Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-67] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Election of Rajya Sabha Member Elected; Effects of NPA on economy; Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Trans-boundary Context; Working Class Movements in India; Oath or Affirmation by Members; Rice; Wheat; Bracket Creep; Syngas; Radcliffe Line; Petroleum; Natural Gas;
By IASToppers
May 15, 2020



Crude petroleum occurs in metamorphic rocks of the tertiary period. True OR False?

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Answer: False

Correct Answer:

  • Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Crude petroleum consists of hydrocarbons of liquid and gaseous states varying in chemical composition, colour and specific gravity.
  • It is an essential source of energyfor all internal combustion engines in automobiles, railways and aircraft.
  • Its numerous by-products are processed in petrochemical industries, such as fertiliser, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibre, medicines, Vaseline, lubricants, wax, soap and cosmetics.
  • Crude petroleum occursin sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period.
  • Oil explorationand production was systematically taken up after the Oil and Natural Gas Commission was set up in 1956. 
  • Till then, Digboi in Assamwas the only oil producing region but the scenario changed after 1956.
  • In Assam, Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran are important oil producing areas.
  • The major oilfields of Gujarat are Ankaleshwar, Kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosambaand  
  • Mumbai High which lies 160 km off Mumbaiwas discovered in 1973 and production commenced in 1976.
  • Oil and natural gas have been found in exploratory wells in Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basin on the east coast.
  • There are two types of refineries in India: (a) field-basedand (b) market-based.
  • Digboiis an example of field-based and Barauni is an example of market-based refinery.

Natural Gas

  • The Gas Authority of India Limitedwas set up in 1984 as a public sector undertaking to transport and market natural gas.
  • It is obtained along with oil in all the oilfields but exclusive reserves have been located along the easterncoast as well as (Tamil Nadu, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh), Tripura, Rajasthan and off-shore wells in Gujarat and Maharashtra).




The Radcliffe Line was drawn between ______ and _____. (a) Pakistan, China OR (b) Pakistan, India?

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Answer: Pakistan and India

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Radcliffe Line

  • On 17th August 1947,the Radcliffe Line was declared as the boundary between India and Pakistan, following the Partition of India. 
  • The line is named after Sir Cyril Radcliffewho was commissioned to equitably divide 4,50,000 km sq of territory with 88 million people.
  • The idea behind the Radcliffe Line was to create a boundarywhich would divide India along religious demographics, under which Muslim majority provinces would become part of the new nation of Pakistan and Hindu and Sikh majority provinces would remain in India.



What is syngas? Why is it called so?

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  • Syngas(synthesis gas) is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide. The name comes from its use as intermediates in creating synthetic natural gas (SNG) and for producing ammonia or methanol.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Syngas or synthesis gasis a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
  • The name comes from its use as intermediate in creating synthetic natural gas and for producing ammonia or methanol.
  • Syngas is usually a product of coal gasification and the main application is electricity generation.
  • Syngas is combustibleand can be used as a fuel of internal combustion engines.
  • Syngas can be produced from many sources, including natural gas, coal, biomass, or virtually any hydrocarbon feedstock, by reaction with steam (steam reforming), carbon dioxide (dry reforming) or oxygen (partial oxidation).
  • Syngas is a crucial intermediate resource for production of hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels.
  • Syngas is also used as and intermediate in producing synthetic petroleum for use as a fuel or lubricant via the Fischer–Tropsch process and previously the Mobil methanol to gasoline process.
  • Production methods include steam reforming of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen, the gasification of coal, biomass, and in some types of waste-to-energy gasification facilities.


  • Syngas is used to produce methanol.
  • Syngas is used to produce hydrogen for the Haber process.
  • Syngas can be used in the Fischer–Tropsch process to produce diesel, or converted into e.g. methane, methanol, and di methyl ether in catalytic processes.
  • Syngas is used to directly reduce iron ore to sponge iron.




In context of economy, what is bracket creep?

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  • Bracket creep isa situation where inflation pushes income into higher tax brackets. The result is an increase in income taxes but no increase in real purchasing power.

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Bracket Creep

  • Bracket creep is a situation where inflation pushes income into higher tax brackets.
  • The result is an increase in income taxes butno increase in real purchasing power.
  • Inflation in the economy reducesthe purchasing power of your money, and it can increase the amount of money you pay in taxes.
  • In an inflationary environment, your salary increases as the prices of goods you consume increase.You have more money nominally, but practically, it’s the same amount.
  • Government taxes are in fixed amounts set by statute,however, so the government takes more of your paycheck, even though you don’t have more money to spend.



