Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-7] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

The Himalayan rivers; Alluvial Soils, Black Soil & Red and Yellow Soils; Sacred Groves; Landmass; The Peninsular Plateau; National river conservation plan; Montane Forests & Mangrove Forests; Bhoodan – Gramdan; Conventional Sources of Energy
By IASToppers
March 12, 2020

 

 

In context of conventional sources of energy, which coal has highest quality of hard coal?

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Solution:

  • Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal.

Enrich Your Learning:

Conventional Sources of Energy:

Coal:

  • Coal is found in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial.
  • Decaying plants in swamps produce peat.
  • It has a low carbon and high moisture contents and low heating capacity.
  • Lignite is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content.
  • The principal lignite reserves are in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu and are used for generation of electricity.
  • Bituminous coal is the most popular coal in commercial use.
  • Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
  • In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages;
    1. Gondwana: A little over 200 million years in age and
    2. Tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old.
  • The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand). Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields.
  • The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.
  • Tertiary coals occur in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

Petroleum:

  • Petroleum refineries act as a “nodal industry” for synthetic textile, fertilizer and numerous chemical industries.
  • Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
  • Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.
  • Gas, being lighter usually occurs above the oil.
  • About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam.
  • Ankeleshwar is the most important field of Gujarat.
  • Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields in the state.

Natural Gas:

  • Natural gas is considered an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions and is, therefore, the fuel for the present century.
  • Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin.
  • Along the west coast the reserves of the Mumbai High and allied fields are supplemented by finds in the Gulf of Cambay.
  • Andaman and Nicobar islands are also important areas having large reserves of natural gas.
  • The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur – Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien with the fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
  • The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas.
  • Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels is gaining wide popularity in the country.

 

 

Bhoodan-Gramdan movement, initiated by Vinoba Bhave, is also known as a) Blood-less Revolution OR b) Peaceful Revolution

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Solution:

Blood-less Revolution

Enrich Your Learning:

Bhoodan – Gramdan:

  • Vinoba Bhave undertook padyatra to spread Gandhiji’s message covered almost the entire country.
  • Once, when he was delivering a lecture at Pochampalli in Andhra Pradesh, some poor landless villagers demanded some land for their economic well-being.
  • Vinoba Bhave could not promise it to them immediately but assured them to talk to the Government of India regarding provision of land for them if they undertook cooperative farming.
  • Suddenly, Shri Ram Chandra Reddy stood up and offered 80 acres of land to be distributed among 80 lands-less villagers.
  • This act was known as ‘Bhoodan’.
  • Later he travelled and introduced his ideas widely all over India.
  • Some zamindars, owners of many villages offered to distribute some villages among the landless. It was known as Gramdan.
  • However, many land-owners chose to provide some part of their land to the poor farmers due to the fear of land ceiling act.
  • This Bhoodan-Gramdan movement initiated by Vinoba Bhave is also known as the Blood-less Revolution.

 

 

India is the third largest producer of rice in the world after China and Russia. True OR False.

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Solution:

False

Correct statement:

  • India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.

Enrich Your Learning:

Rice:

  • It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
  • Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
  • Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.

Wheat:

  • This rabi crop requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
  • It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly- distributed over the growing season.
  • There are two important wheat-growing zones in the country –
  1. The Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and
  2. Black soil region of the Deccan.
  • The major wheat-producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh.

 Millets:

  • Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. Though, these are known as coarse grains, they have very high nutritional value.
  • It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation.
  • Major Jowar producing States are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil.
  • Major Bajra producing States are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
  • Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
  • Major ragi producing states are: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.

Maize:

  • It is a crop which is used both as food and fodder.
  • It is a kharif crop which requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C and grows well in old alluvial soil.
  • In some states like Bihar maize is grown in rabi season also.
  • Major maize-producing states are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh.

 

 

Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, jack rabbit and Tibetan antelope are found on which forest? a) Montane Forests OR b) Mangrove Forests.

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Solution:

Montane Forests

Enrich Your Learning:

Montane Forests:

  • In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation.
  • The wet temperate types of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 meters.
  • Between 1500 and 3000 meters, temperate forests containing coniferous trees, like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar, are found.
  • These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas, places having high altitude in southern and north-east India.
  • More than 3,600 meters above the sea level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation.
  • Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.
  • Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair are found on this forest.

