Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-69] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

The North and North-eastern Mountains; Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas; Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas; Legal Entity Identifier (LEI); Permafrost; Bioindicators; Alternating Current (AC) Vs Direct Current (DC); Annual Financial Statement; Macaulay Committee on Indian Civil Service; 1907 Surat session of Indian national Congress;
By IASToppers
May 17, 2020



What happened during the Surat Session (1907) of the Indian National Congress?

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Congress leaders split into two groups – moderates and extremists.

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1907 Surat session of Indian national Congress

At the Surat Split 1907, congress leaders split into two groups – moderates and extremists.

The Rift between these two sections became apparent at the Banaras Session (1905) when some nationalist-led by Tilak denounced the method of the moderates and suggested passive resistance.

They also advocated the boycott of British goods and government institutions. 

At the end of this session, Lokmanya Tilak, and his followers held a separate conference and announced the formation of the Extremist Party. 

However, they decided to work as a part of the Indian National Congress.





In British India, which committee created an Indian Civil Service for British graduates between 18 to 23 years in 1854?

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In 1854, the Macaulay Committee on Indian Civil Services broadly created an Indian Civil Service for British graduates between 18 to 23 years. 

Enrich Your Learning:

Macaulay Committee on Indian Civil Service

The evolution of Indian Civil Services can be traced back to Company rule when the first classification was attempted as:

Covenanted, and

Un-covenanted public services a committee of the Halisbury College used to recruit officials through the institution of board of directors.

It was the age of free booting, spoils system and patronage appointments. 

In 1854, the Macaulay Committee on Indian Civil Services broadly created an Indian Civil Service for British graduates between 18 to 23 years.

Competitive examinations were recommended for entry to constitute a ‘Merit oriented career service which can bring loyalist, neutral and anonymous public servants to govern a colony of India’s size’.



Is there any constitutional provision for presenting Annual Financial Statement in Parliament every year?

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Article 112 of the constitution envisages to laid down the annual budget in the parliament.

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Annual Financial Statement

Annual Financial Statement is a document presented to the Parliament every year under Article 112 of the Constitution of India, showing estimated receipts and expenditures of the Government of India for the coming year in relation to revised estimates for the previous year as also the actual amounts for the year prior to it.

The receipts and disbursements are shown fewer than three parts in which Government Accounts are to be kept viz., (i) Consolidated Fund, (ii) Contingency Fund and (iii) Public Account.

The Annual Financial Statement distinguishes the expenditure on revenue account from the expenditure on other accounts, as mandated by the Constitution of India.

Annual Financial Statement is essentially the Budget of the Government.

In case of the Central Government, the Budget is presented in two parts, viz., the Railway Budget pertaining to Railway Finance and the General Budget (or what is commonly known as Union Budget) relating to the financial position of the Government of India, excluding Railways.

The Railway Budget is presented by the Railway Minister sometime in the third week of February.

By convention, the General Budget is presented to Lok Sabha by the Finance Minister on the last working day of February of each year.

A copy of the respective Budgets is simultaneously laid on the Table of Rajya Sabha.



What is the direction of a conventional current in an electric circuit: (a) Negative to Positive OR (b) Positive to Negative?

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Answer: Positive to Negative

Direction of conventional current is positive to negative.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is the direction of a conventional current in an electric circuit?

Direction of conventional current is positive to negative.

Electrons flow from Negative to positive. And flow of electrons is actual flow of current.

Earlier (during initial period of discovery of electricity) it was thought that current flows from positive to negative.

After discovery of electronics, it was proved that flow of electrons is actual flow of current. But all theories were made according to positive to negative.

There is absolutely no difference it makes regarding theory of electricity, whether current flows from positive to negative or vice versa.

So it was conventionally agreed that conventional current flows from positive to negative and actual current flows from negative to positive.

Alternating Current (AC) Vs Direct Current (DC)


Alternating Current

Direct Current

Amount of energy that can be carried

Safe to transfer over longer city distances and can provide more power.

Voltage of DC cannot travel very far until it begins to lose energy.

Cause of the direction of flow of electrons

Rotating magnet along the wire.

Steady magnetism along the wire.


The frequency of alternating current is 50Hz or 60Hz depending upon the country.

The frequency of direct current is zero.


It reverses its direction while flowing in a circuit.

It flows in one direction in the circuit.


It is the current of magnitude varying with time

It is the current of constant magnitude.

