Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-66] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Narmada Control Authority; Current vs. Capital Account; Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT); Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha; Justice Amitava Roy committee; Temperate Grassland; Difference between Human Capital Index (HCI) [World Bank] and Human Development Index (HDI) [UNDP]; Ad hoc committees of the Parliament; Indian Rhinoceros; Royal Bengal Tiger; Satyasodhak samaj; 2011 Census of India;
By IASToppers
May 14, 2020

 

 

As per Census 2011, which State had the lowest population density?

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Answer:

  • Arunachal Pradeshhad the lowest population density.

Enrich Your Learning:

2011 Census of India

  • The 15th Indian Censuswas conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration. The motto of the census was ‘Our Census, Our future’.
  • Census data was collected in 16 languagesand the training manual was prepared in 18 languages.

Key Facts on Census 2011

  • The population of India as per 2011 census was 1,210,854,977.
  • Uttar Pradeshis the most populous state with roughly 200 million people.
  • The Indian population increased to 1.21 billion with adecadal growth of 17.70%.
  • Adult literacy rate increased to 74.04%with a decadal growth of 9.21%.
  • In 2011, India and Bangladesh also conductedtheir first-ever joint census of areas along their border.
  • Transgender populationwas counted in population census in India for first time in 2011.
  • The overall sex ratio of the populationis 940 females for every 1,000 males in 2011. The official count of the third gender in India is 490,000.

 

 

 

Who was the founder of Satyasodhak Samaj: (a) Jyotiba Phule OR (b) Vinoba Bhave?

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Answer: Jyotiba Phule

Enrich Your Learning:

Satyasodhak samaj

  • Satyashodhak Samaj is a social reform societyfounded by Jyotiba Phule in Pune on 24 September
  • Its purpose was to liberate the less privilegedin the then prevailing society such as women, Shudra, and Dalit from exploitation and oppression.
  • It was founded with a purpose to give education to the lower casts.
  • Scheduled caste,scheduled tribes and made them aware of the exploiting tradition of society.
  • Jyotibha’s wife Savitribaiwas the head of women’s section of the society.
  • Phule established Satyashodhak Samaj with the ideals of human well-being, happiness, unity, equality, and easy religious principles and rituals.
  • Phule’s own Mali casteprovided the leading members and financial supporters for the organization.
  • Like every other society this society also imposed a ban on the admission of the high-class people, aristocrats, bureaucracy, and Brahmins.
  • This society only admits in it the members of Shudra Samajor the people of lower caste. Upper caste members can only become members of the society by analysing its actions and habit.
  • The society attacked the Brahmins who considered themselves as the messenger of God and considered them as the medium of contact, between people and god and hence opposed the bureaucracy of Brahmins in their times.
  • They rejected the Upanishads and Vedic culture and also rejected to respect the Aryan society; according to them, Aryan samaj is concentrated on destroying the non-Aryan samaj.
  • The movement was not stopped and kept alive after Phule’s death by early Maratha ruler of Kolhapur princely state, Shahu Maharaj. Later followed by Bhaurao Patil and Maratha leaders such as Keshavrao Jedhe, Nana Patil, Khanderao Bagal and Madhavrao Bagal.

 

 

 

Give brief information about i) Indian Rhinoceros and ii) Royal Bengal Tiger.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Indian Rhinoceros

  • Indian Rhinoceros are also known as the greater one-horned rhinos.
  • Formerly, Indian Rhinoceros were extensively distributed in the Gangetic plains.Today, they are restricted to small habitats in Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.
  • It is the largest of all the Asian rhinos and the fourth largest land animal in the world.
  • It is listed as Vulnerablein IUCN Red list due to huge demand from Asia, especially China, for rhino horns.
  • Assam accounts to almost 95 % of the total population of the Indian rhino in the world.
  • The preferred habitat of an Indian rhinoceros is alluvial flood plains and areas containing tall grasslands along the foothills of the Himalayas.
  • 22 September is celebrated as World Rhino Day by the World Wildlife Fund.

Royal Bengal Tiger

  • The Royal Bengal Tiger or the Bengal Tiger (Panthera Tigris) is known to be the largest and most powerful sub spices of the Continental Tiger family.
  • Bengal tiger’s are found in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma and China.
  • It lives in a wide range of habitats which include high-altitude regionsconiferous Himalayan forests, cold, grasslands, tropical and subtropical rainforests, scrub forests, dry and wet deciduous forests and mangroves.
  • Bengal Tigers are also known as Indian Tigersand they constitute a major part of the total tiger population in the world.
  • It is the national animal of Indiaand can be found in all parts of the country except the western region.
  • IUCN conservation status– Endangered (EN)
  • CITES listing – Appendix I
  • Tigers live alone and aggressively scent-mark large territories to keep their rivals away.
  • They are powerful nocturnal hunters that travel many miles to find buffalo, deer, wild pigs, and other large mammals.

Characteristics of Bengal Tigers:

  • The Bengal tiger’s coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black.
  • The belly and the interior parts of the limbs are white, and the tail is orange with black rings.
  • Bengal tigers weigh up to 325 kg.
  • The White Tiger is a recessive mutant of the Bengal Tiger.

