PIB Daily

PIB Daily -13th September 2019 – IASToppers

White Water Rafting Expedition – 'Rudrashila'; Exercise MAITREE; Samudra Laksamana; Location of Malaysia; Global AMR R&D Hub; Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) or superbugs; National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons; Armed Forces Medical Services; Bioterrorism;
By IASToppers
September 13, 2019

Contents

Government Schemes & Policies

  • Prime Minister launches National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons

Bilateral & International Relations

  • RM inaugurates first ever SCO Military Medicine conference hosted by India

Science & Technology

  • India joins the Global AMR Research and Development Hub

Key Facts for Prelims

  • Samudra Laksamana
  • White Water Rafting Expedition – ‘Rudrashila’ Flagged off at Jaisalmer
  • Exercise MAITREE

 

[Note: Today’s PIB Daily News are already covered in Today’s Current Affairs Analysis. This PIB News Analysis news are only for those who wants to get only PIB news]

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Government Schemes & Policies

Prime Minister launches National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons

The Prime Minister of India launched the National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons, a pension scheme for the Vyaparis (shopkeepers/retail traders and self-employed persons) with annual turnover not exceeding Rs 1.5 crore.

National_pension_scheme_for_traders_self_employed_persons

ABOUT NATIONAL PENSION SCHEME FOR TRADERS AND SELF EMPLOYED PERSONS

  • It is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme for entry age of 18 to 40 years with a provision for minimum assured pension of Rs 3,000 monthly on attaining the age of 60 years.

National-Pension-Scheme

  • The Central Government shall give 50 % share of the monthly contribution and remaining 50% contribution shall be made by the beneficiary.
  • The enrolment under the scheme is free of cost for the beneficiaries.
  • The enrolment is based upon self-certification.

ELIGIBILITY

  • For self-employed shop owners, retail owners and other vyaparis
  • Entry Age between 18 to 40 years
  • Annual turnover should not exceed Rs 1.5 crore

Should not be

  • Covered under any National Pension Scheme
  • An income tax payer
  • Enroled under Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maandhan Yojana/Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maandhan Yojana

SIGNIFICANCE

  • An estimated 3 crore Vyaparis in the country are expected to be benefitted under the pension scheme.
[Ref: PIB]

 

RM inaugurates first ever SCO Military Medicine conference hosted by India

Raksha Mantri has called upon the Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS) of Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) countries to devise ways to effectively deal with new threats posed to soldiers by the ever advancing battle field technology.

Raksha-Mantri-Shri-Rajnath-Singh-says-bio-terrorism

ABOUT ARMED FORCES MEDICAL SERVICES

  • It is the first tri-service (Army, Navy and Air Force) organization and one of the largest organized medical services in the country.
  • It is an apex organization under Ministry of Defence, headed by a Lt Gen/equivalent officer of Navy or Air Force.
  • It provides medical support to the Armed Forces during war as well as comprehensive health care to all service personnel, ex-servicemen and their dependents during peace.

WHAT IS BIOTERRORISM?

Bioterrorism

  • Bioterrorism is a form of terrorism where there is the intentional release of biological agents (bacteria, viruses, or other germs). This is also referred to as germ warfare.
  • While a biological agent may injure or kill people, animals, or plants, the goal for the terrorist is to further their social and political goals by making their civilian targets feel as if their government cannot protect them.
  • Many biological agents are found in nature; however, they can be modified by the terrorist to make them more dangerous. Some of these agents can be transmitted from person to person, and the infection may take hours or days to become apparent.

KEY FACTS

  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is the largest regional organisation in the world in terms of geographical coverage and population.
  • SCO countries cover 22 per cent of the land mass, 40 per cent population and contribute to 20 per cent of world’s GDP.

 [Ref: PIB]

 

Science & Technology

India joins the Global AMR Research and Development Hub

India has joined the Global Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Research and Development (R&D) Hub as a new member.

India_joins_global_AMR_R&D_hub-1

ABOUT GLOBAL AMR R&D HUB

  • The Global AMR R&D Hub was launched in May 2018 at the 71st session of the World Health Assembly, following a call from G20 Leaders in 2017.

India_joins_global_AMR_R&D_hub

  • It aims to improve the coordination of international initiatives to tackle AMR while further increasing investments into R&D for AMR.
  • The operation of the Global AMR R&D Hub is supported through a Secretariat, established in Berlin and currently financed through grants from the German government.
  • India will be a member of the board of members of the Global AMR R&D Hub from 2019.

