Flash Cards

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-70] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Pherozeshah Mehta; Policy of free trade in British rule; R. C. Dutt; Voting right by Government of India Act, 1935; Directives outside Part IV; X-ray; CT scan; MRI; India - Largest Emitter of Sulphur Dioxide; Stratification; Fiscal capacity; Tax to GDP Ratio; Eastern Hills and Mountains;
By IASToppers
May 19, 2020

 

 

 

Which state in India is known as ‘Orchid state’?

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Answer:

  • Arunachal Pradesh is known as orchid state.

Enrich Your Learning:

Eastern Hills and Mountains

  • They are called Purwanchal hills because they are located in the eastern part of India.
  • Arunachal Pradesh is known for orchids, also called orchid state and land of the rising sun of India.
  • The average height of these hills from sea level is 500m to 3000 m.
  • These hills are located in Southern Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. Mishmi, Patkai Bum, Naga, Manipur, Mizo (Lushai) and Tripura are the major hilly ranges of this region from North to South.
  • The Patkai boom and the Naga Hills form the watershed between India and Myanmar.
  • These are inhabited by numerous tribal groups practising Jhum cultivation (also called slash and burn).
  • Most of these ranges are separated from each other by numerous small rivers. The Barak is an important river in Manipur and Mizoram.
  • The physiography of Manipur is unique by the presence of a large lake known as ‘Loktak’ lake at the centre, surrounded by mountains from all sides.
  • Mizoram, which is also known as the ‘Molassis basin’ is made up of soft unconsolidated deposits.
  • Most of the rivers in Nagaland form the tributary of the Brahmaputra.
  • While two rivers of Mizoram and Manipur are the tributaries of the Barak River, which in turn is the tributary of Meghna; the rivers in the eastern part of Manipur are the tributaries of Chindwin, which in turn is a tributary of the Irrawaddy of Myanmar.

 

 

 

What is the impact of the High tax-to-GDP ratio and Low tax-to-GDP ratio on economy?

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Answer:

  • A higher tax to GDP ratio means that an economy’s tax buoyancy is strong as the share of tax revenue rises in sync with the rise in the country’s GDP.
  • Lower tax-to-GDP ratio constrains the government to spend on infrastructure and puts pressure on the government to meet its fiscal deficit targets.

Enrich Your Learning:

Tax to GDP Ratio

  • The tax-to-GDP ratio is the ratio of tax collected compared to national gross domestic product (GDP).
  • The tax-to-GDP ratio gives policymakers and analysts a metric that they can use to compare tax receipts from year to year.
  • The number of taxpayers is a key indicator of fiscal capacity.
  • The tax-to-GDP ratio is a measure of a nation’s tax revenue relative to the size of its economy.
  • This ratio is used with other metrics to determine how well a nation’s government directs its economic resources via taxation.
  • Developed nations typically have higher tax-to-GDP ratios than developing nations.

Why is it important?

  • A higher tax to GDP ratio means that an economy’s tax buoyancy is strong as the share of tax revenue rises in sync with the rise in the country’s GDP.
  • India, despite seeing higher growth rates, has struggled to widen the tax base.
  • Lower tax-to-GDP ratio constrains the government to spend on infrastructure and puts pressure on the government to meet its fiscal deficit targets.

 

 

 

What does fiscal capacity mean?  

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Answer:

  • In economics, it is theability of government, groups, institutions, etc. to generate revenue. The fiscal capacity of governments depends on a variety of factors including industrial capacity, natural resource wealth and personal incomes.

Enrich Your Learning:

Fiscal capacity

  • Fiscal capacity in economics is the ability of government, groups, institutions, etc. to generate revenue.
  • The fiscal capacity of governments depends on a variety of factors including industrial capacity, natural resource wealth and personal incomes.
  • It’s simply ability to generate revenues.
  • As majority of the revenue of governments around the world is through taxes (other from various fees/user charges/ dividends etc),Tax to GDP ratio is often taken as proxy for the fiscal capacity of a govt.

 

 

 

What are the three mains types of Social Stratification?