‘Aus’, ‘Aman’ and ‘Boro’ are a variety of a) rice crop OR (b) wheat crop?

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Answer: Are a variety of rice crop.

  • In West Bengalfarmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus’, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’. 

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  • Rice is a staple foodfor the overwhelming majority of population in India.
  • It is considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas; it has about 3,000 varietieswhich are grown in different agro-climatic regions.
  • These are successfully grown from sea level to about 2,000 m altitudeand from humid areas in eastern India to dry but irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, western U.P. and northern Rajasthan.
  • In southern statesand West Bengal the climatic conditions allow the cultivation of two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year.
  • In West Bengalfarmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus’, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’. 
  • But in Himalayas and north-western partsof the country, it is grown as a kharif crop during southwest Monsoon season.
  • India contributes 2 per cent of rice productionin the world and ranked second after China in 2015.
  • About one-fourth of the total cropped area in the country is under rice cultivation.
  • West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab was theleading rice producing states in the country in 2015-16.
  • The yield level of rice is highin Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal and Kerala.
  • Punjab and Haryanaare not traditional rice growing areas.
  • Rice cultivation in the irrigated areas of Punjab and Haryana was introduced in 1970s following the Green Revolution.
  • The yield of this crop is very low in rain fed areas of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.


  • Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in India after rice.
  • India produces about 7 per cent of total wheat production of world (2015).
  • It is primarily a crop of temperate zone.
  • Hence, its cultivation in India is done during winter e.rabi season.
  • About 85 per centof total area under this crop is concentrated in north and central regions of the countrye. Indo Gangetic Plain, Malwa Plateau and Himalayas up to 2,700 m altitude.
  • About 14 per cent of the total cropped areain the country is under wheat cultivation. 
  • Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab,Haryana and Rajasthan are leading wheat producing states.
  • The yield level of wheat is very high(above 4,000 k.g. per ha) in Punjab and Haryana whereas, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar have moderate yields.
  • The states like Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmirgrowing wheat under rain fed conditions have low yield.



Which schedule of the Indian Constitution deals with forms of oath or affirmation?

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  • Third Schedulecontains the Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.

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Oath or Affirmation by Members

  • Every member of either House of Parliament, before taking his seat in the House, has to make and subscribe to an oath or affirmation before the President or some person appointed by him for this purpose.
  • In his oath or affirmation, a member of Parliament swears:
  • To bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India;
  • To uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India; and
  • To faithfully discharge the duty upon which he is about to enter.
  • Unless a member takes the oath, he cannot voteand participate in the proceedings of the House and does not become eligible to parliamentary privileges and immunities.
  • A person is liable to a penalty of Rs 500 for each day he sits or votes as a member in a House in the following conditions:
  • Before taking and subscribing to the prescribed oath or affirmation; or
  • When he knows that he is not qualified or that he is disqualified for its membership; or
  • When he knows that he is prohibited from sitting or voting in the House by virtue of any parliamentary law.

Rights, etc. of a member before making oath/affirmation:

  • A member elected or nominated to the Rajya Sabha is entitled to make and subscribe the prescribed oath or affirmation and take his seat in the House only upon the commencement of his term of office under the relevant provisions of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • He is not entitled to sit, participate and vote in theHouse qua member until he has taken the oath or made the affirmation.
  • However after the commencement of his term of office and even if he has not made and subscribed oath or affirmation,such a member is entitled to receive salary as a member.
  • He can be nominated to the panel of Vice-Chairmen though he can function as such only after he makes and subscribes oath or affirmation and takes his seat.




How is the first phase of working class movements in India from 1850s -1918 is different than second phase which lasted from 1918 till independence?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Working Class Movements in India

The First phase: 1850s -1918

  • The actions of the working class in the earliest stagewere sporadic and unorganised immature and hence were mostly ineffective.
  • It is only from the late 19th century in Madras,and from the second decade of the twentieth century in Bombay that serious attempts were made for the formation of associations that could lead organised form of protests; though the Congress was formed in 1885, it seriously thought of organising the working class only in the early 1920s. 
  • The Working class in the country was organising struggles against capital much before the 1920s.
  • In the last decades of the 19th century, there occurred strikes at Bombay,Kurla, Surat, Wardha, Ahmedabad and in other places;  The strikes however were only sporadic,spontaneous, localised and short-lived and were caused by factors such as reduction in wages, imposition of fines, dismissal or reprimand of the worker.
  • These actions and militancy, which they showed, helped in the development of class solidarity and consciousness, which was missing earlier.

