Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-68] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Indigenous dairy breeds of cattle; Difference between SLR and CRR; Difference between REDD+ and the UN-REDD Programme; Recommendations of the Saddler Commission; The Cold Weather Season (winter); Consumer Price Index; Producer Price Index; Coral Triangle bio-region; Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919 OR Rowlatt Act; Indigenous Draught breeds of cattle; Indigenous Dual purpose breeds of Cattle; Indigenous Buffalo breeds; ‘Future of Jobs Report’; Triple Talaq;
By IASToppers
May 16, 2020

 

 

What are three forms of talaq in Islam?

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Answer:

  • There are three forms of talaq (divorce) in Islam: Ahsan, Hasan and Talaq-e-Biddat(triple or instant talaq). Ahsan and Hasan are revocable but Biddat is irrevocable.

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Triple Talaq:

  • It is an instant divorce custom being practiced among the Muslim fraternity, conceding thebalance of ending the matrimonial alliance, in the favour of their male counterparts, i.e., husbands, by simply pronouncing the word “TALAAQ” three times.
  • There are three forms of talaq (divorce) in Islam: Ahsan, Hasan and Talaq-e-Biddat(triple or instant talaq). Ahsan and Hasan are revocable but Biddat is irrevocable.
  • Triple talaq is a practice mainly prevalent among India’s Muslim community following the Hanafi Islamic school of law.
  • Under the practice, a Muslim man can divorce his wife by simply uttering “talaq” three times but women cannot pronounce triple talaqand are required to move a court for getting divorce under the Sharia Act, 1937.
  • Triple talaq divorce is banned by many Islamic countries, including Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia.
  • In case of Triple Talaq issue, neither does the Quran sanctionthis form of divorce nor was it legally held permissible by the Constitution.

 

 

Future of Jobs Report is published by?

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Answer:

  • It is published by World Economic Forum(WEF).

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Future of Jobs Report’

  • The World Economic Forum(WEF) in its report ‘Future of Jobs’ found that machines are increasingly replacing jobs done by people. It projected that more than half of all workplace tasks will be carried out by machines by 2025.
  • It predicts the loss of some 75 million jobs worldwide by 2022, but also says 133 million new jobs will be created.
  • According to WEF, despite bringing widespread disruption, the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolutioncould actually have a positive impact on human employment.

Key Findings:

  • Four specific technological advances: universal high-speed mobile internet; artificial intelligence; widespread adoption of big data analytics; and cloud technology—are set to dominate the 2018–2022 period as drivers positively affecting business growth.
  • Companies across all sectors are most likely to adopt the use of stationary robots, in contrast to humanoid, aerial or underwater robots, however leaders in the Oil & Gas industry report the same level of demand for stationary and aerial and underwater robots, while employers in the Financial Services industry are most likely to signal the planned adoption of humanoid robots in the period up to 2022.
  • When determining job location decisions, companies overwhelmingly prioritize the availability of skilled local talentas their foremost consideration. A range of additional relevant factors such as the flexibility of local labour laws, industry agglomeration effects or proximity of raw materials were considered of lower importance.
  • In 2018, humans performed an average of 71% of total task hours across the 12 industries spanning manufacturing, services and high tech. By 2025, that will drop to just 48%. Machines will perform the remaining 52% task.
  • Among the range of established roles that are set to experience increasing demand in the period up to 2022 are Data Analysts and Scientists, Software and Applications Developers, and Ecommerce and Social Media Specialists.
  • Roles that leverage distinctively human skills, such as Customer Service Workers, Sales and Marketing Professionals, Training and Development, People and Culture, and Organizational Development Specialists as well as Innovation Managers, are expected to grow.
  • By 2022, no less than 54% of all employees will require significant re- and up skilling. Proficiency in new technologies is only one part of the 2022 skills equation, however, as human skills such as creativity, originality and initiative, critical thinking, persuasion and negotiation will likewise retain or increase their value.
  • Emotional intelligence, leadership and social influenceas well as service orientation also see an exceptionally large increase in demand relative to their current prominence.

