Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-8] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Transportation in Human Beings; Democracy; Why do we need constitution; Preamble of the Constitution; Prime Minister and Council of Ministers; Federalism; Versatile nature of carbon; Micelles; Hormone and their use in body; Atmospheric Refraction
By IASToppers
March 13, 2020

 

 

Why don’t the planets twinkle?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

The planets are much closer to the earth, and are thus seen as extended sources. If someone consider a planet as a collection of a large number of point-sized sources of light, the total variation in the amount of light entering our eye from all the individual point-sized sources will average out to zero, thereby nullifying the twinkling effect.

Enrich Your Learning:

Atmospheric Refraction:

  • There is apparent random wavering or flickering of objects seen through a turbulent stream of hot air rising above a fire or a radiator. The air just above the fire becomes hotter than the air further up.
  • The hotter air is lighter (less dense) than the cooler air above it, and has a refractive index slightly less than that of the cooler air. Since the physical conditions of the refracting medium (air) are not stationary, the apparent position of the object, as seen through the hot air, fluctuates.
  • This wavering is thus an effect of atmospheric refraction (refraction of light by the earth’s atmosphere) on a small scale in local environment.

Twinkling of stars:

  • The twinkling of a star is due to atmospheric refraction of starlight. The starlight, on entering the earth’s atmosphere, undergoes refraction continuously before it reaches the earth.
  • The atmospheric refraction occurs in a medium of gradually changing refractive index. Since the atmosphere bends starlight towards the normal, the apparent position of the star is slightly different from its actual position.

Advance sunrise and delayed sunset:

  • The Sun is visible to us about 2 minutes before the actual sunrise, and about 2 minutes after the actual sunset because of atmospheric refraction. By actual sunrise, we mean the actual crossing of the horizon by the Sun.
  • The time difference between actual sunset and the apparent sunset is about 2 minutes. The apparent flattening of the Sun’s disc at sunrise and sunset is also due to the same phenomenon.

 

 

What is the function of hormone that releases from Pituitary gland in humans?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

Pituitary gland – Stimulates growth in all organs

Enrich Your Learning:

Hormone and their use in body:

  • Hormones carry out their functions by evoking responses from specific organs or tissues that are adapted to react to minute quantities of them. The classical view of hormones is that they are transmitted to their targets in the bloodstream after discharge from the glands that secrete them. This mode of discharge (directly into the bloodstream) is called endocrine secretion.
  • Many hormones are secreted by special glands, such as thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland.
  • Hormones are essential for every activity of life, including the processes of digestion, metabolism, growth, reproduction, and mood control.
  • Many hormones, such as neurotransmitters, are active in more than one physical process.

 

 

Because both oxygen and carbon dioxide have to be transported by the blood, the heart has different chambers to prevent the oxygen-rich blood from mixing with the blood containing carbon dioxide. True OR False.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Transportation in Human Beings:

The heart:

  • The heart is a muscular organ which is as big as fist.

  • The carbon dioxide-rich blood has to reach the lungs for the carbon dioxide to be removed, and the oxygenated blood from the lungs has to be brought back to the heart. This oxygen-rich blood is then pumped to the rest of the body.

  • Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs comes to the thin-walled upper chamber of the heart on the left, the left atrium.
  • The left atrium relaxes when it is collecting this blood. It then contracts, while the next chamber, the left ventricle, relaxes, so that the blood is transferred to it. When the muscular left ventricle contracts in its turn, the blood is pumped out to the body.
  • De-oxygenated blood comes from the body to the upper chamber on the right, the right atrium, as it relaxes. As the right atrium contracts, the corresponding lower chamber, the right ventricle, dilates.
  • This transfers blood to the right ventricle, which in turn pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation. Since ventricles have to pump blood into various organs, they have thicker muscular walls than the atria do. Valves ensure that blood does not flow backwards when the atria or ventricles contract.

Oxygen enters the blood in the lungs:

  • The separation of the right side and the left side of the heart is useful to keep oxygenated and deoxygenated blood from mixing. Such separation allows a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body.

The tubes – blood vessels:

  • Arteries are the vessels which carry blood away from the heart to various organs of the body. Since the blood emerges from the heart under high pressure, the arteries have thick, elastic walls.
  • Veins collect the blood from different organs and bring it back to the heart. They do not need thick walls because the blood is no longer under pressure, instead they have valves that ensure that the blood flows only in one direction.
  • On reaching an organ or tissue, the artery divides into smaller and smaller vessels to bring the blood in contact with all the individual cells. The smallest vessels have walls which are one-cell thick and are called capillaries.
  • Exchange of material between the blood and surrounding cells takes place across this thin wall. The capillaries then join together to form veins that convey the blood away from the organ or tissue.

