Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-64] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Presiding Officers of Rajya Sabha; SARAL (State Rooftop Solar Attractive) Index; Criminal Tribes Inquiry Committee, 1947; Mangroves; Functions of Rajya Sabha; Core Industries in India; Green Credit Scheme; Battle of Swally; Battle of Chandernagore; Classification Of Natural Disasters; Disqualification for Membership;
By IASToppers
May 12, 2020



Disqualification on ground of defection does not apply in case of merger of political parties under the provisions contained in the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution.  True OR False.

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Answer: True

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Disqualification for Membership

  • The following grounds could disqualify a person for being chosen and for being a member of Rajya Sabha:
  • If he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State,   other   than   an   office   declared   by Parliament, by law, not to disqualify its holder;
  • If he is of unsound mindand stands so declared by a competent court;
  • If he is an un discharged insolvent;
  • If he is not a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State,or is under any acknowledgement of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State; and
  • If he is so disqualifiedby or under any law made by Parliament.
  • The mere fact of a person being a Minister either of the Unionor of any State does not amount to holding an office of profit. 
  • Pursuant to certain constitutional provisions, Parliament has enacted laws exempting holders of certain offices from being disqualified as members of Parliament.
  • The President of India is the final authority to decide if a member has become subject to any of the disqualifications. Before giving his decision, however, the President obtains the opinion of the Election Commission of India and acts according to such opinion.
  • Besides, the Constitution provides for disqualification of the members on ground of defection.
  • As per the provisions contained in the Tenth Schedule to the Constitutiona person shall be disqualified for being a member:
  • If he has voluntarily given up the membership of his political party; and
  • If he votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction issuedby the political party to which he belongs, unless such voting or abstention has been condoned by the political party within fifteen days.
  • An elected member who has been returned to the House as an Independent candidate shall incur disqualification if he joins any political party after such election.
  • A nominated member of the House shall be disqualified from the membership of the House if he joins any political party after the expiry of six months from the date of his taking seat in the House.
  • However, disqualification on ground of defection does not apply in case of merger of political parties under the provisions contained in theTenth Schedule to the Constitution. 
  • It may be mentioned that theConstitution (Ninety-first Amendment) Act, 2003 sought, inter alia, an amendment to the Tenth Schedule by omitting paragraph 3 pertaining to the exemption from disqualification in case of split in a legislature party.
  • The Chairman or, as the case may be, the Speakerhas been given the final authority to decide questions of disqualification of a member of a House under the provisions of the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution.



India is exposed to nearly 10 percent of the world’s cyclones. True OR False.

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Answer: True

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Classification Of Natural Disasters


  • In India around 68 percentof the agriculture land country is prone to drought in varying degrees. The following can be listed down as the causes for drought:
  • Deficiency of Rainfall:timing, distribution and intensity of rainfall
  • Prolonged period of dry weather 
  • Drought can be devastating, leading to drying up of water supplies, failure of crops, malnutrition and ill healthto all living beings. The environmental effects of drought, including Salinisation of soil and groundwater decline, increased pollution of freshwater ecosystems and regional extinction of animal species.


  • India is the most flood-prone country in the world. The principal reasons for flood lie in the nature ofnatural ecological system of the country like
  • Heavy rainfalldue to monsoon or cyclones
  • Highly silted river systems and inadequate carrying capacity
  • Steep and highly erodible mountains, especially in the Himalayan regions.
  • Poor permeability of soilleading to flash floods
  • Encroachmentof low-lying areas
  • Unchecked urbanisation and tourism


  • India has a coastline of about 7516 kmsand cyclone is the major natural disaster that affects the coastal areas. India is exposed to nearly 10 percent of the world’s cyclones. Nearly 71 percent of the cyclone prone area is in ten states ((Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal). The islands of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep are also affected by cyclones.
  • On an average, about five or six tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea and hit the coast every year.
  • When a cyclone approaches the coast, serious loss and damagearises due to
  • Severe winds
  • Heavy rainfall
  • Storm surges
  • River floods

Cold Wave and Fog:

  • Occurrences of extreme low temperaturein association with incursion of dry cold winds from north into the sub continent are known as cold waves.
  • The cold waves mainly affect the areas to the north of 20°N latitude– northern parts of India, especially the hilly regions and adjoining plains due to Western Disturbances and also some regions of Maharashtra and Karnataka.
  • Uttar Pradesh and Biharrank highest in terms of casualties from cold wave.