Mangrove Forests:

  • The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides.
  • Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of the plants submerged under water.
  • The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri are covered by such vegetation.
  • In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, sundari trees are found, which provide durable hard timber.
  • Palm, coconut, keora, agar, etc., also grow in some parts of the delta.
  • Royal Bengal Tiger is the famous animal in these forests.
  • Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests.

 

 

Ganga Action Plan II was launched in 1993. Which River are included under this action plan?

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Solution:

  • It included of River Yamuna, Gomti and major tributaries of River Ganga.

Enrich Your Learning:

National river conservation plan:

Background:

  • The Central Government started the river pollution abatement programme with the launching of the Ganga Action Plan (GAP-I) in the year 1985.
  • GAP Phase II was launched in 1993 for pollution abatement of river Yamuna and Gomti, major tributaries of river Ganga.
  • The river pollution abatement programme was further expanded to include other major rivers of the country in 1995 under the aegis of National River Conservation Plan (NRCP).

About National River Conservation Plan (NRCP):

  • The objective of NRCP is to reduce the pollution load in rivers.
  • The pollution abatement works taken up under the NRCP include;
  1. Interception and diversion works of sewerage systems to capture raw sewage flowing into the rivers through open drains and diverting them for treatment;
  2. Setting up of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) for treating the diverted sewage;
  3. Construction of Low Cost Sanitation Toilets to prevent open defecation on river banks;
  4. Construction of Electric Crematoria and Improved Wood Crematoria to conserve the use of wood;
  5. River Front Development works, such as improvement of bathing Ghats;
  6. Public participation & awareness and capacity building, etc.
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change is presently implementing the works for pollution abatement of rivers, other than Ganga and its tributaries.
  • Presently NRCP (excluding Ganga and its tributaries) has covered polluted stretches of 33 rivers in 76 towns spread over 15 States.

 

 

Peninsular plateau was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land. True OR False.

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Solution:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

The Peninsular Plateau:

  • The physical features of India can be grouped under the following physiographic divisions;
  1. The Himalayan Mountains
  2. The Northern Plains
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains
  6. The Islands
  • The Peninsular plateau is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • The plateau has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills.
  • This plateau consists of two broad divisions;
  1. The Central Highlands and
  2. The Deccan Plateau.
  • The part of the peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada River, covering a major area of the Malwa plateau, is known as the Central Highlands.
  • The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and the Ken is from southwest to northeast, thus indicating the slope.
  • The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand.
  • One of the distinct features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as Decean Trap.
  • This is of volcanic origin; hence, the rocks are igneous. Actually, these rocks have denuded over time and are responsible for the formation of black soil.
  • The Aravali Hills lie on the western and northwestern margins of the peninsular plateau.
  • These are highly eroded hills and are found as broken hills. They extend from Gujarat to Delhi in a southwest-northeast direction.

 

 

Which today’s countries are part of ancient Gondwana land?

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Solution:

  • The Gondwana land included India, Australia, South Africa, South America and Antarctica as one single land mass.

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Landmass:

  • The oldest landmass was a part of the Gondwana land.
  • The convectional currents split the crust into a number of pieces, thus leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate after being separated from the Gondwana land, towards north.
  • Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosynclines known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.
  • The land of India displays great physical variation.
  • Geologically, the Peninsular Plateau constitutes one of the ancient landmasses on the earth’s surface. It was supposed to be one of the most stable land blocks.
  • Himalayan mountains form an unstable zone.
  • The whole mountain system of Himalaya represents a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers.
  • The northern plains are formed of alluvial deposits.
  • The peninsular plateau is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with gently rising hills and wide valleys.

 

 

What are sacred groves?

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Answer:

Nature worship is an age old tribal belief based on the premise that all creations of nature have to be protected. Such beliefs have preserved several virgin forests in pristine form called Sacred Groves (the forests of God and Goddesses).

Enrich Your Learning:

Sacred Groves (A wealth of diverse and rare species):

  • These patches of forest or parts of large forests have been left untouched by the local people and any interference with them is banned.
  • Certain societies revere a particular tree which they have preserved from time immemorial. The Mundas and the Santhal of Chota Nagpur region worship mahua (Bassia latifolia) and kadamba (Anthocaphalus cadamba)
  • The tribals of Odisha and Bihar worship the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and mango (Mangifera indica) trees during weddings. To many of us, peepal and banyan trees are considered sacred.
  • In and around Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan, herds of blackbuck, (chinkara), nilgai and peacocks can be seen as an integral part of the community and nobody harms them.