Maintenance by platelets:

  • Naturally the loss of blood from the system has to be minimised. In addition, leakage would lead to a loss of pressure which would reduce the efficiency of the pumping system.
  • To avoid this, the blood has platelet cells which circulate around the body and plug these leaks by helping to clot the blood at these points of injury.

Lymph:

  • There is another type of fluid also involved in transportation. This is called lymph or tissue fluid.
  • Through the pores present in the walls of capillaries some amount of plasma, proteins and blood cells escape into intercellular spaces in the tissues to form the tissue fluid or lymph.
  • It is similar to the plasma of blood but colourless and contains less protein. Lymph drains into lymphatic capillaries from the intercellular spaces, which join to form large lymph vessels that finally open into larger veins.
  • Lymph carries digested and absorbed fat from intestine and drains excess fluid from extra cellular space back into the blood.

Key fact:

  • Blood consists of a fluid medium called plasma in which the cells are suspended. Plasma transports food, carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes in dissolved form.
  • Oxygen is carried by the red blood corpuscles. Many other substances like salts, are also transported by the blood.
  • Human body thus need a pumping organ to push blood around the body, a network of tubes to reach all the tissues and a system in place to ensure that this network can be repaired if damaged.

 

 

What are Micelles? How do they remove dirt?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Micelles:

 

  • Micelles are the aggregate of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid. A typical micelle in aqueous solution forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic “head” regions in contact with surrounding solvent, sequestering the hydrophobic single-tail regions in the micelle centre
  • Soaps are molecules in which the two ends have differing properties, one is hydrophilic, that is, it interacts with water, while the other end is hydrophobic, that is, it interacts with hydrocarbons.
  • When soap is at the surface of water, the hydrophobic ‘tail’ of soap will not be soluble in water and the soap will align along the surface of water with the ionic end in water and the hydrocarbon ‘tail’ protruding out of water.
  • Inside water, these molecules have a unique orientation that keeps the hydrocarbon portion out of the water. Thus, clusters of molecules in which the hydrophobic tails are in the interior of the cluster and the ionic ends are on the surface of the cluster. This formation is called a micelle.
  • Soap in the form of a micelle is able to clean, since the oily dirt will be collected in the centre of the micelle. The micelles stay in solution as a colloid and will not come together to precipitate because of ion-ion repulsion.
  • Thus, the dirt suspended in the micelles is also easily rinsed away. The soap micelles are large enough to scatter light. Hence a soap solution appears cloudy.

 

 

What is the reason for the formation of strong bonds by carbon?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

The reason for the formation of strong bonds by carbon is its small size. This enables the nucleus to hold on to the shared pairs of electrons strongly. The bonds formed by elements having bigger atoms are much weaker.

Enrich Your Learning:

Versatile nature of carbon:

The nature of the covalent bond enables carbon to form a large number of compounds. Two factors noticed in the case of carbon are:

(i) Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon, giving rise to large molecules. This property is called catenation.

  • These compounds may have long chains of carbon, branched chains of carbon or even carbon atoms arranged in
  • In addition, carbon atoms may be linked by single, double or triple bonds. Compounds of carbon, which are linked by only single bonds between the carbon atoms are called saturated compounds.
  • Compounds of carbon having double or triple bonds between their carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds.
  • No other element exhibits the property of catenation to the extent seen in carbon compounds.
  • Silicon forms compounds with hydrogen which have chains of upto seven or eight atoms, but these compounds are very reactive.
  • The carbon-carbon bond is very strong and hence stable. This gives us the large number of compounds with many carbon atoms linked to each other.

(ii) Since carbon has a valency of four, it is capable of bonding with four other atoms of carbon or atoms of some other mono-valent element.

  • Compounds of carbon are formed with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine and many other elements giving rise to compounds with specific properties which depend on the elements other than carbon present in the molecule.
  • The bonds that carbon forms with most other elements are very strong making these compounds exceptionally stable.

 

 

Enlist the key features of federalism.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

Key features of federalism:

  • There are two or more levels of government.
  • Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
  • The jurisdictions are specified in the constitution. So the existence and authority of each tier of government is constitutionally guaranteed.
  • The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
  • Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government.
  • Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
  • The federal system thus has dual objectives;
  1. To safeguard and
  2. Promote unity of the country.

Enrich your learning:

Federalism:

  • Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system.
  • It is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
  • Usually, a federation has two levels of government.
  1. The government for the entire country that is usually responsible for a few subjects of common national interest.
  2. The governments at the level of provinces or states that look after much of the day-to-day administering of their state.
  • Both these levels of governments enjoy their power independent of the other.

