difference between the ‘due process of law’ and ‘procedure established by law’?

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Answer:

The difference between “due process of law” and “procedure established by law ” is that under the American system, a law must satisfy the criteria of a liberal democracy. In India “procedure established by law”, on the other hand, means a law duly enacted is valid even if it’s contrary to principles of justice and equity.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Procedure established by law’:

  • The ‘procedure established by law’ is contained in the Indian Constitution.
  • It is narrower than ‘due process of law’ in scope.
  • The Supreme Court, while determining the constitutionality of a law examines only the substantive question i.e., whether the law is within the powers of the authority concerned or not.
  • The SC is not expected to go into the question of its reasonableness, suitability or policy implications.

Doctrine of ‘due process of law’:

  • The due process of law gives wide scope to the Supreme Court to grant protection to the rights of its citizens.
  • It can declare laws violative of these rights void not only on substantive grounds of being unlawful, but also on procedural grounds of being unreasonable.

Which article of the Constitution of India gives power to the Supreme Court to grant special permission to an aggrieved party to appeal against an order passed in any of the lower courts/ tribunals in India?

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Answer:

Under Article 136, the Constitution of India gives power to the Supreme Court to grant special permission or leave to an aggrieved party to appeal against an order passed in any of the lower courts or tribunals in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Special Leave Petition (SLP):

  • Special leave petition (SLP) means that an individual takes special permission to be heard in appeal against any high court/tribunal verdict. Thus, it is not an appeal but a petition filed for an appeal.
  • So, after an SLP is filed, the Supreme Court may hear the matter and if it deems fit, it may grant the ‘leave’ and convert that petition into an ‘appeal’. SLP shall then become an Appeal and the Court will hear the matter and pass a judgment.

SLP can be presented under following circumstance:

  • It can be filed against any judgment or decree or order of any high court /tribunal in the territory of India, or
  • It can be filed in case a high court refuses to grant the certificate of fitness for appeal to Supreme Court of India.

Time limit to file SLP:

  • It can be filed against any judgment of a high court within 90 daysfrom the date of judgment, or
  • It can be filed within 60 daysagainst the order of a high court refusing to grant the certificate of fitness for appeal to Supreme Court.

Mainly farmers are participat in the Dhap folk dance of Odisha. True OR Flase.

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Answer: False

Correct Statement: 

  • Mostly unmarried boys and girls participate in this dance. Men of one village dance with women of another village

Enrich Your Learning:

Dhap Dance:

  • This Sambalpuri folk dance of Odishais mostly performed by the Kandha tribe of Kosal region.
  • Both men and women participatein this dance. Men of one village dance with women of another village. Mostly unmarried boys and girls participate in this dance.
  • Dhap dance is mainly performed during marriage ceremony and also for the sake of recreation.
  • The name of the dance has been derived from the musical instrument Dhap,which accompanies this dance.
  • The dancers hold the Dhap with their left hands and beat with their right as well as left hands.

Who were the signatories in the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826?

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Answer:

The Treaty of Yandabu treaty brought peace between East India Company and the King of Ava that ended the first Anglo-Burmese war.

Enrich Your Learning:

Anglo Burma Wars:

First Anglo Burma War (1824-26):

  • The first war with Burma was fought when the Burmese expansion westwards and occupation of Arakan and Manipur, and the threat to Assam and the Brahmaputra Valleyled to continuous friction along the ill-defined border between Bengal and Burma.
  • The British expeditionary forces occupied Rangoonin May 1824 and reached within 72 km of the capital at Ava.
  • Peace was established in 1826 with the Treaty of Yandabowhich provided that the Government of Burma:
  • pay rupees one crore as war compensation;
  • cede its coastal provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim;
  • abandon claims on Assam, Cachar and Jaintia;
  • recognise Manipur as an independent state;
  • negotiate a commercial treaty with Britain; and
  • accept a British resident at Ava, while posting a Burmese envoy at Calcutta.