Flow of Electrons

Electrons keep switching directions – forward and backward.

Electrons move steadily in one direction or ‘forward’.

Obtained from

A.C Generator and mains.

Cell or Battery.

Passive Parameters


Resistance only

Power Factor

Lies between 0 & 1.

It is always 1.


Sinusoidal, Trapezoidal, Triangular, Square.

Pure and pulsating.



What are Bioindicators? Why lichens are called Bioindicators?

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Bioindicators are living organisms that respond in an especially clear way to a change in the environment. The hardy lichens are useful bioindicators for air pollution, especially or sulphur dioxide pollution, since they derive their water and essential nutrients mainly from the atmosphere rather than from the soil.

Enrich Your Learning:


A bioindicator is a living organism that gives us an idea of the health of an ecosystem.

Some organisms are very sensitive to pollution in their environment, so if pollutants are present, the organism may change its morphology, physiology or behaviour, or it could even die.

How various bioindicators tell about the environmental health?

If toxins are present, certain plants may not be able to grow in the area affected.

Monitoring population numbers of animals may indicate damage to the ecosystem in which they live.

Algae blooms are often used to indicate large increases of nitrates and phosphates in lakes and rivers.

If pollution causes the reduction of an important food source, the animals dependent on it for food may also decrease. Animals may also change their behaviour or physiology if a toxin is present.

The levels of certain liver enzymes in fish increase if they are exposed to pollutants in the water.

Changes in the functioning of the nervous systems of worms are used to measure levels of soil pollution.

The increase in the number of mutated frogs found in the USA is used as an indicator of toxins in their environment.

Microorganisms can also be used as indicators of toxins in an ecosystem. Some microorganisms will produce stress proteins if exposed to certain pollutants. By measuring the levels of stress proteins, we can get an idea of the level of pollution present in the environment.

Lichens – The most well know bioindicator

What are lichens?

A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria (or both) living among filaments of a fungus in a mutually beneficial relationship (symbiotoc relationship).

The hardy lichens are useful bioindicators for air pollution, especially sulfur dioxide pollution.

How are lichens able to act as bioindicators?

Lichens live on surfaces such as trees or rocks or soil and are very sensitive to toxins in the air.

They have no roots, no cuticle, and acquire all their nutrients from direct exposure to the atmosphere rather than from the soil.

Their high surface area to volume ratio further encourages the interception and accumulation of contaminants from the air.

They are able to react to air pollutants all year round.

Compared with most physical/chemical monitors, they are inexpensive to use in evaluating air pollution.

Frogs as bioindicators:

Most frogs require suitable habitat in both the terrestrial and aquatic environments, and have permeable skin that can easily absorb toxic chemicals.

These traits make frogs especially susceptible to environmental disturbances, and thus frogs are considered accurate indicators of environmental stress: the health of frogs is thought to be indicative of the health of the biosphere as a whole.



What is permafrost and where do they occur?

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Permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years.

Most permafrost is located in high latitudes (in and around the Arctic and Antarctic regions), but at lower latitudes alpine permafrost occurs at higher elevations.

Enrich Your Learning:


Permafrost is defined as ground (soil or rock and included ice or organic material) that remains at or below 0°C for at least two consecutive years.

Such a layer of frozen ground is designated exclusively on the basis of temperature. 

Part or all of its moisture may be unfrozen, depending on the chemical composition of the water or the depression of the freezing point by capillary forces.

Permafrost with saline soil moisture, for example, may be colder than 0 °C for several years but contain no ice and thus not be firmly cemented. Most permafrost, however, is consolidated by ice.

A typical classification recognizes continuous permafrost (underlying 90-100% of the landscape); discontinuous permafrost (50-90%); and sporadic permafrost (0-50%).

Permafrost accounts for 0.022% of total water on Earth and exists in 24% of exposed land in the Northern Hemisphere.

Where do we find Permafrost?

Permafrost forms and exists in a climate where the mean annual air temperature is 0 °C or colder. Such a climate is generally characterized by long, cold winters with little snow and short, relatively dry, cool summers.

Permafrost, therefore, is widespread in the Arctic, sub-Arctic, and Antarctica.



In context of economy, what is Legal Entity Identifier (LEI) code?

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  • LEI are a 20-digit unique codeto identify parties to financial transactions worldwide.

