Flash Cards

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-70] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Honey Mission; Elevation-dependent warming (EDW); Project 75 India (P-75I); Global Intellectual Property Index; National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority; International Financial Services Centres (IFSC) Authority Bill, 2019; Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Communities; International Grains Agreement, 1995; Sikkim; Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED);
By IASToppers
May 19, 2020

 

 

 

‘Tech for Tribals’ programmes is an initiative of Ministry of Tribal Affairs under National Technology Empowerment Mission. True OR False.

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Answer: False

Correct Statement:

  • Tech for Tribals’ programmes is an initiative of Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED).

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in News?

  • Recently, the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) has launched a transformational “Tech for Tribals” program in partnership with Institutes of National Importance (INIs) to develop Tribal entrepreneurship.

Key Points:

  • Tech For Tribals program aims to transform 5 crore Tribal Entrepreneurs by capacity building and imparting entrepreneurship skills to tribal forest produce gatherers enrolled under the Pradhan Mantri Van Dhan Yojana (PMVDY).
  • The program will ensure higher success rate of the Tribal Entrepreneurs by enabling and empowering them to run their business with marketable products with quality certifications.
  • Under the program trainees will undergo a 30 days training program over six weeks comprising 120 sessions. The Partner institutions will develop course contents relevant to Entrepreneurship in Value Addition and Processing of Forest Produces.
  • The course curriculum will include Achievement Motivation and positive psychology, Entrepreneurial Competencies, capacity utilization, Product positioning – Grading / Sorting, Branding, Packaging, etc.

TRIFED:

  • The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) came into existence in 1987.
  • It is a national-level apex organization functioning under the administrative control of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
  • The objective of TRIFED is socio-economic development of tribal people in the country by way of marketing development of the tribal products such as metal craft, tribal textiles, pottery, tribal paintings and pottery on which the tribals depend heavily for a major portion of their income.
  • TRIFED acts as a facilitator and service provider for tribes to sell their product.
  • The approach by TRIFED aims to empower tribal people with knowledge, tools and pool of information so that they can undertake their operations in a more systematic and scientific manner.
  • It also involves capacity building of the tribal people through sensitization, formation of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and imparting training to them for undertaking a particular activity.
  • TRIFED has its Head Office located in New Delhi and has a network of 13 Regional Offices located at various places in the country.

 

 

 

Honey Mission was launched in 2017 in line with Prime Minister’s call of ‘Sweet Revolution’ by which Indian organization?

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Answer: Honey Mission was launched in 2017 in line with Prime Minister’s call of ‘Sweet Revolution’ by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).

Enrich Your Learning:

Honey Mission

  • Honey Mission was launched in August 2017 in line with Prime Minister’s call of ‘Sweet Revolution’ in 2016.
  • It was launched with a target to distribute 1.3 lakh bee-boxes before November 2018 across the country.
  • Under this mission, the KVIC has provided beekeepers practical training about examination of honeybee colonies, acquaintance with apicultural equipments, identification and management of bee enemies and diseases etc.
  • Its aim is to provide sustainable employment and income to rural and urban unemployed youth, both educated and uneducated, men and women by conserving the honeybee habitat and tapping untapped natural resources, while inducing Good Beekeeping Practices for qualitative and quantitative increase in all hive products in the country.
  • Another objective is to promote beekeeping for increasing the crop productivityand pollination services avenue for beekeepers and farmers.

 

 

 

The world’s third highest mountain is located in which state of India?

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Answer: The world’s third highest mountain, Khangchendzonga is located in Sikkim.