 

 

The entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil in India. True OR False.

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Answer:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

Alluvial Soils:

  • This is the most widely spread and important soil. Northern plains are made of alluvial soil, have been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems– the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
  • These soils also extend in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor. Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.
  • The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. As move inlands towards the river valleys, soil particles appear somewhat bigger in size. In the upper reaches of the river valley i.e. near the place of the break of slope, the soils are coarse. Such soils are more common in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos and Terai.
  • Apart from the size of their grains or components, soils are also described on the basis of their age. According to their age alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar). The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar. Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile.
  • Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.
  • Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated. Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.

Black Soil:

  • These soils are black in colour and are also known as regur soils. Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil. It is believed that climatic condition along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil.
  • This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.
  • The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents.
  • They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.

Red and Yellow Soils:

  • Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
  • Yelllow and red soils are also found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
  • These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.

 

 

Name the tributaries which join the Indus River in the Kashmir region.

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Answer:

The Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok and the Hunza are the tributaries which join Indus River in the Kashmir region.

Enrich Your Learning:

The Himalayan rivers:

The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These rivers are long, and are joined by many large and important tributaries. A river along with its tributaries called a river system.

The Indus River System:

  • The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar. Flowing west, it enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. It forms a picturesque gorge in this part.
  • The Indus flows through Baltistan and Gilgit and emerges from the mountains at Attock.
  • The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum join together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan.
  • The Indus flows southwards eventually reaching the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. The Indus plain has a very gentle slope. With a total length of 2900 km, the Indus is one of the longest rivers of the world.
  • A little over a third of the Indus basin is located in India in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and the rest is in Pakistan.

The Ganga River System:

  • The headwaters of the Ganga, called the ‘Bhagirathi’ is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devaprayag in Uttarakhand. At Haridwar, the Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains.
  • The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas, a few of them being major rivers, such as the Yamuna, the Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi.
  • The river Yamuna rises from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas. It flows parallel to the Ganga and as a right bank tributary meets the Ganga at Allahabad.
  • The Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi rise in the Nepal Himalaya. They are the rivers, which flood parts of the northern plains every year, causing widespread damage to life and property, whereas, they enrich the soil for agricultural use.
  • The main tributaries, which come from the peninsular uplands, are the Chambal, the Betwa and the Son. These rise from semi-arid areas, have shorter courses and do not carry much water in them.
  • Enlarged with the waters from its right and left bank tributaries, the Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal. This is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta. The river bifurcates here; the Bhagirathi-Hooghly (a distributary) flows southwards through the deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal.
  • The mainstream, flows southwards into Bangladesh and is joined by the Brahmaputra. Further downstream, it is known as the This mighty river, with waters from the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, flows into the Bay of Bengal. The delta formed by these rivers is known as the Sundarban Delta.
  • Ambala is located on the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems. The plains from Ambala to the Sunderban stretch over nearly 1800 km, but the fall in its slope is hardly 300 metres. In other words, there is a fall of just one metre for every 6 km. Therefore, the river develops large meanders.

The Brahmaputra River System:

  • The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet east of Mansarowar lake very close to the sources of the Indus and the Satluj. It is slightly longer than the Indus, and most of its course lies outside India.
  • It flows eastwards parallel to the Himalayas. On reaching the Namcha Barwa (7757 m), it takes a ‘U’ turn and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through a gorge. Here, it is called the Dihang and it is joined by the Dibang, the Lohit, and many other tributaries to form the Brahmaputra in Assam.
  • In Tibet, the river carries a smaller volume of water and less silt as it is a cold and a dry area.
  • In India, it passes through a region of high rainfall. Here the river carries a large volume of water and considerable amount of silt. The Brahmaputra has a braided channel in its entire length in Assam and forms many riverine islands.
  • Every year during the rainy season, the river overflows its banks, causing widespread devastation due to floods in Assam and Bangladesh.
  • Unlike other north Indian rivers, the Brahmaputra is marked by huge deposits of silt on its bed causing the riverbed to rise. The river also shifts its channel frequently.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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