Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-63] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Microbeads (microplastics); Effective Revenue Deficit; Repo rate and Reverse repo rate; World Population; Thorium; District Councils defined in the sixth schedule; Article 142 of the Constitution; Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj); Berlin Indian Committee; Commensalism; Parasitism; Mutualism;
By IASToppers
May 11, 2020

Name the polymers which can be used in making of Microplastics.

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Microplastics or microbeads used in personal care products are mainly made of polyethylene (PE), but can be also be made of polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and nylon.

Enrich Your Learning:

Microbeads (microplastics):

  • Microplastics are plastic pieces or fibers measuring less than five milimetres. The microplastics or microbeads found in personal care products are always smaller than one milimetre.
  • According to recent United Nations reports, these are dangerous for the aquatic life and environment.

Its usage:

  • They are widely used in cosmetics as exfoliating agents and in personal care products such as toothpaste, as well as in biomedical and health science research.
  • In simple words, these microbeads are so small that a person can barely feel them.
  • Their roundness and particle size create a ball-bearing effects in creams and lotions, resulting in a silky texture and spread ability.

Why is it used for?

  • Microbeads have been used to replace natural exfoliating materials.
  • Their usage becoming more rampant because of their microspheres in different colours add visual appeal to cosmetic products.

What is the danger for them?

  • Microbeads- largely non-biodegradable- flow through sewer systems and end up in seas and oceans, where they contribute to the huge chunk of plastic soup in the environment.
  • Microbeads are also likely to be transported to wastewater treatment plants. Due to their small size, substantial portion passes through filtration system and enters aquatic environment.




Goby fish and shrimp are examples of: a) Parasitism OR b) Mutualism

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Enrich Your Learning:


  • Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits while the other species is not affected. One species typically uses the other for a purpose other than food.
  • For example, mites attach themselves to larger flying insects to get a “free ride.” Hermit crabs use the shells of dead snails for homes.


  • Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship in which one species (the parasite) benefits while the other species (the host) is harmed.
  • Many species of animals are parasites, at least during some stage of their life. Most species are also hosts to one or more parasites.
  • Some parasites live on the surface of their host. Others live inside their host. They may enter the host through a break in the skin or in food or water.
  • For example, roundworms are parasites of mammals, including humans, cats, and dogs. The worms produce huge numbers of eggs, which are passed in the host’s feces to the environment. Other individuals may be infected by swallowing the eggs in contaminated food or water.
  • Some parasites kill their host, but most do not. It’s easy to see why. If a parasite kills its host, the parasite is also likely to die. Instead, parasites usually cause relatively minor damage to their host.


  • Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit. An example of mutualism involves goby fish and shrimp.
  • The nearly blind shrimp and the fish spend most of their time together. The shrimp maintains a burrow in the sand in which both the fish and shrimp live.
  • When a predator comes near, the fish touches the shrimp with its tail as a warning. Then, both fish and shrimp retreat to the burrow until the predator is gone.
  • From their relationship, the shrimp gets a warning of approaching danger. The fish gets a safe retreat and a place to lay its eggs.

Indian Independence Committee was formed in which country during British Era?

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Answer: Berlin, Germany.

Enrich Your Learning:

Berlin Indian Committee:

  • The Berlin Committee for Indian Independence was established in 1915 by Virendranath Chattopadhyay, Bhupendranath Dutta, Lala Hardayal and others with the help of the German foreign office under ‘Zimmerman Plan’.
  • These revolutionaries aimed to mobilise the Indian settlers abroad to send volunteers and arms to India to incite rebellion among Indian troopsthere and to even organise an armed invasion of British India to liberate the country.
  • The committee planned to bring about a general insurrection in Indiaand for this purpose foreign arms were to be sent to India from abroad.
  • Its expatriated Indians were to return to mother country, where they were to be joined by Indian soldiers and by the waiting revolutionaries.
  • The policy and activities of the Berlin committee and the Ghadar party had greatly influenced the revolutionaries of Bengal.


  • The Indian revolutionaries in Europe sent missions to Baghdad, Persia, Turkey and Kabul to work among Indian troops and the Indian prisoners of war (POWs) and to incite anti-British feelings among the people of these countries.
  • One mission under Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh, Barkatullah and Obaidullah Sindhi went to Kabul to organise a ‘provisional Indian government’there with the help of the crown prince, Amanullah.
  • After the outbreak of the First World War, Lala Hardyaland other Indians abroad moved to Germany and set up the Indian independence committee at Berlin.

Before being revived under the leadership of Subash Chandra Bose, the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) was initially formed by whom?

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Answer: The Indian National Army was initially formed under Mohan Singh.