 

 

Hallikar, Kangayam and ulikulam are the a) Indigenous dairy breeds of cattle OR b) Indigenous Draught breeds of cattle?

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Answer:  Hallikar, Kangayam and ulikulam are the Indigenous Draught breeds of cattle.

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Indigenous dairy breeds of cattle

  1. Gir:
  • This breed is otherwise called as Bhadawari, Desan, Gujarati, Kathiawari, Sorthi, and Surati.
  • Originated in Gir forests of South Kathiawarin Gujarat also found in Maharashtra and adjacent Rajasthan.
  • This bread is known for its hardiness and disease resistance.
  1. Red Sindhi:
  • This breed is otherwise called as Red Karachiand Sindhi and
  • Originated in Karachi and Hyderabad (Pakistan) regions of undivided India and also reared in certain organized farms in our country.
  • Bullocks despite lethargic and slow can be used for road and field work.
  1. Sahiwal:
  • Originated in Montgomery regionof undivided India.
  • This breed otherwise known as Lola(loose skin), Lambi Bar, Montgomery, Multani, Teli.
  • Best indigenous dairy breed.

Indigenous Draught breeds of cattle

  1. Hallikar:
  • Originated from the former princely state of Vijayanagarm,presently part of
  • The breed is best known for its draught capacityand especially for its trotting ability.
  1. Amritmahal:
  • Originated in Hassan, Chikmagalur and Chitradurga district of Karnataka.
  1. Khillari:
  • Originated from Sholapur and Sitapur districts of Maharashtra.
  1. Kangayam:
  • Also known as kongu and konganad.
  • Originated in Kangayam, Dharapuram, Perundurai, Erode, Bhavani and part of Gobichettipalayam taluk of Erode and Coimbatore district.
  1. Bargur:
  • Found around Bargur hills in Bhavani talukof Erode district in
  1. Umblachery:
  • It is otherwise called as Jathi madu, Mottai madu, Molai madu, Therkathi madu.
  • Originated in Thanjavur, Thiruvarur and Nagappattinam districts of Tamil Nadu.
  1. Pulikulam:
  • This breed is commonly seen in cumbum valley of Madurai district in Tamil Nadu.
  • Also known as Jallikattu madu, kidai madu, sentharai.
  1. Alambadi:
  • Originated from Alambadi of Dharmapuri district in Tamilnadu.
  • Resembles Hallikar and also known as

Indigenous Dual purpose breeds of Cattle

  1. Tharparkar:
  • Originated inTharparkar district (Pakistan) of undivided India and also found in Rajasthan.
  • Otherwise known as White Sindhi, Gray Sindhi and Thari.
  1. Hariana:
  • It was originated from Rohtak, Hisar, Jind and Gurgaondistricts of Haryana and also popular in Punjab, UP and parts of MP.
  1. Kankrej:
  • It is otherwise called as Wadador Waged, Wadhiar.
  • Originated from Southeast Rann of Kutchof Gujarat and adjoining Rajasthan (Barmer and Jodhpur district).
  1. Ongole:
  • Otherwise known as
  • Home tract is Ongole taluk in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.
  1. Krishna Valley:
  • Originated from black cotton soilof the water shed of the river Krishna in Karnataka and also found in border districts of
  1. Deoni:
  • This breed otherwise known as Dongerpati, Dongari, Wannera, Waghyd, Balankya, Shevera.
  • Originated in Western Andra Pradeshand also found in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state and adjoining part of Karnataka.