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Answer:

Three main types of social stratification are:

  1. Castesocial stratification,
  2. Classsocial stratification and
  3. Stratification based on estate or slavery.

Enrich Your Learning:

Stratification

  • Social stratification is a system whereby people in the society are categorized depending on various factors such as income, ethnicity, occupation, and level of education.

Main characteristics of social stratification are as follows:

  • Social-Economic classification or categorization: A stratified society is one with distinct social classes. Most of the social stratification types are based on the social-economic classification.
  • Universal: Social divisions are found in almost all societies and cultures (developing countries to developed countries), sometimes deliberately and in other circumstances subconsciously in various forms.
  • Hierarchical: Startas are arranged in hierarchical order For example Indian Caste System
  • Preserves the status quo:Categorization of people into different social classes is meant to ensure that the status quo is preserved.
  • Inequality in income, wealth distribution and social status: This means if a person has a high capital income he/she falls in the upper class. Those with lower-income fall in the lower class and so on!
  • Unequal control over natural resources such as land:For example, the high-class or the rich class people can own more land or other resources. On the other hand, the poor or the low-class people own fewer resources.
  • Is in diverse forms: Diverse in nature & remains same with only differences in the name. Caste social stratification, slavery stratification, high-class, middle class, etc., are few such examples.
  • It has consequences:such as racial and class discrimination, unjust application of the law, and increasing income gap between the rich and the poor. It also leads to resentment between social classes.
  • It is purely social:It does not focus on natural abilities of an individual other than inequalities that have been caused by the society.
  • Inequality of opportunity:Some strata of society will usually have more opportunities for work, education and so on than others.
  • Stereotyping:Sometimes, people will stereotype the members of different social strata, cementing a particular image of them in the public’s mind.
  • Dissatisfaction:The inequalities described above can lead to dissatisfaction, and even unrest, among the populace in a stratified society.

 

 

 

According to a recent report by Greenpeace (an environmental Non-Governmental Organization), which country is largest emitter of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in the world?

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Answer:

According to a report by Greenpeace (an environmental Non-Governmental Organization), India is the largest emitter of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in the world, contributing more than 15% of global anthropogenic emissions.

Enrich Your Learning:

India – Largest Emitter of Sulphur Dioxide

According to a report by Greenpeace (an environmental Non-Governmental Organization), India is the largest emitter of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in the world, contributing more than 15% of global anthropogenic emissions.

  • The primary reason for India’s high emission output is the expansion of coal-based electricity generation over the past decade.
  • According to the Report, five of the top ten SO2emission hotspots from coal/power generation industry across the world are in India.
    • The major SO2emission hotspots in India are Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh, Neyveli and Chennai in Tamil Nadu, Talcher and Jharsuguda in Odisha, Korba in Chhattisgarh, Kutch in Gujarat, Ramagundam in Telangana and Chandrapur and Koradi in Maharashtra – as detected by the NASA OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite.
  • The vast majority of coal-based power plants in India lack Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology to reduce air pollution.
    • Sulfur dioxide in flue gas from fossil-fuel power plants can be controlled by means of an absorption process called Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD).
    • FGD systems may involve wet scrubbing or dry scrubbing.
    • In wet FGD systems, flue gases are brought in contact with an absorbent, which can be either a liquid or slurry of solid material. The sulfur dioxide dissolves in or reacts with the absorbent and becomes trapped in it.
    • In dry FGD systems, the absorbent is dry pulverized lime or limestone; once absorption occurs, the solid particles are removed by means of baghouse filters.
  • Hotspots across the World: The largest sulphur dioxide emission hotspots have been found in Russia, South Africa, Iran, Saudi Arabia, India, Mexico, United Arab Emirates, Turkey and Serbia.
    • Air pollutant emissions from power plants and other industries continue to increase in India, Saudi Arabia and Iran.
    • In Russia, South Africa, Mexico and Turkey, emissions are currently not increasing — however, there is not a lot of progress in tackling them either.
    • Of the world’s major emitters, China and the United States have been able to reduce emissions rapidly by switching to clean energy sources. China, in particular, has achieved success by dramatically improving emission standards and enforcement for sulphur dioxide control.
  • Individual Hotspots across the World: The Norilsk smelter site in Russia continues to be the largest anthropogenic SO2 emission hotspot in the world. Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh is at number 

 

 

 

MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging) use X-rays and CT (computed tomography) scans use radio waves. True OR False?