Enrich Your Learning:

Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj):

  • Indian National Army, also known as the Azad Hind Fauj, was formed for the liberation of India from the British rule.
  • It was formed in South-East Asia in the year 1942by pioneering Indian Nationalists and prisoners who wanted to throw off the yoke of foreign domination and liberate the country.
  • The INA was initially formed under Mohan Singh, after the fall of Singapore,the captain in the 1/14th Punjab Regiment in the British Army.
  • However, the first INA under Mohan Singh collapsed and finally it was revived under the leadership of Subash Chandra Bose in 1943.
  • Bose’s army was declared as the Azri Hukumat e Azad Hind. Indian National Army emerged along with Mahatma Gandhi’s peaceful resistance movement within India.
  • In contrast to Mahatma Gandhi, Bose advocated a more aggressive confrontation with the British authorities.


  • INA was formed during the first world war when the Ghadar Party and the emergence form of the Indian Independence League planned to rebel in the British Indian Army from the Punjab through Bengal to Hong Kong.
  • However, this plan met with failure after the information was leaked to British Intelligence. During the Second World War, the plan to fight the British found revival and a number of leaders and movements were initiated.
  • These included the various “liberation armies” which were formed in as well as with the help of Italy, Germany as well as in South-east Asia.
  • Thus, in South East Asia the concept of the Indian National Army emerged. It was supported by the Japanese 15th army and led by Bose.

Article 142 of the Indian Constitution was evoked by the recent judgement in Babri Masjid Demolition case. What does Article 142 says?

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  • Article 142 provides that “the Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it”.

Enrich Your Learning:

Article 142 of the Constitution:

  • Article 142 provides that “the Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it”.
  • Any order so passed or orders so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, in such manner as the President may by order prescribe.

Salient Features of Art.142:

  • The Article 142 of the constitution enables the Supreme Court to pass any order necessary “for doing complete justice in any cause”.
  • The jurisdiction and powers under Ar. 142 are supplementary in natureand are provided to for doing complete justice in any matter.
  • The expressions ‘cause’ or ‘matter’ include any proceeding pending in the court and would cover almost every kind of proceeding in the court including civil or criminal, whether interlocutory or final, and whether before or judgement.
  • The plenary powers of the Supreme Court under Ar. 142 of the Constitution are inherent in the court and are complementary to those powers which are specifically conferred on the court by various statutes though are not limited by those statutes.
  • The exercise of the power is left completely to the discretion of the Supreme Court.

SC decisions based on Article 142:

  • The top court had invoked the Article 142 to annul a marriage of a coupleliving apart for past 22 years, even though the woman had not given consent for the divorce.
  • In December 2015, the top court had invoked the Article 142 to appoint Justice Virendra Singh as the Lokayukta of Uttar Pradesh, when the state had not made the appointment within the deadline citing lack of consensus. Appointment of the Lokayukta is in the government’s domain.
  • The court had even invoked the Article to transfer the trial of a case against the accused in Babri Masjid Demolitionfrom Rae Bareli court to a Lucknow court for the joint trial of two sets of cases arising out of the same issue.
  • Under art. 142, the Supreme Court has issued guidelines and directions in a large number of cases. Guidelines on the adoption of minor children by foreigners, norms for the appointment of and transfer of judges, prevention of sexual harassment of women at the work place.

The sixth schedule of the Indian Constitution includes autonomous district councils in which states?

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Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram.

Enrich Your Learning:

District Councils defined in the sixth schedule:

The sixth schedule to the Constitution includes 10 autonomous district councils in 4 states. These are:

  • Assam:Bodoland Territorial Council, Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council and Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council.
  • Meghalaya: Garo Hills Autonomous District Council, Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council and Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council.
  • Tripura:Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council.
  • Mizoram:Chakma Autonomous District Council, Lai Autonomous District Council, Mara Autonomous District Council.

Which country is the largest producer of the thorium in the world?

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Answer: India is the largest producer of the thorium in the world.

Enrich Your Learning:

Lists of countries by Fossil fuel, nuclear fuel, Gemstones production:




Largest Producer

2nd largest producer


Fossil fuel:






Natural Gas

United States





United States

Saudi Arabia


Nuclear fuel:








United States












Which region have the high population? a) Latin America and the Caribbean OR b) Northern America and Oceania?

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Answer: Latin America and the Caribbean

Enrich Your Learning:

Key facts:

In 1950, five years after the founding of the United Nations, world population was estimated at around 2.6 billion people.

In October 2011, the global population was estimated to be 7 billion. A global movement “7 Billion Actions” was launched to mark this milestone. 