  • India has been divided into four seismic zonesaccording to the maximum intensity of earthquake expected. Of these Zone V is the most active. The entire Himalayan Region is considered to be vulnerable to high intensity earthquakes of a magnitude exceeding 8.0 on the Richter scale.


  • Landslides are another common type of natural disasters in India.
  • Landslide result in considerable damage to life, communication routes, human settlements, agricultural fields and forest lands.Landslides mostly affect the Himalayan region, Western Ghats and the Nilgiri Nearly 30 percent of landslides occur in the Himalayan region.


  • A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean. The reasons for tsunamis could be:
  • Seismic events:Earthquakes occurring beneath the sea level
  • Non seismic events:landslides beneath the sea level or impact of a meteor.
  • After the December 2004 Tsunami, tsunami has been added to the list of disasters in India



Which Battle convinced the English east India Company to established a small Navy: (a) Battle of Swally OR (b) Battle of chandernagore?

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Answer: Battle of Swally.

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Battle of Swally

  • Battle of Swally, also known as Battle of Suvali, took place on 29–30 November 1612off the coast of Suvali a village near the Surat city.
  • This relatively small naval battleis historically important as it marked the beginning of the end of Portugal’s commercial monopoly over India, and the beginning of the ascent of the English East India Company’s presence in India.
  • This battle also convinced the English East India Company to establish a small navy. This small beginning is regarded as the root of the modern Indian Navy.
  • The background to this battle also points to the main reason for the Dutch Vereenigde Oostindische Campaignedbeing organised in

Battle of Chandernagore

  • In 1756 war broke out between Franceand Great Britain, and Colonel Robert Clive of the British East India Company and Admiral Charles Watson of the Royal Navy bombarded and captured Chandernagore (Chandannagar) on 23 March 1757.
  • The French had a total of 16 gunsagainst the Watson’s HMS Kent (1746), HMS Tiger (1747), and HMS Salisbury (1746), and Clive’s land forces. 
  • Though “the guns of the fort did a great deal of damage”, including 37 killed and 74 wounded on the Tiger, the attack was successful.
  • The battle there was one of the many fought betweenthe French and English on the sub-continent during the Seven Years War. 
  • It gave the East India Company effective control of Calcuttaand the Bengal hinterland.
  • The French who escaped took shelter with the Nawab, whom Clive shortly afterwards defeated at Plassey.
  • Britain finished the war as the dominant European power in India, and was well-placed to take advantage of the weakening political and economic power of the Moghul Empire.
  • Chandernagore’s capture was the first step in the British driving the French from Bengal.



What do you know about Green Credit Scheme?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Green Credit Scheme

  • The proposed ‘Green Credit Scheme’ allows agencies(private companies, village forest communities) to identify land and begin growing plantations.
  • After three years, they would be eligible to be considered as compensatory forest landif they met the Forest Department’s criteria.
  • An industry needing forest land could then approach the agency and pay it for parcels of such forested land, and this would then be transferred to the Forest Department and be recorded as forest land.
  • If implemented, it allows the Forest Department to outsource one of its responsibilities of reforesting to non-government agencies.

Benefits of the Scheme:

  • This allows “forests” to be traded as a commodity.
  • The Scheme allows the Forest Department to outsource one of its responsibilities of reforesting to non-government agencies.
  • It thus fast tracks industrial projects and enhances ease of doing business without compromising on the environmental assets of the Nation. 



Which sectors are included in the core industries in India?

