Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-62] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Methods to Control Air Pollution; Regulatory Sandbox; Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2018 report of World Bank; Acid Rain; Temple Entry Bill, 1934; Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2018; Republic; Characteristics of Squatter settlements; Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur, HVJ;
By IASToppers
May 10, 2020

Name the India’s first cross state gas pipeline.

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Answer:

Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur is India’s first cross state gas pipeline.

Enrich Your Learning:

Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur, HVJ:

Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur is India’s first cross state gas pipeline.

It was started in 1986 after the incorporation of GAIL (India) Limited to supply gas to the fertilizer plants located in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

The first phase of the project consisting of non-branched 1,750 kilometer grid was commissioned in 1997.

Later on, the system was expanded with additional branches to supply gas for industrial and domestic use in the states of Rajasthan, Haryana and NCT, which increased the total grid length to 3,474 km.

Mention the Characteristics of Squatter settlements.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Characteristics of Squatter settlements:

The squatter settlement is unplanned and has the following characteristics:

overcrowded, noisy and smelly

houses are made from cardboard, wood, corrugated iron, plastic sheeting and metal from oil drums

lack of sanitation, clean drinking water and open sewers

pollution and disease are common

thousands of workshops and people employed in the informal job sector

What are the salient features of a Republic form of government?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Features of a Republic:

  • A country that has a government in which power is held by the people who elect representatives.
  • Republic, form of government in which a state is ruled by representatives of the citizen body.
  • Modern republics are founded on the idea that sovereignty rests with the people, though who is included and excluded from the category of the people has varied across history.
  • Because citizens do not govern the state themselves but through representatives, republics may be distinguished from direct democracy, though modern representative democracies are by and large republics.
  • The term republic may also be applied to any form of government in which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch.
  • Non-monarchy:the head of state/government is not a monarch, but an elected individual who is to be in the office for a specific period of time and, can be removed through the instrument of law if the need arises
  • Tenured administration; the principal political office holders, including the members of the executive and legislature are subject to specific tenure. For example, in some countries a President can only have a maximum of two terms, if re-elected. And a tenure may last four or five years.
  • Periodic elections: there must be periodic free and fair elections through which the electorate has the opportunity to select their representatives in government and the head of the executive.
  • Partisan politics and political parties: there must be at least two political parties so as to give the electorate choices to make when selecting whom to represent them and govern their affairs.
  • Supremacy of the Constitution: the constitution is above everyone and determine the behaviour, powers and limitations of each institutions in the state.
  • Popular sovereignty: the absolute power rests with the people, and they exercise directly influencing the governance of the state, or indirectly through their representatives.

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2018 states that persons accused of committing an offence under the Act can apply for anticipatory bail.  True OR False.

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Answer:

False.

Correct statement: Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2018 states that persons accused of committing an offence under the Act cannot apply for anticipatory bail.  

Enrich Your Learning:

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2018:

  • It seeks to amend the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. 

Amendments

  • 1989 Act provision: The Supreme Court stated that for persons accused of committing an offence under the 1989 Act, approval of the Senior Superintendent of Police will be required before an arrest is made. Further, the Deputy Superintendent of Police may conduct a preliminary enquiry to find out whether there is a prima facie case under the Act. 
  • New Bill Provision: The investigating officer will not require the approval of any authority for the arrest of an accused.  Further, it provides that a preliminary enquiry will not be required for the registration of a First Information Report against a person accused under the Act.
  • 1989 Act provision: Persons accused of committing an offence under the Act cannot apply for anticipatory bail. 
  • New Bill provision: This provision will apply despite any judgements or orders of a court that provide otherwise.

 

With reference to medieval India, who were ‘Nanadesi’?

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Answer: The Nanadesis were a guild of traders at the time of the Hoysala Empire.

