- The Mopin festival is a harvest festival celebrated by the Galo tribe of Arunachal Pradeshin the Galo months of Lumi and Luki.
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Mopin Festival – Arunachal Pradesh:
- The Mopin festival is a harvest festival celebrated by the Galo tribe of Arunachal Pradeshin the Galo months of Lumi and Luki (March and April, according to the Gregorian calendar).
- The presiding deity of the festival is Mopin Ane—the goddess of fertility and prosperity of the animist religion of Donyi-Polo.
- During the festival, people dress up in white and consume the locally-brewed alcoholic beverage apung/poka, eat aamin (a dish made of rice, meat and bamboo shoot) and perform the traditional dance of popir.
Hareli and Pola – Chhattisgarh:
- Hareliand Pola are two monsoon festivals that were traditionally observed by the various ‘cultivator’ tribes in the region, but are now celebrated across the state.
- Hareli usually falls in July,and the name comes from the Hindi word hariyali (greenery).
- It is only celebrated after a calculation of the planets (grahas) when seeds have germinated and seedlings have become visibly taller, which is why there is no fixed date.
- Pola on the other hand, is an event of offering gratitude to the bail (Ox) for his labour on the field and is celebrated shortly after Hareli.
- Pola is celebrated when rice grains start germinating.
- It falls on the day of the Pithori Amavasya (new moon day) in the month of Bhadon.
- The festival has two important aspects, first it is indebted to the bullocksand second, a belief is widely held that during Pola, the goddess Annapurna is impregnated.
Karma – Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand:
- The Karma festival is celebrated across the states of Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand.
- It is held on the 11th moon of the Bhadra month(between August and September) and is dedicated to Karam—the god of youthfulness.
- It is accompanied by dancing and music.
- The festival is celebrated in the honour of fertility, prosperity and well-being.
Nuakhai – Odisha:
- Baisakhi is to Punjabis, Nuakhai or Nuankhai is for the people of western Odisha.
- The name translates to ‘new food’, reinforcing its importance as a harvest festival.
- It is believed that the festival began in the 20th century under the reign of Maharaja Fatenarayan Deo and usually falls in the months of August or September.
- It is associated with nine colours and, hence, there are nine rituals that follow on the day of the festival.
Wangala – Meghalaya, Nagaland and Assam:
- Also known as the ‘Hundred Drums Festival’,Wangala is celebrated by the people of the Garo tribe from Meghalaya, Nagaland and Assam.
- Various food items made from rice—a staple in this region—and rice beer (called chubitchi/chubok/chu) are consumed during the festivities.
- The date of the Wangala varies from village to village and it takes place between September and December.
- Typically, the celebrations are accompanied by dance and music, with people from across the village participating.
Pawl Kut – Mizoram:
- The Pawl Kut harvest festival is celebrated by the Kuki, Chin and Mizo tribes of Mizoram in December.
- The word ‘pawl’ means straw and ‘kut’ means festival, signifying its association with harvest.
- It is essentially a thanksgiving festival and is accompanied by revelry and joy.
- A few days before the feast, the men go hunting and during the festival, it is customary to consume meat and eggs.
Tusu – West Bengal, Jharkhand and Odisha:
- Tusu is a harvest festival of the Kurmi community of West Bengal, Jharkhand and Odisha.
- It is celebrated from the last day of Aghrahayan to the last day of the Bengali month of Poush (mid-November to mid-December).
- During the festival, various instruments such as the mandars, dhak and jhanjahri are played.
Gaan Ngai – Assam, Manipur and Nagaland:
- The post-harvest Gaan Ngai festival is celebrated by the Zeliangrongpeople—a portmanteau of Zeme, Liangmai and Rongmei tribes from Assam, Manipur and Nagaland.
- The annual festival commences on the 13th day of the Manipuri month of Wakching (December–January).
- Though the rituals, customs and celebrations differ from village to village, there are some similarities across the tribes.
- Gaan Ngai is usually celebrated over a period of five days. On the first day, a pig is sacrificed, cooked and eaten.This ritual is known as Jeigan Tumei.
- Sport competitions such as long jump and stone-throwing—collectively called Taophai Danchammei—are associated with Gaan Ngai.
- Numerous dances such as Tuna Gaan Laam and Napteng Laam are performed over the five days by boys and girls.