Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-65] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Salt water crocodiles; Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures; First Battle of Panipat; Ganges River; Compulsory & voluntary provisions in 73rd Amendment, 1992; Foreign Currency Exchangeable Bonds (FCEB); Aquatic Rhabdops vs. Olive Forest Snake; Tainat-i-rakab; 'Chief Whip of the Government'; Largest Dams in India;
By IASToppers
May 13, 2020

 

 

Which is the highest dam in India?

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Answer:

  • The Tehri Dam of Uttarakhand is the highest dam in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Largest Dams in India

  1. Tehri Dam
  • The Tehri Dam of Uttarakhand is the highest dam in India, 2nd highest in Asiaand 8th highest in the World.
  • Height is 260 meter and Length is 575 meters.
  • It is constructed on Bhagirathi River in Uttarakhand.
  • This is an Earth and Rock fill.
  • The construction of Tehri dam was started in 1978and the first unit was started in the year.
  • Right now, the installed capacity of Power plant is 1400 MW (Additional 400 MW from Koteshwar Dam project).
  1. Bhakra Nangal Dam
  • This is the largest dam in India across the Sutlej River Himachal Pradesh.
  • Given below are the analytical data –
  • Height is 225 meters andLength is 520 meters.
  • It’s a Concrete Gravity dam.
  • Its construction was started in 1948 and was completed in 1963.
  • Its reservoir ‘Sagar Lake’ is the second largest reservoir in India, the first one is on Indira Sagar dam.
  • It is the biggest multi-purpose river valley project in India.
  • The capacity of the installed power plant is 1325 MW.
  1. Hirakud Dam:
  • Hirakud dam is one of the longest dams in the world.
  • Given below are the analytical data –
  • Height is 60.96 meters and Length is 4.8 km.
  • The dam is constructed on Mahanadi in Sambalpur Orissa.
  • It construction was started in 1948 and completed in 1957.
  • It is an earthen dam.
  • The effective storage capacity of this dam is 5.82 km3.
  • It was one of the major multipurpose river valley plans in India after Independence.
  • The capacity of the installed power plant is 347 MW.
  1. Sardar Sarovar Dam:
  • This dam is also known as Narmada Dam which is built on Holy Narmada Riverin
  • The height is 68 meters & Length is 1210 meters.
  • This is a gravity type dam.
  • Its effective storage capacity is 5.80 km3.
  • Installed Capacity of Power Plant is 1450 MW.
  1. Indira Sagar Dam:
  • The foundation stone of the project was laid by late Smt Indira Gandhi.
  • Height is 92 meters & Length is 653 meters.
  • The project is completed in 2005 on Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It is a Gravity Concrete dam.
  • Installed capacity of power plant is 1000 MW.
  • It is India’s biggest dam in terms of water storage capacity.

 

 

 

Who is the Chief Whip of the Government?

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Answer:

  • The Minister of Parliamentary Affairsis the Chief Whip of Government.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Chief Whip of the Government’

  • The Minister of Parliamentary Affairsis the Chief Whip of Government.
  • He is directly responsible to the Leader of the House.
  • It is a part of his duties to advise the Government on Parliamentary businessand to maintain a close liaison with the Ministers in regard to parliamentary business affecting their Departments.
  • The Chief Whip isthe eyes and ears of the Leaders of the Party so far as the members are concerned.
  • He conveys the wishes of the Leader to the members of the Party and keeps the Leader informed of the current opinion in the Partyas also the moods and inclinations of individual members when these deserve special notice.
  • There are regional Whips also who keep liaison with the Members belonging to their respective States in regard to the business of the House.
  • With their assistance, the Chief Whip controls the members of the party in power and ensures that during sittings there is quorum in the House and that adequate number of members of the party is present at the time of voting.
  • For this purpose, he sends them advance intimation through the familiar system of ordinary, one, two and three-line Whips to indicate the extent of urgency attaching to the vote on a particular measure before the House.
  • The member, who votesor abstains from voting contrary to the Whip of the Party, runs the risk of losing his seat in the House under the 52nd Amendment of the Constitution. As such the Whip as a document which is called “Direction” of the party in the Constitution has assumed great significance.

Functions:

  • To ensure discipline among party members in the House.
  • To ensure the attendance of the party members.
  • To make sure the MPs vote according to the party line.
  • To ensure that the MPs are informed of the party opinion on the moods of the members.
  • To identify the signs of discontent among MPs and inform the same to respective leaders.
  • To supply the list of speakers on Bills and other businesses in the House.
  • He or she is responsible for maintaining the internal party organization in the Parliament and acts as a binding force in the party.
  • He or she also acts as a counsellor to the party members in the House and as an advisor to the party leaders.

 

 

In context of Mughal Empire, who were the Tainat-i-rakab?

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Answer:

There were British officials who were stationed in the court of Mughal Emperors.

Enrich Your Learning:

Tainat-i-rakab

There were british officials called the tainat-i-rakab who were stationed in the court of Mughal Emperors.