 

Enrich Your Learning:

Nanadesi:

  • The Nanadesis were a guild of traderswho organized themselves into one of the biggest of the trading associations at the time of the Hoysala Empire.
  • They developed significant trade contact with many areas, including foreign countries such as Malaya, Magadha, Kosala, Nepal, and Persia.
  • They were respected in their communities and were generous in their grants to temples and mathas.
  • The term Nanadesi means “traders from other kingdoms” while nagaram was used for local merchants.

 

Que-90

Temple Entry Bill, 1934 was widely opposed by upper caste Hindus. True OR False.

Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Temple Entry Bill, 1934:

  • In the 1934, the Indian National Congress introduced a Temple Entry Billin the Madras Legislative Assembly as well as the Central Legislative Assembly.
  • The Bill, introduced by Ranga Iyerin the Central Assembly, called for temples in the country to be opened for lower castes.
  • The Bill was widely opposed by upper caste Hindus; ironically, temples that had started to allow lower castes entry began to shut their doors in light of the Bill.
  • Gandhi unsuccessfully fasted to galvanise public support against untouchability and the Bill,the British Government opposed the Bill, and as a result, Ranga Iyer withdrew the Bill.

In context of controlling Air Pollution, what is Zoning method?

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Solution:

Zoning is one of the methods to control the air pollution and it can be adopted at the planning stages of the city. Zoning advocates setting aside of separate areas for industries so that they are far removed from the residential areas.

Enrich Your Learning:

Methods to Control Air Pollution:

Source Correction Methods:

  • Formation of pollutants can be prevented and their emission can be minimised at the source itself.
  • By carefully investigating the early stages of design and development in industrial processes e.g., those methods which have minimum air pollution potential can be selected to accomplish air-pollution control at source itself.
  • These source correction methods are:

Substitution of raw materials:

  • If the use of a particular raw material results in air pollution, then it should be substituted by another purer grade raw material which reduces the formation of pollutants.
  • Low sulphur fuel which has less pollution potential can be used as an alternative to high Sulphur fuels.
  • Comparatively more refined liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be used instead of traditional high contaminant fuels such as coal.

Process Modification:

  • The existing process may be changed by using modified techniques to control emission at source.
  • For example, if coal is washed before pulverization, then fly-ash emissions are considerably reduced.

Modification of Existing Equipment:

  • Air pollution can be considerably minimised by making suitable modifications in the existing equipment.
  • For example, smoke, carbon-monoxide and fumes can be reduced if open hearth furnaces are replaced with controlled basic oxygen furnaces or electric furnaces.

Maintenance of Equipment:

  • An appreciable amount of pollution is caused due to poor maintenance of the equipment which includes the leakage around ducts, pipes, valves and pumps etc.
  • Emission of pollutants due to negligence can be minimised by a routine check-up of the seals and gaskets.

Pollution Control Equipment:

 

 

Diffusion of Pollutants in Air:

  • Dilution of the contaminants in the atmosphere is another approach to the control of air pollution.
  • If the pollution source releases only a small quantity of the contaminants, then pollution is not noticeable as these pollutants easily diffuse into the atmosphere.
  • But if the quantity of air contaminants is beyond the limited capacity of the environment to absorb the contaminants then pollution is caused.

Vegetation:

  • Plants contribute towards controlling air-pollution by utilizing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen in the process of photosynthesis. This purifies the air (removal of gaseous pollutant—CO2) for the respiration of men and animals.
  • Plenty of trees should be planted especially around those areas which are declared as high-risk areas of pollution.

Zoning:

  • This method of controlling air pollution can be adopted at the planning stages of the city.
  • Zoning advocates setting aside of separate areas for industries so that they are far removed from the residential areas. The heavy industries should not be located too close to each other.

In Acid rain process, the rain becomes acidic because carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide dissolve in rain drops to form carbonic acid, sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively. True OR False.

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Solution:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

Acid Rain:

  • Acid rain refers to the deposition of wet or dry acidic materials from the atmosphere on the earth’s surface.
  • They are the pollutants that may fall on the earth’s surface either in the form of snow, sleet, hail or fog or in the dry form of gases or particulate matter.
  • Acidity is measured on a pH scale that ranges from 0 to 14, where the lower end represents extreme acidity and the upper end extreme alkalinity.
  • It is a serious global problem and its impact can spread over long distances.