Enrich Your Learning:

Sikkim

  • The early history of Sikkim starts in the 13th century with the signing of a blood-brotherhood treaty between the Lepcha Chieftain Thekong Tek and Bhutia Chieftain Khye-Bumsa at Kabi Lungtsok in North Sikkim.
  • Sikkim saw the process of democratisation and became an integral part of the Indian Union in 1975.
  • The world’s third highest mountain, Khangchendzonga, is regarded as the guardian deity of Sikkim.
  • Sikkim is one of the 18 biodiversity hotspots in the world.
  • Situated in the eastern Himalayas, Sikkim is one of the most beautiful states of the Indian Union.
  • In the agriculture sector, the state has made immense breakthrough with the introduction of crops like baby corn, sweet corn,, bringing manifold increase in income to the farming community. Focus is on crops which can grow under moisture stress conditions and which have high global demands of the likes of buckwheat, millet and such other cereals.
  • The Department of Irrigation and Flood Control has covered 3866.68 hectares of agricultural land in Eleventh Five Year Plan.
  • The total hydro power potential of Sikkim as assessed by Central Water Commission is around 8,000 MW.
  • The production of fruits has increased from 5250 tonnes to 22240 recording to growth of 323 per cent.
  • Vegetable production has increased from 22130 tonnes to 78820 tonnes registering 256 per cent growth.
  • In floriculture a record growth of 200 ha with production of over 230 lakh numbers of cut flowers and planting materials.
  • CSC in Sherethang which is an achievement for the state government and its citizens is declared as the highest cyber cafe in the world by the Limca Book of Records.

Answer:

  • International Grains Agreement comprises of Grains Trade Convention (GTC) and Food Aid Convention (FAC).

Enrich Your Learning:

International Grains Agreement, 1995

  • India is a member of the International Grains Council (IGC) which was previously known as International Wheat Council.
  • IGC is an intergovernmental forum of exporting and importing countries, for co-operation in wheat and coarse grain matters.
  • It administers the Grains Trade Convention 1995.
  • The IGC Secretariat, based in London, also services the Food Aid Committee, established under the Food Aid Convention.
  • International Grains Agreement comprises of Grains Trade Convention (GTC) and Food Aid Convention (FAC).
  • India is a signatory to the International Grains Agreement (IGA), 1995 and its Grain Trade Convention (GTC), 1995 which is effective from July 1, 1995.
  • India has been included in the category of exporting members in July, 2003 and represented in the meetings/session of the council held from time to time.
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The term, ‘De-notified and Nomadic Tribes’, are related to which Act?

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Answer:

  • The term, ‘De-notified and Nomadic Tribes’, can be traced to the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) of 1871. 

Enrich Your Learning:

Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Communities

  • Denotified tribes (DT):Tribes labelled as criminals through legislation by British government and were denotified post-independence. 
  • Nomadic tribes (NT):Tribes maintaining constant geographical mobility. 
  • Semi-Nomadic Tribes (SNT): Tribes who are on the move, but return to fixed habitations once a year, mainly for occupational reasons. 

Key Points:

  • The term, ‘De-notified and Nomadic Tribes’, can be traced to the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) of 1871. The colonial government notified nearly 200 tribal communities to be hereditary criminals and subjecting them to constant harassment by the administration. 
  • After India gained Independence, these tribes were ‘de-notified’ from the list of Criminal Tribes, and, hence, the term. 
  • The CTA was repealed and the Habitual Offenders Act (HOA) was enacted in various States. Currently, a variant of the HOA Model Bill as proposed by the Union Government stands enforced in 10 States across the country, having been enacted in many more. 

Steps taken by Government: 

  • To address these issues, the first National Commission for Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-nomadic Tribes (NCDNT)was constituted in 2003. 
  • NCDNT was reconstituted two years later under the chairpersonship of Balkrishna Renke, which submitted its report in 2008. The Renke Commission estimated their population between 10-12 crore. 
  • In 2015, Idate Commission was constituted under the chairmanship of Bhiku Ramji Idate which submitted its report in January 2018. Its Key Recommendations are – 
    • Set up a Permanent Commissionfor them on the lines of similar commissions for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes. 
    • Set up a dedicated National Finance Development Corporationfor them. 
    • Set up a working groupunder NITI Aayog to look into various policy issues relating to the communities. 
    • Grant Constitutional protection to these communities, under a separate third scheduleafter Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Making them eligible for reservation, and extending the protective cover of Prevention of Atrocities Act to them.