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE

Global AMR R&D Hub. 1

  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) orsuperbugs happens when microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites change when they are exposed to antimicrobial drugs. These microorganisms are also termed as “superbugs”.
  • As a result, the medicines or drugs become ineffective and infections persist in the bodyfurther increasing the risk of spread to others.

DANGERS OF AMR

  • AMR causes a reduction in the effectiveness of medicines, making infections and diseases difficult or impossible to treat.
  • AMR is associated with increased mortality, prolonged illnesses in people and animals, production losses in agriculture, livestock and aquaculture. This threatens global health, livelihoods and food security.
  • AMR also increases the cost of treatmentsand care.

WHY ARE BACTERIA BECOMING RESISTANT TO ANTIBIOTICS?

bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics

  • Overuse and misuse of antibioticsallows the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
  • Every time a person takes antibiotics, some bacteria are killed, but resistant bacteria are left to grow and multiply. Hence, taking antibiotic repeatedly multiply its growth some resistant bacteria are always left when on take antibiotic.
  • Widespread use of antibiotics for common cold, flu etc. is an example of how overuse of antibiotics can promote the spread of antibiotic resistance.

HOW DO BACTERIA BECOME RESISTANT TO ANTIBIOTICS?

  • Neutralize an antibiotic by changing it in a way that makes it harmless.
  • Push an antibiotic back outside of the bacteria before it can do any harm.
  • Change their outer structure so the antibiotic has no way to attach to the bacteria it is designed to kill.
  • Bacteria can also become resistant through mutation of their genetic material.

INDIA’S VULNERABILITIES TO AMR

  • Bacteria spread easily in India because half of Indians defecate outdoors, and much of the sewage generated by those who do use toilets is untreated. As a result, Indians have among the highest rates of bacterial infections in the world and collectively take more antibiotics, which are sold over the counter here, than any other nationality.
  • A study found that Indian children living in places where people are less likely to use a toilet tend to get diarrhoea and be given antibiotics more often than those in places with more toilet use.
  • All those drugs that create resistance to antibiotics find their way into hospital sewage, which is mostly dumped untreated into rivers, canals and pits in the surrounding community where pregnant women can become infected.
  • Equally worrisome has been the rapid growth of India’s industrialised animal husbandry, where antibiotics are widespread. Most large chicken farms here use feed laced with antibiotics banned for use in animals in the United States.
  • Also, antibiotics are still readily available over the counter, and people still self-medicate. The Indian government has notably failed to institute and implement real regulations to stop chemists from handing out antibiotics like cheap candy.
[Ref: PIB, Business Standards]

 

Key Facts for Prelims

Samudra Laksamana 

navy (1)

  • As part of Indian Navy’s Overseas Deployment to South East Asia and Western Pacific, Indian Navy ships Sahyadri and Kiltan made a port call at Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia for three days’ visit.
  • During the port call, the Indian Navy and the Royal Malaysian Navy would be participating in the bilateral exercise Samudra Laksamana.

LOCATION OF MALAYSIA:

Location of Malaysia

  • Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia.
  • It is separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo).
  • Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam.
[Ref: PIB]

 

White Water Rafting Expedition – ‘Rudrashila’ Flagged off at Jaisalmer

  • The white water Rafting Expedition christened ‘RUDRASHILA’ being was Flagged Off at Jaisalmer Military station.

RUDRASHILA

ABOUT EXPEDITION ‘RUDRASHILA’

  • The expedition christened ‘Rudrashila’ has been organised to commemorate the 75th Raising day of the Kalidhar Battalion.
  • ‘Rudrashila’ takes its name from the famed Rudraprayag tributary of the Ganges River in the Mountains of Uttarakhand.
[Ref: PIB]

 

Exercise MAITREE

india-thailand-joint-military-exercise

  • MAITREE, the joint military exercise between India and Thailand, will be conducted at Foreign Training Node, Umroi, in Meghalaya, from September 16 to 29.

ABOUT MAITREE

  • It is an annual training event between Indian Army and Army of Thailand.
  • It is being conducted alternatively in Thailand and India since 2006.
  • The scope of this exercise covers joint training on counter-terrorism operations in jungle and urban scenario.
[Ref: PIB]

 

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