Second phase- 1918 to independence:

  • The unorganised movement of the workers took an organised form; trade unions were formed on modern lines.
  • In several ways the decade of the 1920s is crucial in this regard.
  • Firstly in the 1920sserious attempts were made by the Congress and the Communists to mobilise the working class and hence from then onwards henational movement established a connection with the working class.
  • Secondly,it was in 1920 that the first attempt to form an all India organisation was made; in this decade, India witnessed a large number of strikes; the strikes were prolonged and well participated by the workers.
  • The number of strikes and number of workers involved in these strikes went on increasing in the subsequent decades etc.



What is the objective of Espoo Convention?

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  • The Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Trans-boundary Context (informally called the Espoo Convention) lays down the general obligation of Statesto notify and consult each other on all major projects under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse environmental impact across boundaries.

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Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Trans-boundary Context

  • The Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Trans-boundary Context (informally called the Espoo Convention) is a United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)convention signed in Espoo, Finland, in 1991 that entered into force in 1997.
  • It also lays down the general obligation of Statesto notify and consult each other on all major projects under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse environmental impact across boundaries.
  • As of April 2014,the treaty had been ratified by 44 states and the European Union.



How Non-performing asset (NPA) affects profitability of banks?

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  • NPA Affects the Profitability of the Bank:The banks get their income from the loans and advances that are disbursed and if these loans are not repaid then it is not possible for them to receive profits.

Enrich Your Learning:

Effects of NPA on economy

  • As the NPA of the banks will rise, it will bring a scarcity of funds in the Indian security markets.
  • Few banks will be willing to lend if they are not sure of the recovery of their money.
  • The shareholders of the banks will lose a lot of money as banks themselves will find it tough to survive in the market.
  • This will leadto a crisis of confidence in the market. The price of loans, i.e. the interest rates will shoot up badly. Shooting of interest rates will directly impact the investors who wish to take loans for setting up infrastructural, industrial projects etc.
  • It will also impact the retail consumerslike us, who will have to shell out a higher interest rate for a loan.
  • All of this will lead to a situation of low off take of funds from the security market. This will hurt the overall demand in the Indian economy. And, finally it will lead to lower growth rates and of course higher inflation because of the higher cost of capital.
  • This trend may continue in a vicious circle and deepen the crisis.
  • Total NPAs have touched figures close to the size of UP budget. Imagine if all the NPA was recovered, how well it can augur for the Indian economy.



Which Schedule of the Constitution provides for allocation of seats to the States and Union Territories in Rajya Sabha?

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  • The Fourth Schedule to the Constitution provides for allocation of seats to the States and Union Territories in Rajya Sabha.

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How is a Rajya Sabha Member Elected?

  • As per Article 80 of the Indian Constitution, the maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha cannot exceed 250.The present strength of the upper house, however, is 245, out of which 233 are representatives of the States and Union territories of Delhi and Pondicherry, while the remaining 12 are nominated by the President of India.
  • The members nominated by the Presidentare people having a distinctive knowledge or practical experience in fields such as literature, science, art and social service.
  • The representatives of States and Union Territories in the Rajya Sabha are elected by the method of indirect election by the elected members of Legislative Assembly pertainingto each State and by the members of Electoral College for that Union Territory, respectively, through the proportional representation with the single transferable vote (STV) system. Each voter’s vote is counted only once.
  • The Rajya Sabha is a permanent Houseand is not subject to dissolution. However, one-third members of the Council of States retire after every second year. A member who is elected for a full term serves for a period of six years.
  • The election held to fill a vacancy arising other than by retirement of a member on the expiration of his term of office is called a ‘bye-election.’A member elected in a bye-election retains the post for the remainder of the term of the member who had resigned, died or disqualified to be a member of the House.
  • The presiding officers of Rajya Sabha have the responsibility to conduct the proceedings of the House.The Vice-President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. The upper house also elects a Deputy Chairman from amongst its members.
  • The allocation of seats is made on the basis of the population of each State.Consequent to the reorganisation of States and formation of new States, the number of elected seats in the Rajya Sabha allotted to States and Union Territories has changed from time to time since 1952. A person to be qualified for the membership of the Rajya Sabha must not be less than 30 years of age.
  • A member may be disqualified as a member, if he voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party,or if he votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction issued by the political party to which he belongs.
  • A member elected as an independent candidate shall be disqualified if he joins any political party after his election. A member nominated to the House by the President, however, is allowed to join a political party if he/she does so within the first six months of taking the seat in the House.
  • As per article 75(3) of the Constitution,the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha which means that the Rajya Sabha cannot make or unmake the Government. It can, however, exercise control over the Government and this function becomes quite prominent, particularly when the incumbent government never enjoys a majority in the Rajya Sabha.

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