Indigenous Buffalo breeds

  1. Murrah:
  • Most important breed of buffaloes whose home is Rohtak, Hisar and Sind of Haryana, Nabha and Patiala districts of Punjab and southern parts of Delhi state.
  • Otherwise called asDelhi, Kundi and Kali.
  1. Surti:
  • Also known as Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator and Nadiadi.
  • The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda district of Gujarat.
  1. Jaffrabadi:
  • The breeding tract of this breed isGir forests, Kutch and Jamnagar districts of Gujarat.
  • This is the heaviest Indian breed of buffalo.
  1. Bhadawari:
  • Home tract of this breed isAgra and Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh and Gwalior district of Madhya Pradesh.
  1. Nili Ravi:
  • Originated around theriver Ravi.
  • This breed is found inSutlej valley in Ferozpur district of Punjab and in the Sahiwal (Pakistan) of undivided India.
  • The peculiarity of the breed is thewall eyes.
  1. Mehsana:
  • Mehsana is a dairy breed of buffalo found inMehsana, Sabarkanda and Banaskanta districts in Gujarat and adjoining Maharashtra state.
  1. Nagpuri:
  • This breed is also calledas Elitchpuri or
  • The breeding tract of this breedis Nagpur, Akola and Amrawati districts of Maharashtra.
  1. Toda:
  • This buffalo is named after an ancient tribe, Toda of Nilgiris Hillsof south India and it is a semi-wild breed.  
  • The predominate coat colours are fawn and ash-grey.

 

 

 

Why Rowlatt Act was called black act?

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Answer:

  • The Rowlatt Actof 1919 was also called the black act or law because it was enforced by Imperial lagislative council despite opposition of India’s. The Rowlatt Act passed on 1919, allowed the British government to arrest Indian political leaders without any trial or warrant.

Enrich Your Learning:

Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919 OR Rowlatt Act

The basic facts about the act and its significance are given below:

  • Officially known as the Anarchicaland Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919.
  • Passed in March 1919by the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • This act authorised the British governmentto arrest anybody suspected of terrorist activities.
  • It also authorised the government to detain such people arrested for up to 2 years without trial.
  • It empowered the police to search for a place without a warrant.
  • It also placed severe restrictions on the freedom of the press.
  • The act was passed as per recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee chaired by a judge, Sir Sidney Rowlatt, after whom the act is named.
  • The act was widely condemned by Indian leaders and the public. The bills came to be known as ‘black bills’.
  • The act was passed despite unanimous opposition from the Indian members of the council, all of whom resigned in protest.These included Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Madan Mohan Malviya and Mazhar Ul Haq.
  • In response to this act, a nationwide hartal was called by Gandhiji on 6th April. This was called the Rowlatt Satyagraha.
  • The movement was cancelled by Gandhiji when it was marred by rioting in some provinces, particularly in Punjab where the situation was grim.
  • The British government’s primary intention was to repress the growing nationalist movement in the country.
  • The British were also afraid of a Ghadarite revolution in Punjab and the rest of the country.
  • Two popular Congress leaders Satya Paland Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested.
  • The protest was very intense when the act came into effect and the army was called in Punjab to tackle the situation.

 

 

How many countries are part of Coral Triangle bioregion?

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Answer: 

  • Six countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste are part ofCoral Triangle bioregion.

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Coral Triangle bio-region

  • The Coral Triangle isone of the most important reef systems in the world.
  • It coverssix countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste.
  • It occupies just 1.5% of the world’s total ocean area, but represents 30% of the world’s coral reefs.
  • It has the highest coral diversity in the world76% of the world’s coral species are found here.
  • Fifteen of are endemic to the region,which means they aren’t found anywhere else.
  • It is also home to the highest diversity of coral reef fishes in the world.
  • Thirty-seven percentof the world’s coral reef fish species and 56% of the coral reef fishes in the Indo-Pacific region live here.
  • The Coral Triangle encompasses portions of 2 bio geographic regions: the Indonesian-Philippines Region, and the Far South-western Pacific Region.

 

 

 

Which is published by Bureau of Labor Statistics: a) Consumer Price Index OR b) Producer Price Index?