This dramatic growth has been driven largely by increasing numbers of people surviving to reproductive age, and has been accompanied by major changes in fertility rates, increasing urbanization and accelerating migration.

Sixty-one per cent of the global population lives in Asia (4.7 billion), 17 per cent in Africa (1.3 billion), 10 per cent in Europe (750 million), 8 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean (650 million), and the remaining 5 per cent in Northern America (370 million) and Oceania (43 million).

China (1.44 billion) and India (1.39 billion) remain the two largest countries of the world, both with more than 1 billion people, representing 19 and 18 per cent of the world’s population, respectively. 

The United Nations system has long been involved in addressing these complex and interrelated issues – notably, through the work of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the UN Population Division. 

World Population Day is observed annually on 11 July. It marks the date, in 1987, when the world’s population hit the 5 billion mark.

Natural population growth’: this is the change in population as determined by births and deaths only. Migration flows are not counted.

Population growth rate: this is the change in population as determined by births, deaths plus migration flows.

What are the effects of increase/decrease of ‘Repo rate’ on Banking system as well as on economy of a country?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

What is Repo Rate?

  • Repo rate refers to the rate at which commercial banks borrow money from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in case of shortage of funds.
  • Technically, Repo stands for ‘Repurchasing Option’.
  • It is a contract in which banks provide eligible securities such as Treasury Bills to the RBI while availing overnight loans.
  • As per February 2019, the repo rate is 6.25% per annum.

Effects of Repo rate:

Impact on the Banking System:

Increase in Repo Rate:

  • Higher lending rates which may lead to a slowdown of the lending business for the banking sector, which will have an impact on their profitability.
  • Higher equated monthly instalment for existing borrowers and higher rate of credit for new borrowers.
  • Banks may also hike the rate of bank deposit offered to customers to attract more inflow of funds into the banking system.

Reduction in Repo Rate:

  • Banks can borrow from Reserve Bank of India at a cheaper rate.
  • Banks may offer credit to its end customer at a reduced rate.
  • Increased lending business will boost the profitability of the overall banking system.

Impact of Repo rate on economy:

  • It is one of the main tools of RBI to keep inflation under control. In the event of inflation, RBI increase repo rateas this acts as a disincentive for banks to borrow from the RBI.
  • On the other hand, when the RBI needs to o flow cash into the system, it lowers repo rate. Consequentially, businesses and industries find it cheaper to borrow money for different investment purposes.

What is Reverse Repo Rate?

  • A Reverse Repo Rateis a rate that RBI offers to banks when they deposit their surplus cash with RBI for shorter periods.
  • As per February 2019,the reverse repo rate is 6.00%.
  • Reserve Bank of India increases the reverse repo rate with the objective to flush out the excess liquidity in the financial system by keeping check on inflation rate.

Significance of Repo rate and Reverse repo rate:

  • Repo and reverse repo are the most effective and efficient tools used by the Reserve Bank of India to achieve price stability and to boost economic development.
  • Repo rate and reverse repo rate are among the most crucial monetary policy instruments available to the RBI.
  • There is considerable rise in borrowing by commercial banks through repo route which makes it an important element of India’s monetary policy framework. The constant nature of the balance between Repo and Reverse-Repo makes it more powerful in the Indian banking system.

The difference between “the revenue deficit and the grants for creation of capital assets” is known as? (a) Fiscal Deficit (FD) OR (b) Revenue Deficit (RD) OR (C) Effective Revenue Deficit (ERD)?

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  • The difference between “the revenue deficit and the grants for creation of capital assets”is called effective revenue deficit.

Effective Revenue Deficit:

  • Effective revenue deficit has been defined as the difference between “the revenue deficit and the grants for creation of capital assets”.
  • Effective Revenue deficit is a new term introduced in the Union Budget 2011-12.
  • According to the Finance Ministry, such revenue expenditures contribute to the growth in the economy and therefore, should not be treated as unproductive in nature.
  • In the Union Budget (2011-12)a new methodology has been introduced to capture the ‘effective revenue deficit’, which excludes those revenue expenditures (or transfers) in the form of grants for creation of capital assets.
  • While revenue deficit is the difference between revenue receipts and revenue expenditure, the present accounting system includes all grants from the Union Government to the state governments/Union territories/other bodies as revenue expenditure, even if they are used to create assets.
  • Such assets created by the sub-national governments/bodies are owned by them and not by the Union Government. Nevertheless, they do result in the creation of durable assets.
  • Effective revenue deficit has now become a new fiscal parameterand same is targeted to be eliminated by the 31st of March 2015 and keep it at that level in the future, as per the Amendments made in 2012 to Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act.


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