Second Burma War (1852):

  • The second war was the result of the British commercial need and the imperialist policy of Lord Dalhousie.
  • The British merchants were keen to get hold of timber resources of upper Burma and also sought further inroads into the Burmese market. This time, the British occupied Pegu, the only remaining coastal province of Burma.
  • An intense guerrilla resistance had to be overcome before complete British control of lower Burma could be established.

Third Burma War (1885):

  • After the death of Burmese King Bhindan, his son Thibaw succeeded to the throne. Thibaw, from the beginning itself, was hostile towards the British.
  • The British merchants at Rangoon and lower Burma had been complaining about the step-motherly treatment by Thibaw, who had also been negotiating commercial treaties with the rival powers of France, Germany and Italy.
  • The French also planned to lay a rail linkfrom Mandalay to the French territory at a time when the British were in conflict with the French in Niger, Egypt and Madagascar.
  • A humiliating fine had been imposed on a British timber company by Thibaw. Dufferin ordered the invasion and final annexation of upper Burma in 1885.

Define the term: ‘Phytoremediation’.

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Solution:

The bioremediation process that uses various types of plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy contaminants in the soil and groundwater is known as Phytoremediation.

Enrich Your Learning:

Phytoremediation:

  • It refers to the natural ability of certain plants called hyper accumulators to bio accumulate, degrade, or render harmless contaminants in soil, water, or air.
  • Toxic heavy metals and organic pollutants are the major targets for phytoremediation.

Different types of Phytoremediation:

  • Rhizosphere biodegradation: The plant releases natural substances through its roots, supplying nutrients to microorganisms in the soil, and the microorganisms enhance biological degradation.
  • Phyto-stabilization: Through this process, chemical compounds produced by the plant immobilize contaminants, rather than degrade them.
  • Phyto-accumulation/phyto-extraction: Plants take up or hyper-accumulate contaminants through their roots and store them in the tissues of the stem or leaves.
  • The contaminants are thus removed from the environment, even though it is not necessarily degraded.
  • Metals from soil are removed through this process.
  • In some cases, the metals can be recovered for reuse by incinerating the plants in a process called phytomining.
  • Hydroponic Systems for Treating Water Streams (Rhizofiltration): The plants used for clean-up are raised in greenhouses with their roots, and the process is similar to phyto-accumulation.
  • It can be used for ex-situ groundwater treatment, where ground water is pumped to the surface to irrigate these plants.
  • Phyto-volatilization: Plants take up water containing organic contaminants and release the contaminants into the air through their leaves in this process.
  • Phyto-degradation: Through the process of Phyto-degradation, plants actually metabolize and destroy contaminants within plant tissues.
  • Hydraulic Control: In this process, trees indirectly remediate by controlling groundwater movement.

Applicability:

  • Phytoremediation is used for the remediation of metals, radionuclides, pesticides, explosives, fuels, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs).

Limitation:

  • The use of phytoremediation is limited to sites with lower contaminant concentrations and contamination in shallow soils, streams, and groundwater.
  • The success of phytoremediation may be seasonal, depending on location. Other climatic factors will also influence its effectiveness.
  • Phytoremediation is not effective for strongly sorbed contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
  • Phytoremediation requires a large surface area of land for remediation.

Define the terms: Phagotroph, Osmotrophs, Autotroph

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

What is Phagotroph?

  • Phagotroph is an organism that obtains nutrients through the ingestion of solid organic matter. This class of organism includes all animals from the simplest, single-celled animal(for example, the protozoa) to the higher life forms.

What is an Osmotroph?

  • Osmotroph is an organism that obtains nutrients through the active uptake of soluble materials across the cell membrane.
  • Examples are bacteria and fungi.

What is an Autotroph?

  • Autotrophs are any organisms that are capable of producing their own food.
  • Examples are Plants which utilize light energy, water and carbon dioxide to produce food. Some bacteria, especially in an extreme environment, can synthesize their own food. These are called chemoautotrophs.

 


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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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