Sources of acid rain:

  • Sulphuric acid and nitric acid are considered as the principal agents responsible for acid rain.
  • Smokes emitted from the industries is the major source of sulphur dioxide whereas smokes emitted from the motor vehicle is the major source of nitrogen oxide.
  • Acid rain can also come in the form of hail, snow and sleet and dry depositions like soot and ash.

Effects of acid rain:

  • When these emissions get mixed with atmospheric moisture they form the sulphuric acid and nitric acids that will eventually precipitate on earth in various form.
  • In long term it adversely effects on human health and agricultural production.
  • It damages the aquatic eco-system the most. The most severe effect of acidification is on fish.
  • Total biomass in eco-systems is reduced from two to ten times because few organisms can tolerate acid. The diversity of species also decreases.
  • Acidic conditions affect the reproductive capabilities of fish, resulting in a slow decline of fish population.
  • Even buildings and monuments are being destroyed because acid deposition accelerated erosion capacity.
  • Burning fossil fuels like coal produces Sulphur and nitrogen dioxide, which mixes with atmospheric gases resulting in acid rain.
  • Acid rain caused by Sulphur and nitrogen dioxide in the air destroys fish and other creatures in rivers, lakes and streams, kills trees and plants.
  • Natural causes of acid rain are wild fires, fires in oil wells and volcanic eruptions that erupts gases into the air that mix with rain in the atmosphere and come down as acid rain.
  • Increase in the number of vehicles also increases the amount of acid rain received at the surface of the earth also.

The concept of societal poverty line, which is based on the typical level of consumption or income in each country, was introduced by which international institution?

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Answer:

The World Bank introduced a societal poverty line based on the typical level of consumption or income in each country.

 

Enrich Your Learning:

Highlights of Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2018 report of World Bank

  • The World Bank has introduced a societal poverty line based on the typical level of consumption or income in each country.
  • A societal poverty line that increases in value as a country gets richer—a global poverty line that reflects the variation in national poverty lines observed across the world.
  • It is a recognition that poverty is a deeply social and relative experience, so it cannot be detached from the social context of the individual.
  • According to world Bank, when judged by the relative standard of the society in which they live, almost 3 in 10 individuals were living in poverty in 2015.
  • It is for reflect national assessments of poverty in a global headcount of poverty.
  • Societal poverty line is derived from 699 harmonized national poverty lines, and has an intercept of $1 per day and a relative gradient of 50 percent of median national incomeor consumption.
  • The societal poverty line is moreclosely aligned with national definitions of poverty than other proposed relative lines.
  • By this relative measure, societal poverty has fallen steadily since 1990, but at a much slower pace than absolute extreme poverty.

Define the term regulatory sandbox.

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Answer:

A regulatory sandbox is a controlled mechanism within which the sector will be able to experiment with solutions in a closely-monitored ecosystem so that the risks do not spread outside it, and the reasons for failure can be analysed.

Enrich Your Learning:

Regulatory Sandbox:

  • The sandbox will enable fintech companies to conduct live or virtual testing of their new products and services. These companies will also be able to test the viability of the product without a wider and expensive rollout.
  • It will help fintech companies launch innovative products at a lower cost and in less time.
  • For the expansion of fintech sector, there are two main areasthat required attention were:
  • How to improve the accessibility of financial platforms using fintech.
  • Analysis potential risks that may arise out of fintech adoption.
  • Systemic risks may arise from unsustainable credit growth, increased inter-connectedness, procyclicality, development of new activities beyond the supervisory framework and financial risks manifested by lower profitability. It will help companies to analyse the conquests of failure and provide solutions.
  • A sandbox acts as a layer between banks and their innovation initiativesand facilitates smooth collaboration between FinTech companies and incumbents.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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