PIB Daily

PIB Daily – 13th March 2020 – IASToppers

35th Inception Day of NCRB; Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems; National Crime Records Bureau; Methane-oxidizing bacteria for Methane mitigation; National Archives of India.
By IASToppers
March 13, 2020

Contents

Polity & Governance

  • 35th Inception Day of NCRB

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

  • Methane-oxidizing bacteria for Methane mitigation

Art & Culture

  • National Archives of India

[Note: Today’s PIB Daily News are already covered in Today’s Current Affairs Analysis. This PIB News Analysis news are only for those who wants to get only PIB news]

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Polity & Governance

35th Inception Day of NCRB

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) celebrated its 35th Inception Day, on March 12, 2020.

Major Highlights:

  • Crime Multi Agency Centre (Cri-MAC) for sharing of information on heinous crime and other issues related to inter-state coordination was launched on the occasion.
  • National Cybercrime Training Centre (NCTC) for professional quality e-Learning services on cyber-crime investigation on large scale to police officers, judges, prosecutors and other stakeholders was also launched.
  • National Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS) being setup by NCRB is expected to be ab game changer for police.
  • The importance of capacity building in cyber-crime investigation and the Government’s resolve in tackling the menace of increasing cyber-crime was emphasized.
  • The Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) Hackathon & Cyber Challenge 2020 organised by NCRB in collaboration with Cyber Peace Foundation, which received overwhelming response from police, industry and academia was lauded.

Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS):

  • Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) under the National e-Governance Plan of Govt. of India.
  • CCTNS is a project initiated in June 2009 which aims at creating an integrated system for enhancing the efficiency of policing at the Police Station level.
  • The huge database of CCTNS will help investigators in solving crime cases faster.

Objective:

  • Make the Police functioning citizen friendly by automating the functioning of Police Stations.
  • Improve delivery of citizen-centric services through effective usage of ICT.
  • Provide the Investigating Officers of the Civil Police with tools, technology and information to facilitate investigation of crime and detection of criminals.
  • Improve Police functioning in various other areas such as Law and Order, Traffic Management etc.
  • Facilitate interaction and sharing of information among Police Stations, Districts, State/UT headquarters and other Police Agencies.
  • Keep track of the progress of Cases, including in Courts.
  • Establishing a basic platform for an Inter-Operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS).

National Crime Records Bureau:

  • The National Crime Records Bureau is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analyzing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL).
  • NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.
  • NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.

Mission:

  • To empower Indian Police with Information Technology and criminal Intelligence to enable them to uphold law and protect people.
  • To provide leadership and excellence in crime analysis particularly for serious and organized crime.

Objectives:

  • Create and maintain secure sharable National Databases on crimes and criminals for law enforcement agencies and promote their use for public service delivery.
  • Collect and process crime statistics at the national level and clearing house of information on crime and criminals both at National and International levels.
  • Lead and coordinate development of IT applications and create an enabling IT environment for Police organizations.
  • National repository of fingerprints of all criminals.
  • To evaluate, modernize and promote automation in State Crime Records Bureau and State Finger Print Bureau.
  • Training and capacity building in Police Forces in Information Technology and Finger Print Science.
[Ref: PIB]

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

Methane-oxidizing bacteria for Methane mitigation

Scientists at Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), Pune, an autonomous institute under the Department of Science & Technology, have isolated 45 different strains of methanotrophic bacteria which have been found to be capable of reducing methane emissions from rice plants.

Methanotrophs:

  • Methanotrophs metabolise and convert Methane into Carbon-di-oxide.
  • They can effectively reduce the emission of methane, which is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) and 26 times more potent as compared to carbon-di-oxide.
  • In rice fields, methanotrophs are active near the roots or soil-water interfaces.
  • A team of scientists have isolated indigenous methanotrophs from Western and Southern India, mainly from rice field soils and freshwater mud and have documented two novel genera and six novel species of methanotrophs from rice fields in Western India.
  • The team found that there was a decrease in methane emissions in inoculated plants with a positive or neutral effect on the growth of the rice.
  • This could lead to the development of microbial inoculants for methane mitigation in rice.

Rice fields and Methane:

  • Rice fields are human-made wetlands and are waterlogged for a considerable period.
  • Anaerobic degradation of organic matter results in the generation of methane.
  • Rice fields contribute to nearly 10% of global methane emissions.
  • Very few studies in the world have focused on methanotrophs from tropical wetlands or tropical rice fields.
  • Native and relevant methanotrophs isolated from rice fields can be excellent models to understand the effect of various factors on methane mitigation.

Significance:

  • The biomass from methanotrophs which is a rich source of carotenoids, single-cell proteins leading to methane valorization.
  • Besides methane mitigation studies, methanotrophs can also be used in methane value addition (valorization) studies.
  • Bio-methane generated from waste can be used by the methanotrophs and can be converted to value-added products such as single-cell proteins, carotenoids, biodiesel, and so on.
  • Such studies help reduce GHG emissions, especially anthropogenic or man-made emissions, which a pressing need in the age of global warming.
[Ref: PIB]


Art & Culture

National Archives of India

An exhibition named Jallianwala Bagh was recently inaugurated in New Delhi on the occasion of 130th Foundation Day of National Archives of India.

Major Highlights:

  • The present exhibition was primarily presented with the help of original and digital copies of archival documents relating to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre available in National Archives of India.
  • This is an earnest attempt to portray the relentless struggle of the Indian people against the British tyranny through the record holdings.
  • Based on the original documents, this exhibition is an endeavor to commemorate the centenary of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

About National Archives of India:

  • The National Archives of India is the custodian of the records of enduring value of the Government of India.
  • It was established on 11 March, 1891 at Calcutta (Kolkata) as the Imperial Record Department.
  • It is the biggest archival repository in South Asia.
  • It has a vast corpus of records viz., public records, private papers, oriental records, cartographic records and microfilms, which constitute an invaluable source of information for scholars-administrators and users of archives.
  • The Director General of Archives, heading the Department has been given the mandate for the implementation of the Public Records Act, 1993 and the rules made there under, the Public Records Rules, 1997 for the management, administration and preservation of public records in the Ministries, Departments, Public Sector undertakings etc. of the Central Government.
  • The Department functions as an Attached Office of the Ministry of Culture.
[Ref: PIB]

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