  • They (the officials) were duty bound to appear twice daily, morning and evening, to express submission to the emperor in the public audience hall.
  • They shared the responsibility for guarding the emperor and his household round the clock.
  • These nobles were a reserve force to be deputed to a province or military campaign.
  • Other than this, sometimes British officials with high intellect were present in the court of the emperor to advise him on important issues if the emperor wished but such instances were rare.

 

 

Aquatic Rhabdops snkes are found in which regions of India?

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Answer:

  • Aquatic Rhabdops is found only in the laterite plateaus of the northern Western Ghats in Goa, southern Maharashtra and northern Karnataka which are mostly areas facing high human pressure.

Enrich Your Learning:

Aquatic Rhabdops

  • In 2017, a new species of non-venomous aquatic snake – Aquatic Rhabdops, which was misidentified since 1863,has finally been described and identified as a new species from the northern Western Ghats.

Key Facts about the Aquatic Rhabdops:

  • Aquatic Rhabdops snakes belong to genus Rhabdops which are endemic to India.
  • It is named after its aquatic nature since adults of these species are mostly associated with freshwater forest streamsand juveniles are seen in water-logged areas, mostly on rocky plateaus.
  • They are three-foot-long nocturnal snakeand mostly prey underwater like other water snakes.
  • Adult Aquatic Rhabdops have off-white belliesand black spots on their olive brown skin, juveniles are olive green, with yellow undersides. This colour difference in life stages may be due to different local habitats.
  • Aquatic Rhabdops is found only in the laterite plateaus of the northern Western Ghats in Goa, southern Maharashtra and northern Karnataka which are mostly areas facing high human pressure.

Aquatic Rhabdops vs. Olive Forest Snake:

  • Earlier the new species, Rhabdops aquaticus, was considered as variant of Olive Forest Snake, first described in 1863.
  • But new study has confirmed that Aquatic Rhabdops has different colours and patterns and also vary in other features of size, shape and structure, and also genetic make-up.
  • The Aquatic Rhabdops snake are found in the North western ghats including Maharashtra, Goa and nothern parts of North Karnataka while the olive forest snake is restricted to Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

 

 

A foreign currency convertible bond (FCCB) is a type of Non-convertible bond? True OR False?

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Answer: False

Correct Answer:

  • A foreign currency convertible bond (FCCB) is a type of convertible bondissued in a currency different than the issuer’s domestic currency.

Enrich Your Learning:

Foreign Currency Exchangeable Bonds (FCEB)

  • A foreign currency convertible bond (FCCB) is a type of convertible bondissued in a currency different than the issuer’s domestic currency.
  • In other words, the money being raised by the issuing company is in the form of foreign currency.
  • A convertible bond is a mix between adebt and equity instrument. 
  • It acts like a bond by making regular coupon and principal payments,but these bonds also give the bondholder the option to convert the bond into stock.
  • For example, an American listed company that issues a bond in India in rupees has, in effect, issued an FCCB.
  • Foreign currency convertible bonds are typically issued by multinational companies operating in a global space and looking to raise capital in foreign currencies.
  • FCCB investors are usually hedge fund arbitrators and foreign nationals.
  • These bonds can be issued along with a call option (whereby the right of redemption lies with the bond issuer) or put options (whereby the right of redemption lies with bondholder).

 

 

What reforms have been brought through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992?

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Answer:

  • The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Actof 1992 created a uniform three-tier structure of Panchayati Raj at the district, block/mandal and village levels, provides transfer of responsibilities and tax powers from the state government to the gram panchayats.

Enrich Your Learning:

Compulsory & voluntary provisions in 73rd Amendment, 1992

Compulsory Provisions:

  • Organisation of Gram Sabhain a village or group of villages.
  • Establishment of panchayatsat the village, intermediate and district levels.
  • Direct elections to all seats in panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels.
  • Indirect elections to the post of chairperson of panchayats at the intermediate and district levels.
  • 21 yearsto be the minimum age for contesting elections to panchayats.
  • Reservation of seats(both members and chairpersons) for SCs and STs in panchayats at all the three levels.
  • Reservation of one-third seats (both members and chairpersons) for women in panchayats at all the three levels.
  • Fixing tenure offive years for panchayats at all levels and holding fresh elections within six months in the event of supersession of any panchayat.
  • Establishment of a State Election Commission for conducting elections to the panchayats.
  • Constitution of a State Finance Commissionafter every five years to review the financial position of the panchayats.

 Voluntary Provisions:

  • Giving representation to members of the Parliament (both the Houses) and the state legislature (both the Houses) in the panchayatsat different levels falling within their constituencies.
  • Providing reservation of seats (both members and chairpersons) for backward classes in panchayats at any level.
  • Granting powers and authority to the panchayats to enable them to function as institutions of self-government(in brief, making them autonomous bodies).
  • Devolution of powers and responsibilities upon panchayats to prepare plans for economic development and social justice; and to perform some or all of the 29 functions listedin the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution.
  • Granting financial powers to the pachayats, that is, authorizing them to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.