 

 

What is the Difference between Human Capital Index of World Bank and Human Development Index of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Difference between Human Capital Index (HCI) [World Bank] and Human Development Index (HDI) [UNDP]

  • The United Nation’s Human Development Indexis the benchmark which is the most widely used statistical measure of development across the world.

Human Development Index

Human Capital Index

Uses Life Expectancy at birth as a measure of health

Uses Survival and stunting rates at or below 5 years of age as a measure of health

Uses number of years of schooling to measure of education

Uses quality adjusted learning to measure education

Includes per capita income to measure development

Does not use per capita income to measure development

 

Que-87

Inquiry Committees can be proposed by only Lok Sabha or can be appointed by the speaker. True OR False.

Answer: False.

Correct Statement: Inquiry Committees can be proposed by either house or can also be appointed by the speaker/chairman of the respective house

Enrich Your Learning:

Ad hoc committees of the Parliament

  • Ad hoc committees can be divided into two categories, that is, Inquiry Committeesand Advisory Committees.

Inquiry Committees:

  • Inquiry Committees are constituted from time to time, either by the two Houses on a motion adopted in that behalf, or by the Speaker / Chairman, to inquire into and report on specific subjects.
  • For example: Committee on the Conduct of Certain Members during President’s Address, Committee on Draft Five-Year Plan

Advisory Committees:

  • Advisory Committees include select or joint committees on bills, which are appointed to consider and report on particular bills.
  • These committees are distinguishable from the other ad hoc committeesin as much as they are concerned with bills and the procedure to be followed by them is laid down in the Rules of Procedure and the Directions by the Speaker / Chairman.
  • When a Bill comes up before a House for general discussion, it is open to that House to refer it to a Select Committee of the House or a Joint Committee of the two Houses.
  • A motion to this effect has to be moved and adopted in the House in which the Bill comes up for consideration.
  • In case the motion adopted is for referenceof the Bill to a Joint Committee, the decision is conveyed to the other House, requesting the members to nominate members of the other House to serve on the Committee.
  • The Selector Joint Committee considers the Bill clause by clause just as the two Houses do. 
  • Amendments to various clausescan be moved by members of the Committee.
  • The Committee can also take evidence of associations, public bodies or experts who are interested in the Bill.
  • After the Bill has thus been considered, the Committee submits its report to the House.
  • Members who do not agree with the majority report may append their minutes of dissent to the report.

 

 

Pustaz, Canterbury and Prairies are various names of which type of vegetation?

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Answer:

  • They are various names of temperate grasslands.

Enrich Your Learning:

Temperate Grassland:

Name of the Temperate Grassland

Region

Pustaz

Hungary and surrounding regions

Prairies

North America [between the foothills of the Rockies and the Great Lakes]

Pampas

Argentina and Uruguay [Rain-shadow effect]

Bush-veld (more tropical)

Northern South Africa

High Veld (more temperate)

Southern South Africa

Downs

Australia: Murray-Darling basin of southern Australia

Canterbury

New Zealand

 

Economic Development of Temperate Grassland:

  • Three main economic activities carried out for the temperate grasslands.
  • The activates are: 1. Nomadic Herding Extensive Mechanized Wheat Cultivation3. Pastoral Farming.

Wheat and Maize Cultivation:

  • Cultivation was unknown just before a century and the region was one of the most sparsely populated parts of the world.
  • In recent years, the grasslands have been ploughed up for extensive, mechanized wheat cultivation and are now the ‘granaries of the world’ [Prairies].
  • Besides wheat, maize is increasingly cultivated in the warmer and wetter areas.

Ranching:

  • The tufted grasses have been replaced by the more nutritious Lucerne or alfalfa grassfor cattle and sheep rearing.
  • These temperate grasslands are now the leading ranching regionsof the globe.

Nomadic herding in Asian Steppes

  • This type of migratory animal grazing has almost disappeared from the major grasslands. The herders were wandering tribes e.g. the Kirghiz, and the 
  • The harsh environment of the nomads, with long droughts and unreliable showers made the Kirghiz a tough and fearless people, and they long resisted subjugation by the Russians.
  • Now, however, under the Communist regime they are being forced to settle down.
  • The steppes have been made into huge collective farmsand state farms for ranching or producing cereals.

Extensive mechanized wheat cultivation:

  • The temperate grasslandsare ideal for extensive wheat cultivation.
  • The level nessof the Steppes and other temperate grasslands all over the world makes ploughing and harvesting a comparatively easy job.
  • In the Prairies, the Argentinian Pampas, the Ukrainian Steppesand the Downs of Australia, agriculture is completely mechanized.

Pastoral farming:

  • The natural conditions suit animal farming.
  • With the development of refrigerated ships in the late nineteenth century, the temperate grasslands became major pastoral regions, exporting large quantities of beef, mutton, wool, hides.
  • Milk, butter, cheese and other dairy products are also important in some parts of the North American grasslands.