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Answer: False

Correct Answer:

  • MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging) use radio waves and CT (computed tomography) scans use X-rays.

Enrich Your Learning:    

X-ray:

  • X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, like
  • They are less energetic than gamma rays and more energetic than ultraviolet light.
  • They pass easily through soft tissue such as organs and muscles.
  • They don’t pass as easily through hard tissue such as bones and teeth, so they produce images of skeletal structures—the X-ray images we are most familiar with.
  • Additionally, sometimes a person ingests or is injected with an opaque X-ray fluid that will fill a space of interest for X-ray imaging.

CT scan:

  • A computerized tomography (CT) scan is usually a series of X-rays taken from different angles and then assembled into a three-dimensional model by a computer.
  • Tomography means a picture of a slice.
  • While an X-ray may show edges of soft tissues all stacked on top of each other, the computer used for a CT scan can figure out how those edges relate to each other in space, so the CT image is more useful for understanding blood vessels and soft tissue.
  • In positron emission tomography (PET), a person is injected with a tracer—a special dye containing a positron-emitting radionuclide (radioactive material)—and the organs and tissues absorb this tracer.
  • When highlighted under a PET scanner, the tracer can help show how well organs and tissues are working.
  • A PET scan can measure blood flow, oxygen use, the body’s use of sugar, and much more.

MRI:

  • In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radio waves of a specific frequency are used to jostle the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, which are plentiful in both water and fats.
  • Powerful magnets detect the hydrogen response and map the locations of the tissues where the hydrogen resides.
  • An MRI does not use ionizing radiation (such as X-rays), and the radio waves are longer and have lower energy than visible light or microwaves have.
  • Most MRI machines are huge and very expensive.
  • A group here at Los Alamos is building an ultra-sensitive, low-power MRI that will fit in a pick-up truck.
  • The group hopes it will find applications in battlefield medicine and in Third World countries that can’t afford conventional MRI equipment.

 

 

 

Apart from the Directives included in Part IV, there are some other Directives contained in other Parts of the Constitution. What are they?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Directives outside Part IV

  • The Constitution of India does not formally classify the Directive Principles of State Policy but for better understanding and on the basis of content and direction- they can be classified into three categories: Socialistic Principles, Gandhian Principles, and Liberal-Intellectual Principle.
  • Apart from the Directives included in Part IV, there are some other Directives contained in other Parts of the Constitution. They are:
  • Claims of SCs and STs to Services: The claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or a State (Article 335 in Part XVI).
  • Instruction in mother tongue: It shall be the Endeavour of every state and every local authority within the state to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups (Article 350 – A in Part XVII).
  • Development of the Hindi Language: It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language and to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India (Article 351 in Part XVII).
  • The above Directives are also non-justifiable in nature.
  • However, they are also given equal importance and attention by the judiciary on the ground that all parts of the constitution must be read together.

 

 

 

The government of India Act, 1935 was passed by whom? And it contains how many schedules?

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Answer:

  • The Government of India Act was passed by the British Government in the year 1935.
  • It was one of the lengthiest Acts at that time as it contained 321 sections and 10 schedules

Enrich Your Learning:

Voting right by Government of India Act, 1935

  • The Government of India Act was passed by the British Government in the year 1935.
  • It was one of the lengthiest Acts at that time as it contained 321 sections and 10 schedules.
  • Once the act was passed the government saw that it was too lengthy to be regulated with efficiency and thus, the government decided to divide it into two parts for the act to function in a proper manner:
  • The Government of India Act, 1935
  • The Government of Burma Act,1935
  • The act gave new dimensions to the affairs of the country by the development of an All India Federation, Provisional autonomy and the removal of the dyarchy.
  • It was also the last constitution of British India, before the country was divided, in 1947, into two parts-India and Pakistan.
  • The act was implemented and formed from the sources like the Simon Commission Report, the three roundtable conferences which were earlier declined by the government.
  • The Act proposed various amendments in context to the act earlier framed in the year 1919.