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Answer:

Producer Price Index is published by Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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Consumer Price Index vs. Producer Price Index

  • The consumer price index(CPI) and the producer price index (PPI) are economic indicators. 
  • Although both quantify price fluctuations for goods and services, they differ in the composition of their target sets of goods and services and in the types of prices collected for those different goods and services.

Consumer Price Index:

  • CPI reflectsthe average change in the prices at the consumer level.
  • RBI has decidedto use CPI as an indicator to measure the Inflation for formulating the monetary policy rather than WPI (Wholesale Price Index).
  • In 2015 the base year for CPI was revised to 2011-12.
  • CPI is released by CSO (Central Statistics Office).
  • India has four different set of CPIdepending upon the socio-economic differentiation among the consumers; although they have been proposed to be withdrawn data for them are still released.

Producer Price Index:

  • Producer Price Index measures the average change in the prices of both goods and services, either as they leave the place of production called Output PPI or as they enter the input production process called as input PPI; thus PPI estimates the change in average prices that a producer receives.
  • The producer price index(PPI) is published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).
  • While WPI does not include services,but PPI includes services thus making the index more inclusive.
  • PPI eliminates the multiple counting biaseswhich are inherent in the Wholesale Price Index.
  • In PPI the weights of the items are derived based on Supply use Tables.
  • PPI is considered as a better measure of inflationas the price change at the primary and intermediate stage can be tracked before it gets built in the finished good stage and due to this reason, many countries have switched over to the PPI.

 

 

The ‘Mahawat’ or local winter rainfall is significant for a) Rabi Crop OR b) Kharif Crop OR c) Zaid Crop?

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Answer:

The ‘Mahawat’ or local winter rainfall is significant for Rabi Crop.

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The Cold Weather Season (winter)

  • The cold weather season begins from mid November in northern Indiaand stays till February.
  • December and Januaryare the coldest months in the northern part of India.
  • The temperature decreases from south to the north.
  • The average temperature of Chennai, on the eastern coast, is between 24° – 25° Celsius,while in the northern plains, it ranges between 10° – 15° Celsius.
  • Frost is common in the northand the higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall. 
  • During this season, the northeast trade winds prevail over the country.
  • They blow from land to sea and hence, for most part of the country, it is a dry season.
  • Some amount of rainfall occurson the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as; here they blow from sea to land.
  • In the northern part of the country, a feeble high-pressureregion develops, with light winds moving outwards from this area. 
  • Influenced by the relief, these winds blow through the Ganga valley from the west and the northwest.
  • The weather is normally marked by clear sky, low temperatures and low humidity and feeble, variable winds.
  • A characteristic feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains is the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest.
  • These low-pressure systems originate over the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia and move into India, along with the westerly flow.
  • They cause the much-needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.
  • Although the total amount of winter rainfall locally known as‘mahawat’ is small, they are of immense importance for the cultivation of ‘rabi’ crops. 
  • The peninsular region does not have a well defined cold season.
  • There is hardly any noticeable seasonal changein temperature pattern during winters due to the moderating influence of the sea.

 

 

The dividing line between the University and Secondary courses should properly be drawn at the Intermediate examination than at the Matriculation Examination. This recommendation was given by which commission in British India?

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Answer:

It was given by Saddler Commission.

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Recommendations of the Saddler Commission