Key feature:

  • There are two or more levels of government.
  • Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
  • The jurisdictions are specified in the constitution. So the existence and authority of each tier of government is constitutionally guaranteed.
  • The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
  • Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government.
  • Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
  • The federal system thus has dual objectives;
  1. To safeguard and

Promote unity of the country.

 

 

Ministers of State can participate in the Cabinet meetings only when specially invited. True or False.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

False

Correct statement

  • Ministers of State with independent charge can participate in the Cabinet meetings only when specially invited.

Enrich your learning:

Prime Minister and Council of Ministers:

  • There is no direct election to the post of the Prime Minister.
  • The President appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of parties that commands a majority in the Lok Sabha, as Prime Minister.
  • In case no single party or alliance gets a majority, the President appoints the person most likely to secure a majority support.
  • The Ministers are usually from the party or the coalition that has the majority in the Lok Sabha.
  • The Prime Minister is free to choose ministers, as long as they are members of Parliament.
  • Sometimes, a person who is not a Member of Parliament can also become a minister. But such a person has to get elected to one of the Houses of the Parliament within six months of appointment as minister.
  • Council of Ministers is the official name for the body that includes all the Ministers. It usually has 60 to 80 Ministers of different ranks.

Cabinet Ministers:

  • They are usually top-level leaders of the ruling party or parties who are in charge of the major ministries.
  • Usually the Cabinet Ministers meet to take decisions in the name of the Council of Ministers.
  • Cabinet is thus the inner ring of the Council of Ministers.
  • It comprises about 20 ministers.

Ministers of State with independent charge:

  • They are usually in-charge of smaller Ministries.
  • They participate in the Cabinet meetings only when specially invited.

Ministers of State:

  • They are attached to and required to assist Cabinet Ministers.

 

 

In which amendment act the Preamble of the Indian Constitution was amended?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

In 1976, the Preamble was amended by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act. Three new terms, Socialist, Secular, and Integrity were added to the Preamble.

Enrich your learning:

Preamble of the Constitution:

  1. Sovereign:
  • People have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India
  1. Socialist:
  • It was added in the Preamble by 42nd Amendment, 1976.
  • Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society.
  • Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities
  1. Secular:
  • It was incorporated in the Preamble by 42nd Constitutional Amendment, 1976.
  • Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion.
  • But there is no official religion. Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect
  1. Democratic:
  • A form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable.
  • The government is run according to some basic rules.
  1. Republic:
  • It indicates that the head of the state is elected by the people directly or indirectly.
  • In India, the President is the head of the state and he is elected indirectly by the people.
  1. Justice:
  • Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social inequalities have to be reduced.
  • Government should work for the welfare of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.
  1. Liberty:
  • There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action.
  1. Equality:
  • All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.
  1. Fraternity:
  • All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.

Berubari Union case:

  • It was held by the Supreme Court that the Preamble is the part of the Constitution.
  • However, it recognized that the Preamble could be used as a guiding principle if a term in any article of the Constitution is ambiguous or has more than one meaning.

 

 

What are the benefits of having a constitution in a country?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

  • The Constitution protects the rights of minorities against the tyranny of the majority.
  • Free speech and a free press are protected especially in the cases of public figures and political speech.
  • The separation of powers prevents the government from becoming too powerful or acting too rashly.
  • The autonomy of states and local jurisdictions allows issues to be handled at the lowest appropriate level, presumably allowing different results for different regions.
  • The Commerce clause of the Constitution makes the USA an enormous free trade area.

Enrich your learning:

Why do we need constitution?

  • The South African example is a good way to understand why we need a constitution and what do constitutions do.
  • The black majority was keen to ensure that the democratic principle of majority rule was not compromised. They wanted substantial social and economic rights. The white minority was keen to protect its privileges and property.
  • The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person one vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers.
  • The blacks agreed that majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority. These rules decide the rights of the citizen.
  • The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country.
  • Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory and also the relationship between the people and government.
  • A constitution does many things:
  1. It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together;
  2. It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions;
  3. It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are and
  4. It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
  • After the War of Independence against Great Britain, the Americans gave themselves a constitution. After the Revolution, the French people approved a democratic constitution.

 

 

The exercise of Democracy leads to a government that is limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights. True OR False.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

True.

Enrich your learning:

Democracy:

  • Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
  • Accordingly, democracy is a form of government in which:
  1. Rulers elected by the people take all the major decisions;
  2. Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers;
  3. This choice and opportunity is available to all the people on an equal basis and
  4. The exercise of this choice leads to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights.
Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
Tags

IT on Facebook

Facebook Pagelike Widget

Comments

Calendar Archive

September 2020
M T W T F S S
« Aug    
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
282930