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Legal Entity Identifier (LEI)

  • LEI are a 20-digit unique code to identify parties to financial transactions worldwide.
  • It is a global reference number that uniquely identifies every legal entity or structure that is party to a financial transaction, in any jurisdiction.
  • LEI code has been conceived as key measure to improve quality and accuracy of financial data systems for better risk management post the global financial crisis.
  • The LEI system was developed by G20in response to inability of financial institutions to identify organisations uniquely, so that their financial transactions in different national jurisdictions can be fully tracked.
  • The first LEIs were issued in December 2012.




What are the effects of inflation on the economy?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Inflationmeans there is a sustained increase in the price level. The main causes of inflation are either excess aggregate demand (AD) (economic growth too fast) or cost push factors (supply-side factors).

The effect of inflation on the economy can be stated as:

  • The effect of inflation is not distributed evenly in the economy. There are chances of hidden costs for different goods and services in the economy.
  • Suddenor unpredictable inflation rates are harmful to an overall economy. 
  • They lead to market instability and thereby make it difficult for companies to plan a budget for the long-term.
  • Inflation can act as a drag on productivityas companies are forced to mobilize resources away from products and services to handle the situations of profit and losses from inflation.
  • Moderate inflation enables labour markets to reach equilibrium at a faster pace.



The higher reaches of this region are inhabited by Lepcha tribes. This region is known for its fast-flowing rivers such as Tista. The British introduced tea plantations in this region. Identify this region.

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Answer: Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas 

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Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

They are flanked by Nepal Himalayas (consisting of Mahabharat range) in the west and Bhutan Himalayas in the east.

It is relatively small but is a most significant part of the Himalayas, Known for its fast-flowing rivers such as Tista, it is a region of high mountain peaks like Kanchenjunga (Kanchengiri), and deep valleys.

The higher reaches of this region are inhabited by Lepcha tribes while the southern part, particularly the Darjeeling Himalayas, has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.

The British, taking advantage of the physical conditions such as moderate slope, thick soil cover with high organic content, well-distributed rainfall throughout the year and mild winters, introduced tea plantations in this region.



The Karewa formation can be seen in: (a) Northwestern Himalayas OR (b) Arunachal Himalayas?

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Answer:  The Karewa formation can be seen in Northwestern Himalayas (Kashmir Himalayas).

Enrich Your Learning:

The North and North-eastern Mountains

The North and Northeastern Mountains consist of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills.

The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel mountain ranges.

Some of the important ranges are the Greater Himalayan range, which includes the Great Himalayas and the Trans-Himalayan range, the Middle Himalayas and the Shiwalik.

The general orientation of these ranges is from northwest to the southeast direction in the northwestern part of India.

Himalayas in the Darjiling and Sikkim regions lie in an east-west direction, while in Arunachal Pradesh they are from southwest to the northwest direction.

In Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, they are in the north-south direction.

The approximate length of the Great Himalayan range, also known as the central axial range, is 2,500 km from east to west, and their width varies between 160-400 km from north to south.

On the basis of relief, alignment of ranges and other geomorphological features, the Himalayas can be divided into the following sub-divisions:

Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas

Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas

Darjiling and Sikkim Himalayas

Arunachal Himalayas

Eastern Hills and Mountains.

Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas:

It comprises a series of ranges such as the Karakoram, Ladakh, Zanskar and Pir Panjal.

The northeastern part of the Kashmir Himalayas is a cold desert, which lies between the Greater Himalayas and the Karakoram ranges.

Between Zaskar and the Pir Panjal range, lies the world-famous Valley of Kashmir and the famous Dal Lake.

Important glaciers of South Asia such as the Baltoro and Siachen are also found in this region.

The Kashmir Himalayas are also famous for Karewa formations, which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran, a local variety of saffron.

Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.

Some of the important passes of the region are Zoji La on the Great Himalayas, Banihal on the Pir Panjal, Photu La on the Zaskar and Khardung La on the Ladakh range.

Some of the important fresh lakes such as Dal and Wular and saltwater lakes such as Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri are also in this region.

The landscape of Himalayas is a major source of attraction for adventure tourists. Some famous places of pilgrimage such as Vaishno Devi near Jammu in Katra, Amarnath Cave in Anantnag, Charar-e-Sharif found here.

Srinagar, the Capital city of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum River. Dal Lake in Srinagar presents an interesting physical feature.

Jhelum in the valley of Kashmir is still in its youth stage and yet forms meander–a typical feature associated with the mature stage in the evolution of fluvial landform.

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