  • The School course was to be for twelve years.
  • After Matriculation, student had to pass an Intermediate examinationfrom the Intermediate College, which would provide for instruction in Arts, Science, Medicine, Engineering and Teaching etc; these colleges were to be run as independent institutions or to be attached to selected high schools.
  • The dividing line between the University and Secondary courses should properly be drawn at the Intermediate examinationthan at the Matriculation Examination.
  • The Commission recommended setting up aseparate Board for secondary and intermediate education consisting of the representatives of Government, University, High Schools and Intermediate Colleges be established and entrusted with the administration and control of Secondary Education.
  • The duration of degree course should be limited to three years.Honours courses should be distinct from the regular pass courses.
  • Autonomous institutionswere to be given more encouragement.
  • Centralised residential-teaching universitieswere to be encouraged. These institutions were also to be given autonomy to facilitate their day-to-day working.
  • Women educationwas to be encouraged in a big way.
  • The establishment of a special Board of women Education in the Calcutta Universitybesides many other facilities that would help more and more women take up course in school, colleges and Universities.
  • Provisions of facilities were to be made for training teachersand setting up the Department of Education at the Universities of Calcutta and Decca.

 

 

What is the difference between UN-REDD Programme and REDD+ Programme?

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Answer:

  • REDD refers to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation; REDD+ refers to conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.

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UN-REDD Programme (United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation)

  • The UN-REDD Programme is a collaborative programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), created in 2008in response to the UNFCCC decisions on the Bali Action Plan and REDD at COP-13.
  • The UN-REDD Programme supports nationally led REDD+ processesand promotes the indigenous peoples and other forest-dependent communities, in national and international REDD+ implementation.
  • The UN-REDD Programme publicly releases each yearan Annual Programme Progress Report and a Semi-Annual Report.
  • The UN-REDD Programme dependsentirely on voluntary funds.

Goal:

  • The overall development goal of the Programme is “to reduce forest emissions and enhance carbon stocks in forests while contributing to national sustainable development“.

Difference between REDD+ and the UN-REDD Programme:

  • REDD refers to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation; REDD+ refers to conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
  • REDD+ is a voluntary climate change mitigation approachthat has been developed by Parties to the UNFCCC.

 

 

Cash Reserve Ratio is the percentage of deposit that the banks have to keep as liquid assets in their own vault. True OR False.

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Answer: False

Correct Statement:

  • Statutory Liquidity Ratiois the percentage of deposit that the banks have to keep as liquid assets in their own vault.

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Statutory Liquidity Ratio

  • Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) is a ratio of liquid assets tonet demand and time liabilities (NDTL).
  • NDTL refers to the liquidassets like cash, gold and unencumbered securities, treasury bills dated securities issued under market borrowing programme and market stabilisation schemes (MSS), etc.
  • SLR is maintained by banks in order to control and regulate the expansion of bank credit.
  • SLR is the reserve requirement that the commercial banks are required to maintain in the form of cash, gold reserves, government approved securities before providing credit to the customers.
  • Banks have to report to the RBI every alternate Friday their SLR maintenance and pay penalties for failing to maintain SLR as mandated.
  • The SLR is commonly used to control inflation and fuel growth, by increasing or decreasing it respectively. This counter acts by decreasing or increasing the money supply in the system respectively.
  • If any Indian bank fails to maintain the required level of the statutory liquidity ratio, then it becomes liable to pay penalty to Reserve Bank of India.

Effects:

  • The SLR is fixed for a number of reasons.The chief driving force is increasing or decreasing liquidity which can result in a desired outcome.
  • It controls the expansion of bank credit.
  • By changing the level of SLR, the Reserve Bank of India can increase or decrease bank credit expansion.
  • It ensures the solvency of commercial banks.
  • By reducing the level of SLR, the RBI can increase liquidity with the commercial banks, resulting in increased investment.This is done to fuel growth and demand.
  • It compels the commercial banks to invest in government securities like government bonds

Difference between SLR and CRR

  • Cash Reserve Ratiois the percentage of the deposit (NDTL) that a bank has to keep with the RBI. CRR is kept in the form of cash and that also with the RBI. No interest is paid on such reserves.
  • On the other hand, SLR is the percentage of deposit that the banks have to keep as liquid assets in their own vault.
  • The CRR is a more active and useful monetary policy weapon compared to the SLR.Nowadays, the RBI changes CRR to manage liquidity in the economy.

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