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Core industries in India:

  • Coal
  • Crude Oil
  • Natural Gas
  • Refinery Products
  • Fertilizer
  • Steel
  • Cement
  • Electricity

Enrich Your Learning:

Core Industries in India

  • The Eight Core Industriescomprise 27 per cent of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP).
  • Its Cumulative growth during April to January, 2018-19was 5per cent.
  • The Index of Eight Core Industries is a monthly production index, which is also considered as a lead indicator of the monthly industrial performance.
  • The Index of Eight Core Industries is compiled based on the monthly production information received from the Source Agencies.
  • The Index of Eight Core Industries is compiled based on Base Year is 2011-12.

Sector wise weightage:





Crude Oil


Natural Gas


Refinery Products













Briefly describes the various functions of Rajya Sabha.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Functions of Rajya Sabha

  • The functions of Rajya Sabha may broadly be categorised as: Legislative, Financial,Deliberative and
  • Legislation is by far the most important business of Rajya Sabha, as indeed of Parliament and in this sphere, Rajya Sabha enjoys almost equal powers with Lok Sabha.

Legislative Functions

  • The Constitution has classified the subjects for legislation into three Lists, namely
  • The Union List,
  • The State List and
  • The Concurrent List.
  • The Union List includesthose subjects over which Parliament has exclusive authority to make laws, while the Concurrent List enumerates those subjects over which it has authority along with the States.
  • Even in regard to the State List, over whichthe States have exclusive jurisdiction, Parliament can assume authority, if
  • Rajya Sabha declares by a resolution supported by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting that such legislation is in national interest,or
  • two or more States mutually agree that Parliament may do so, or
  • It is necessary to implement treaties or international conventions.

Financial Functions

  • Under the Constitution, financial legislation has been divided into two categories – Money Bills and Financial Bills.
  • The former contains only and exclusively money clauses and the latter, apart from money clauses also contain other matters.
  • A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation would involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India is also called a Financial Bill.
  • With respect to Money Bills, Rajya Sabha is empowered to make only recommendations.
  • If a Money Bill which is transmitted to Rajya Sabha for its recommendations is not returned toLok Sabha within fourteen days, it is deemed to have been passed by both Houses at the expiration of the said period in the form it was passed by Lok Sabha.
  • However, in case of Financial Bills, Rajya Sabha has full powers like an ordinary piece of legislation.

Deliberative Functions

  • One of the important functions of Rajya Sabha is to focus public attention on major problems affecting policies of the Government and administration and to provide a forum for ventilation of public grievances.
  • This responsibility is discharged through deliberations on General Budget, Railway Budget, and Motion of Thanks on the President’s Address, Five-Year Plans and working of various Ministries/Departments and on various policy statements made by the Government.

Federal Functions

  • Rajya Sabha may pass a resolution, by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting, to the effect that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make a law with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List.
  • Such a resolution remains in force for a maximum period of one yearbut this period can be extended by one year at a time by passing a further resolution.
  • If Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting declaringthat it is necessary or expedient in the national interest to create one or more All India Services  common  to  the   Union  and  the  States, Parliament may then by law provide for the creation of such service or services.
  • Under     the     Constitution, the President is empowered to issue Proclamations in the event of national   emergency, in   the   event   of   failure   of constitutional machinery in a State, or in the case of financial      emergency.     
  • Normally, every such Proclamation has to be approved by both Houses of Parliament within a stipulated period. Under certain circumstances, however, Rajya Sabha enjoys special powers in this regard.
  • If a Proclamation is issued at a time when Lok Sabha has been dissolved or the dissolution of Lok  Sabha  takes place  within  the period allowed for its approval, then the Proclamation can remain effective if, a resolution approving it is passed by Rajya Sabha.



What are the three types of mangroves?

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  • Red mangroves, Black mangrovesand White mangroves.

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  • Mangroves are special type of vegetation. And they are found in the inter tidal regions where freshwater and saltwater inter mixes,in the bays,estuaries, creeks and lagoons.
  • They are the salt tolerant variety of plants, which can survive in harsh conditions. And they are economically and ecologically significant.

There are three important types of mangroves:

  • Red mangroves: They grow along coastlines and are the hardiest of the three major mangrove plant types.
  • Black mangroves: They are named so because of their dark bark. They usually grow at slightly higher elevations than red mangroves. They have access to more oxygen because the roots are more exposed.
  • White mangroves: They grow at higher elevations than red and black mangroves. Generally they do not have aerial roots. But sometimes there is unique growth of peg roots when oxygen is depleted due to flood.