 

 

 

He was chosen as the president of the Indian National Congress in 1890. He started Bombay Chronicle, an English-language weekly newspaper. Identify the person. (a) Pherozeshah Mehta OR (b) Romesh Chunder Dutt?

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Answer: Pherozeshah Mehta

Enrich Your Learning:

Pherozeshah Mehta:

  • He became the Municipal commissioner of Bombay Municipality in 1873 and its President four times – 1884, 1885, 1905 and 1911.
  • He was chosen the president of the Indian National Congress in 1890.
  • When the Bombay Presidency Association was established in 1885, Mehta became its president, and remained so for the rest of his years.
  • He encouraged Indians to obtain western education and embrace its culture to uplift India.
  • He contributed to many social causes for education, sanitation and health care in the city and around India.
  • Mehta was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress. He was the chairman of the Reception Committee in its fifth session in Bombay in 1889. He presided over the next session in Calcutta.
  • Mehta was nominated to the Bombay Legislative Council in 1887 and in 1893 a member of the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • In 1894, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) and was appointed a Knight Commander (KCIE) in 1904.
  • In 1910, he started Bombay Chronicle, an English-language weekly newspaper, which became an important nationalist voice of its time, and an important chronicler of the political upheavals of a volatile pre-independent India.
  • He served as a member of Bombay’s Municipal Corporation for six years.
  • A portrait of Pherozeshah Mehta at the Indian Parliament House, shows his importance in the making of the nation. He was known as ‘The Lion of Bombay’and ‘Uncrowned King of Bombay’.
  1. C. Dutt:
  • Born in Calcutta in 1848, Dutt began in 1871 an outstanding career in the Indian Civil Service and in Indian public life. He retired from the Indian Civil Service in 1897 at the relatively young age of 49 while serving as the Commissioner of Orissa.
  • His work as a civil servant evoked praise from all quarters, including Lieutenant Governors and Governor – Generals.
  • He became President of the Indian National Congress in 1899 and was regarded by the growing politically – conscious educated public as one of their most effective spokespersons.
  • His first book on the economic problems of the cultivators was ‘Peasantry of Bengal’, written in 1875; the ideas developed in this book were expanded fully in ‘Famines in India,’ published in 1900, containing his strongly-argued thesis about the over-assessment of land revenue and containing a plea for the extension of the Permanent Settlement to the Ryotwari area and also for a permanent fixation of rents payable by the Ryots to the intermediaries.
  • His greatest works in the, field followed soon after, with the publication, of ‘India under Early British Rule, 1757 – 1837’ in 1901, and the ‘Economic History of India in the Victorian Age’ in 1902. The thesis on land revenue was reiterated in the famous ‘Open Letters’, to which Lord Curzon’s Government gave an official reply in the Resolution of 1902.

 

 

How did Britishers exploit the domestic market of India by having complete monopoly over Indian trade?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Policy of free trade in British rule

  • During the colonial rule, the trade and tariff policies followed by the government and the restrictive policies of commodity production adversely affected the composition and volume of Indian foreign trade.
  • Because India became a grower of raw materials, India became an exporter of such products like cotton, jute, raw silk etc and an importer of finished goods like cotton, silk and woolen clothes and capital goods like light machinery, all of which were produced in the factories of England.
  • Britain maintained a complete monopoly over Indian trade.
  • Hence most of our trade was with Britain and the rest with China, Ceylon (Srilanka) and Persia (Iran). After the Suez Canal was opened, the British control over India’s trade increased even more.
  • During the colonial period, the most significant characteristic of our trade was the generation of a large export surplus.
  • This surplus cost our economy heavily. Several essential commodities like food grains, clothes, kerosene etc were not available in the domestic market.
  • Also, the export surplus did not bring in any flow of gold or silver to India. Instead they were pocketed by the colonial government.
  • They also used the export profits to pay for the wars fought by them and for the import of non-existent goods thereby draining India’s wealth.
  • By the time of independence in 1947, India was left in absolute misery by the British Raj.
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