Announcements made in interim budget 2019-20: 

  • A Committee under NITI Aayogwill be set-up to complete the task of identifying De-notified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic communities not yet formally classified.  
  • A Welfare Development Board under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowermentwill be set-up for implementing welfare and development programmes for them. 

 

 

 

International Financial Services Centres (IFSC) Authority Bill, 2019 is applicable to all International Financial Services Centres (IFSCs) set up under which act?

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Answer:

  • The Bill will be applicable to all International Financial Services Centres (IFSCs) set up under the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005.

Enrich Your Learning:

International Financial Services Centres (IFSC) Authority Bill, 2019

Coverage

  • The Bill will apply to all International Financial Services Centres (IFSCs) set up under the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005.

International Financial Services Centres Authority

  • The Bill sets up the International Financial Services Centres Authority
  • It will consist of nine members, appointed by the central government. 
  • Members of the Authority will include:
  • the Chairperson,
  • one member each to be nominated from the RBI, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI), and the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA),
  • two members from among officials of the Ministry of Finance, and
  • Two members to be appointed on the recommendation of a Search Committee
  • Members will have a term of three years, subject to reappointment. 

Functions of the Authority

  • Regulate financial products (such as securities, deposits or contracts of insurance), financial services, and financial institutions which have been previously approved by any appropriate regulator (such as RBI or SEBI), in an IFSC.  
  • Recommending any other financial products, financial services, or financial institutions to the central government, this may be permitted in an IFSC.

International Financial Services Centres Authority Fund

  • The Bill sets up the International Financial Services Centres Authority Fund. 
  • All grants, fees and charges received by the Authority, and
  • All sums received by the Authority from various sources, as decided by the central government are added to fund.
  • The Fund will be used for:
  • salaries, allowances and other remuneration of members and employees of the Authority, and
  • Expenses incurred by the Authority.  
  • Further, the central government may provide grants to the Authority for the regulation of IFSCs.

Performance Review Committee

  • The Authority will constitute a Performance Review Committee to review its functioning. 
  • The Review Committee will consist of at least two members of the Authority. 
  • It will review whether:
  • The Authority has adhered to the provisions of the applicable laws while exercising powers or performing functions,
  • The regulations made by the Authority promote transparency and best practices of governance, and
  • The Authority is managing risks to its functioning in a reasonable manner

Transaction in foreign currency

  • All transactions of financial services in IFSCs will be in such foreign currency as specified by the Authority, in consultation with the central government.

 

 

 

What are the functions of National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority?

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Answer:

  • To implement and enforce the provisions of the Drugs (Prices Control) Order in accordance with the powers delegated to it.
  • To deal with all legal matters arising out of the decisions of the Authority.
  • To monitor the availability of drugs, identify shortages, if any, and to take remedial steps.
  • To collect/ maintain data on production, exports and imports, market share of individual companies, profitability of companies etc., for bulk drugs and formulations.
  • To render advice to the Central Government on changes/ revisions in the drug policy.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority

  • NPPA is an independent authority under the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers.
  • It was established in 1997.
  • Its mandate is:
  • To fix or revise controlled bulk drugs prices and formulations.
  • To enforce prices and availability of medicines under DPCO, 2013.
  • To monitor prices of decontrolled drugs to keep them at reasonable levels.
  • To implement and enforce the provisions of DPCO.
  • To recover amounts overcharged by manufacturers for controlled drugs from consumers.

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy 2012

  • The price control under this policy cover 348 drugs instead of 74 drugs
  • The price of the controlled product should be calculated based on the simple average of all brands of that particular product that have a market share of at least 1 %.
  • It allows the companies to use the WPI (Wholesale Price Index) to increase the prices of the essential medicines on their own each year. However, they need to seek approval from NPPA whenever they want to increase the prices of the items covered under the Drug Price Control Order.