 

 

 

Recently, the Supreme Court formed Justice Amitava Roy Committee to examine the various problems related to which issue?

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Answer:

  • The Supreme Courthas formed Justice Amitava Roy, to examine the various problems plaguing prisons in the country, from overcrowding to lack of legal advice to convicts to issues of remission and parole.

Enrich Your Learning:

Justice Amitava Roy committee

  • The Supreme Courthas formed a Committee on Prison Reforms chaired by former apex court judge, Justice Amitava Roy, to examine the various problems plaguing prisons in the country, from overcrowding to lack of legal advice to convicts to issues of remission and parole.

Issues in Prisons:

  • Overcrowding in prisons
  • Unnatural deaths of prisoners
  • Gross inadequacy of staff
  • Lack of staff 

Terms of reference:

  • Apart from the above four issues, committee will comprehensively examine and respond to the dire necessity of reforms in prisons.
  • Committee to examine the extent of overcrowding in prisons and correctional homes and recommend remedial measures, including an examination of the functioning of Under Trial Review Committees, availability of legal aid and advice, grant of remission, parole and furlough.
  • The panel would also probe the reasons for violence in prisons and correctional homes and recommend preventive measures.

 

 

Deputy speaker is not subordinate to the Speaker and is directly responsible to Lok Sabha. True OR False.  

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Answer: True

Enrich Your Learning:

Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha

  • When Speaker of Lok Sabha is not available, his duties are carried out by Deputy Speaker. 
  • A Deputy Speaker is elected by the Lok Sabhamembers from amongst themselves. 
  • Election of Deputy Speaker is done after election of Speaker.
  • The date of election of Deputy Speaker is fixed by Speaker.
  • Deputy speaker is not subordinate to the Speaker and is directly responsible to Lok Sabha.
  • If Deputy Speaker is also not present, a person appointed by President will discharge the duties.

Power and Function of Deputy Speaker:

  • In case of the absence of the Speaker, the Deputy Speaker presides over the sessions of the Lok Sabha and conducts the business in the house.
  • She/he decides whether a bill is a money bill or a non-money bill.
  • She/he maintains discipline and decorum in the house and can punish a member for unruly behaviour by suspending him/her.
  • She/he permits the moving of various kinds of motions and resolutions like the motion of no confidence, motion of adjournment, motion of censure and calling attention notice.

 

 

Under which Act the Central Government constituted Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT)?

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Answer:

  • Under Section-4of the Inter-State Water Disputes Act, 1956, the Central Government constituted Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT).

Enrich Your Learning:

Narmada Control Authority

  • The Narmada Control Authority (NCA) has been setup under the final orders and decision of the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT)as machinery for implementation of its directions and decision.
  • The authority started functioning from 20th December, 1980.
  • The authority is a body corporate with representatives of the four States of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and representatives of Govt. Of India.
  • The authority is funded in equal proportions by all the four states.
  • Secretary(Water Resources), Govt. of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Authority, whereas the routine administration is the responsibility of Executive Member of the Authority.
  • NCA presently has six subgroups.The Narmada Control Authority has its headquarters at

Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT)

  • Under Section-4of the Inter-State Water Disputes Act, 1956, the Central Government constituted Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT) on 6th Oct. 1969 to adjudicate upon the sharing of Narmada waters and Narmada River Valley Development under the Chairmanship of Justice V. Ramaswami.

 

 

 

What is the difference between Current Account and Capital Account?

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Answer:

  • The current account and capital account comprise the two elements of the balance of payments in international trade.
  • The current account is the difference between a country’s savings and investments.
  • A country’s capital account records the net change of assets and liabilities during a certain period of time.

Enrich Your Learning:

Current vs. Capital Account

  • The current and capital accounts representtwo halves of a nation’s balance of payments. 
  • The current account represents a country’s net income over a period of time, while the capital account records the net change of assets and liabilities during a particular year.
  • In economic terms, the current account deals with the receipt and payment in cash as well as non-capital items, while the capital account reflects sources and utilization of capital.
  • The sum of the current account and capital account reflected in the balance of payments will always be zero.
  • Any surplus or deficit in the current account is matched and cancelled out by an equal surplus or deficit in the capital account.
  • The current and capital accounts are two components of a nation’s balance of payments.
  • The current account is the difference between a country’s savings and investments.
  • A country’s capital account records the net change of assets and liabilities during a certain period of time.

The Current Account Components:

  • There are three broad components of the current account: balance of trade, net factor income, and net transfer payments.

Trade: 

  • Trade in goods and services are the largest componentof the current account.
  • A trade deficit alone is enough to create acurrent account deficit.
  • A deficit in goods in services is large enough to offset any surplus in net income, direct transfers, and asset income. 

Net Income: 

  • This is income received by the country’s residents minus income paid to foreigners.
  • The country’s residents receive income from two sources.
  • The first is earned on foreign assets owned by a nation’s residents and businesses.
  • When exports exceed imports, there is a trade surplusand when imports exceed exports there is a trade deficit.
  • If this figure had been a positive number, there would have been a current account surplus.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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