 

 

Answer:

  • Major left-bank tributariesinclude Gomti (Gumti), Ghaghara (Gogra), Gandaki (Gandak), and Kosi (Kusi); major rightbank tributaries include Yamuna (Jumna), Son, Punpun and Damodar.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ganges River and Geography

  • The Ganges River, also called Ganga, is a river located in northern India that flows toward the border with Bangladesh.
  • It is the longest riverin India and flows for around 1,569 miles (2,525 km) from the Himalayan Mountains to the Bay of Bengal.
  • The river has the second greatest water discharge in the world, and its basin is the most heavily populated in the world with over 400 million people living in the basin.
  • The Ganges River is extremely important to the people of India as most of the people living on its banks use it for daily needs such as bathing and fishing.
  • It is also significant to Hindusas they consider it their most sacred river.
  • The total length ofthe Ganga is about 2,510 km.

Source of origin: 

  • The Ganga rises from the Gangotri glacier near Gomukh in Uttarkashi district of the state of Uttarakhand.

Confluence or Mouth: 

  • The Ganga River drains into the Bay of Bengal before forming a very huge delta.

The Five Prayags:

  • Devaprayag, the place of confluence of Bhagirathi River and Alaknanda River.
  • Rudraprayag, the place of confluence of Mandakini River and Alaknanda River.
  • Nandaprayag, the place of confluence of Nandakini River and Alaknanda River.
  • Karnaprayag, the place of confluence of Pindar River and Alaknanda River.
  • Vishnuprayag, the place of confluence of Dhauliganga River and Alaknanda River.

Primary Tributaries of the Ganga River:

  • The Yamuna River: It is the right-bank tributary of the Ganga. 
  • The Ramganga River: It is a left-bank tributary of the Ganga. 
  • The Gomati River: It is a left-bank tributary of the Ganga.
  • The Ghaghara River: It is a left-bank tributary of the Ganga. 
  • The Sarda River: It rises from the Milam Glacier in the Great Himalayas in Nepal.
  • The Gandak River: It is a left-bank tributary of the Ganga.
  • The Kosi River: It is a left-bank tributary of the Ganga.
  • The Damodar River: It rises in the Chhotanagpur Plateau and flows in the eastern direction in Jharkhand. The river passes through a rift valley.
  • The Mahananda River: It raises in the Darjeeling hills. It is the last left-bank tributary of the Ganga River in India.
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Who was defeated by Babur in the first Panipat war?

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Answer: Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babur in the first Panipat war.

Enrich Your Learning:

First Battle of Panipat

  • The First Battle of Panipat was fought betweenthe invading forces of Babur and the Lodi Empire, which took place on 21 April 1526 in North India. 
  • It marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire.
  • This was one of the earliest battles involving gun powder fire arms and field artillery.
  • In 1526,the Mughal forces of Babur, the Timurid ruler of Kabulistan, defeated the much larger ruling army of Ibrahim Lodi,Sultan of Delhi.
  • The battle was fought on 21 April near the small village of Panipat, in the present day Indian state of Haryana, an area that has been the site of a number of decisive battles for the control of Northern India since the twelfth century.
  • It is estimated that Babur’s forces numbered around 15,000 men and had between 20 to 24 pieces of field artillery.
  • Babur estimated Lodi had around 100,000 men,though that number included camp followers, while the fighting force was around 30,000 to 40,000 men in total, along with at least 1000 war elephants.

 

 

What is the Conservation Status of Salt water crocodile?

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Answer:

  • It has been listed as Least Concernon the IUCN Red List since 1996.

Enrich Your Learning:

Salt water crocodiles

  • The saltwater crocodile is a crocodilian native to saltwater habitats and brackish wetlands from India’s east coast across Southeast Asia and the Sundaic region to northern Australia and Micronesia.
  • It has been listed as Least Concernon the IUCN Red List since 1996.
  • The saltwater crocodile is often claimed to be the largest living crocodilian.
  • Saltwater crocodiles can live more than 70 years.
  • Saltwater crocodiles are most commonly found in coastal waters or rivers where they can swim between freshwater and brackish water.
  • Saltwater crocodiles communicate using several sound, including barking, hissing, growling and chirps.

 

 

What are Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures?

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Answer:

  • Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures are measures to protect humans, animals, and plants from diseases, pests, or contaminants.

Enrich Your Learning:

Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures

  • The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, also known as the SPS Agreement, is an international treaty of the World Trade Organization.
  • It was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995.
  • Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures are measures to protect humans, animals, and plants from diseases, pests, or contaminants.
  • Broadly, the sanitary and phytosanitary (‘SPS’) measures covered by the agreement are those aimed at the protection of human, animal or plant life or health from certain risks.
  • Under the SPS agreement the WTO sets constraints on member-states’ policies relating to food safety (bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling) as well as animal and plant health (phytosanitation) with respect to imported pests and diseases.
  • There are 3 standards organizations that set standards that WTO members should base their SPS methodologies on.
  • As provided for in Article 3, they are the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), WorldOrganization for Animal Health (OlE) and the Secreatariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC).
  • The SPS agreement is closely linked to the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, which was signed in the same year and has similar goals.
  • The TBT Emerged from the Tokyo Round of WTO negotiationsand was negotiated with the aim of ensuring non-discrimination in the adoption and implementation of technical regulations and standards.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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