 

 

 

What is the rank of India in the Global intellectual property index 2020?

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Answer:

  • India has been ranked 40th out of 53 countries on a global intellectual property index.

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Intellectual Property Index

  • The Global IP Index was released by Global Innovation Policy Center or GIPC of the US Chambers of Commerce.
  • The GIPC Index consists of five key sets of indicators to map the national intellectual property environment for the surveyed countries.

The major indicator categories are:

  • patents, related rights, and limitations;
  • copyrights, related rights, and limitations;
  • trademarks, related rights, and limitations;
  • enforcement;
  • Membership and ratification of international treaties.

India’s performance:

  • India was placed at 36th position among 50 countries in 2019.
  • India’s score, however, increased from 36.04 per cent (16.22 out of 45) in 2019 to 38.46 per cent (19.23 out of 50) in 2020, a 2.42 per cent jump in absolute score.
  • However, India’s relative score increased by 6.71 per cent.
  • India also continues to score well in the Systemic Efficiency indicator, scoring ahead of 28 other economies in these indicators.

 

 

 

The Project 75 of Indian navy involves construction of six Scorpene submarines in partnership with which country? (a) USA OR (b) France?

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Answer: The Project 75 of Indian navy involves construction of six Scorpene submarines in partnership with France.

Enrich Your Learning:

Project 75 India (P-75I)

  • P75I was first cleared in 2007, but lay dormant until now after undergoing numerous changes.
  • The P75I project is part of a 30-year submarine building plan that ends in 2030.
  • The project cost is about 45,000 crore.
  • As part of this plan, India was to build 24 submarines18 conventional submarines and six nuclear-powered submarines (SSNs) — as an effective deterrent against China and Pakistan.
  • This project envisages the construction of six conventional submarines with better sensors and weapons and the Air Independent Propulsion System (AIP).
  • The project has been cleared under the strategic partnership model.
  • Under it, six new-generation conventional diesel-electric submarineswill be constructed.
  • They will have advanced Air-independent propulsion (AIP) systems to enable them to stay submerged for longer duration and substantially increase their operational range.
  • They will have a vertical launch system (VLS) to enable them to carry multiple Brahmos supersonic cruise missiles,making them capable of anti-surface and anti-ship warfare missions. 
  • They will feature advanced stealth capabilitiessuch as a greater ability to suppress noise and acoustic signatures. 

 

 

Elevation Dependent Warming (EDW) is a phenomenon of more increase in temperature in mountains than at lower altitudes. What are the important mechanisms that contribute towards EDW?

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Answer:

Important mechanisms that contribute towards EDW:

  • Snow albedo and surface-based feedbacks;
  • water vapour changes and latent heat release;
  • surface water vapour and radiative flux changes;
  • surface heat loss and temperature change; and
  •  

Enrich Your Learning:

Elevation-dependent warming (EDW)

  • Elevation Dependent Warming is a phenomenon of more increase in temperature in mountains than at lower altitudes.
  • Elevation-dependent warming (EDW) can accelerate the rate of change in mountain ecosystems, cryospheric systems, hydrological regimes and biodiversity.
  • In some high elevation regions there is evidence that temperatures are warming faster than the global average, and the warming appears to be elevation dependent in some cases.
  • One region where elevation dependent warming has been found is in the Tibetan Plateau.

Working Group Activities:

  • Assess the significance of mountain elevation dependent warming.
  • Specify the mechanisms that underlie elevation dependent warming.
  • Review the evidence for elevation dependent warming.
  • Assess projections of future elevation dependent warming, and its implications for water, ecosystems, and society.
  • Develop satellite-based monitoring of temperatures in mountain regions.
  • Examine high-resolution regional and global modeling.
  • Design targeted observational campaigns.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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