Location of Mangroves

  • There are 9 million hectaresof mangrove forests in the warm waters of tropical oceans all over the world.
  • Along the Atlantic coastthey are found from Florida till Argentina in a vast expanse. Mangroves grow on both the western and eastern coasts of Africa.
  • They stretch into India, Burma, and south-east Asia. Mangrove forests are also common in New Zealand and Australia.



What were the recommendations of Criminal Tribes Inquiry Committee, 1947?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Criminal Tribes Inquiry Committee, 1947

  • The Criminal Tribes Inquiry Committee, 1947, was constituted in the United Province.
  • In its report, this Committee felt that till the Gypsies settled down, they would continue with criminal tendencies.
  • It proposed that ‘efforts should be made under sanction of law (suitable provision may be made in the Habitual Offenders and Vagrants Act) to settle them and teach them a life of industry and honest calling as 3 against idleness, prostitution and crime to which their conditions of existence make them prone’.



SARAL (State Rooftop Solar Attractive) Index of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is based on which five parameters?

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  • Robustness of policy framework
  • Implementation environment
  • Investment climate
  • Consumer experience
  • Business ecosystem

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Rooftop Solar

SARAL (State Rooftop Solar Attractive) Index:

  • Karnataka was rated the best state according to SARAL Index 2019.
  • Other states are Telangana, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Jammu and Kashmir ranked last.

What is SARAL-index and who releases it?

  • SARAL Index released by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
  • It captures five parameters:
  • robustness of policy framework
  • implementation environment
  • investment climate
  • consumer experience
  • business ecosystem
  • MNRE, Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation (SSEF),Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) and Ernst & Young (EY).




Who is the presiding officer of Rajya Sabha?

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  • The Vice President of Indiais the Presiding officer of Rajya Sabha.

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Presiding Officers of Rajya Sabha


  • The Vice-President of Indiais ex officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. 
  • While the office of the Chairman isvacant, or during any period when he acts or discharges the functions of President, the Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha performs the duties of the office of the Chairman.
  • If the office of the Deputy Chairman is also vacant, the President appoints a member of the House to perform the duties of the office.
  • The Chairman presides over Rajya Sabhaand regulates its proceedings.
  • He maintains order in the House
  • He also has the power to adjourn Rajya Sabhaand suspend its meeting if there is no quorum.
  • He is the channelof communication between the House and any other outside person or authority.
  • He has to decide under constitutional provisionswhether a member of Rajya Sabha has tendered his resignation voluntarily.
  • He has also to decide under the constitutional provisions, question of disqualification on grounds of defection.
  • Under the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Rajya Sabha, the Chairman admits notices of Questions, Motions, Resolutions, etc.
  • While presiding over Rajya Sabha, the Chairman has only a casting vote.
  • When a resolution for his removal is under consideration he is neither entitled to preside over the House nor to vote on such a resolutionbut has a right to speak in or otherwise to take part in such proceedings.  

Deputy Chairman:

  • Rajya Sabha elects a Deputy Chairman to perform the functions of the Chairman in case of a vacancy in the office of the Chairman or when the Vice-President is acting as or discharging the functions of the President.
  • He may be removedfrom office by a resolution of Rajya Sabha moved after fourteen days notice of the intention to move the resolution and passed by a majority of all the then members of the House. 

Panel of Vice-Chairmen 

  • There is also a panel of six Vice-Chairmenformed by the Chairman, and in case both the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman are absent, a person from the panel presides.
  • If none of the empanelled members is available, the House elects a person from amongst its members to preside over its sittings. 


  • One tenth of the total number of members of Rajya Sabha constitutes thequorum for a meeting of the House.


  • All questions are decided by majority vote.
  • The Chairman or person acting as such, has no vote in the first instance, but has a casting vote in the case of an equality of votes.
  • A Minister is entitled to vote only if he is a member of the House.

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