PIB Daily

PIB Daily – 25th January 2020 – IASToppers

National Girl Child Day; Establishment of Chairs named after eminent Women in Universities; 79th foundation day of the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT); NISHTHA initiative; Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme;
By IASToppers
January 25, 2020

Contents

Polity & Governance

  • 79th foundation day of the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)

Issues related to Health & Education

  • NISHTHA initiative
  • Establishment of Chairs named after eminent Women in Universities

Key Facts for Prelims

  • National Girl Child Day
 
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Polity & Governance

79th foundation day of the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)

The Chief Justice of India (CJI) S.A. Bobde inaugurates 79th Foundation Day Celebrations and All India Members’ Conference of the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT). He said that the Tax Invasion is a Social Injustice to follow citizens.

79th foundation day of the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)

Highlights of CJI speech

  • Speedy justice is being one of the important aspects in the civilised world.
  • ITAT is playing an important role in dispute resolution in an effective manner.
  • Tax Judiciary plays a very important role in resource mobilization of the country and a just and speedy dispute resolution is perceived as a tax incentive by the tax payer.
  • Arbitrary or excessive tax is also results in injustice to tax payers
  • Artificial Intelligence can play a significant role in judicial functioning and it is very helpful in docket management and decision making. But we should never allow artificial intelligence substitute the human intervention which is a necessary for a just decision making.

Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)

  • ITAT is a quasi-judicial institution and specializes in dealing with appeals under the Direct Taxes Acts.

Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)

  • ITAT was constituted in January 1941 by virtue of section 5A of the Income Tax Act, 1922
  • The orders passed by the ITAT are final, an appeal lies to the High Court only if a substantial question of law arises for determination.
  • Starting in 1941 with six Members constituting three Benches – one each at Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta) and Mumbai (Bombay), the numbers of Benches have progressively increased and presently ITAT has 63 Benches at 27 different stations covering almost all the cities having a seat of the High Court.
  • ITAT draws inspiration from its motto ‘Nishpaksh Sulabh Satvar Nyay’, which means impartial, easy and speedy justice.
  • ITAT is referred to as ‘Mother Tribunal’ being the oldest Tribunal in the country.
  • The first President of the Tribunal was Mr. Mohammed Munir Dar.
  • The tribunal is divided in various zones. The headquarter being at originally at New Delhi but since 1952 at Mumbai.
  • At the top there is a President, followed by a Senior Vice-President, Vice-Presidents and members in the judicial functioning and thereafter the supporting staff.
  • A sitting or retired judge of a High Court is appointed as President.
  • The success of the ITAT prompted the government to constitute similar Appellate Tribunals for indirect taxes i.e. Customs, Excise, Service Tax Appellate Tribunal (CESTAT), Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT), Railway Claims Tribunal, Foreign Exchange Appellate Board, etc.

Functioning of ITAT

  • The Finance Department of the Government of India (the Central Board of Revenue) was initially in-charge of the Tribunal. But form 1942, the Tribunal was put in the charge of the Legislative Department, the predecessor of the present Ministry of Law and Justice.
[Ref: PIB, ITAT website]

 

Issues related to Health & Education

NISHTHA initiative

Union Minister for Human Resources Development (MHRD) said the central government will bring about major reforms to revamp the education sector of Jammu and Kashmir.

NISHTHA– National Initiative for School Heads and Teachers Holistic Advancement 1

Announcements:

  • The National Initiative for School Heads & Teachers’ Holistic Advancement, NISHTHA, was inaugurated in Srinagar recently, besides an e-inauguration of 45 projects under the education sector at a cost of 180 crore rupees was done.
  • The projects include Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Srinagar, 25 Smart Model Schools, and Sheikh-ul-Alam Chair at Centre for Sheikh-ul-Alam Studies (Markaz-i Noor) and Laboratory Block (PEB) at University of Kashmir, besides Government College of Engineering, Safapora and Government Degree College, Zakura.
  • The Smart Model Schools project is aimed at transforming government schools on modern lines.

NISHTHA:

  • National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement is an initiative to build capacities of teachers and school principals at the elementary stage.

NISHTHA–-National-Initiative-for-School-Heads-and-Teachers-Holistic-Advancement

  • The initiative is an Integrated Teacher Training Programme of the Department of School Education and Literacy, MHRD as part of its National Mission to improve learning outcomes at the Elementary level under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha during 2019-20.

Objective:

  • To train 672 Key Resource Persons (KRPs) and State Resources Persons, besides training 86,769 Teachers and Head Teachers at elementary level, to bring educational sector reforms.

Coverage:

  • Capacity building and training of all teachers and Heads of Schools at the elementary level in all Government schools, faculty members of State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERTs), District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) as well as Block Resource Coordinators and Cluster Resource Coordinators in all States and UTs.

NISHTHA–-National-Initiative-for-School-Heads-and-Teachers-Holistic-Advancement-2

Expected outcomes:

  • Improvement in learning outcomes of the students.
  • Creation of an enabling and enriching inclusive classroom environment
  • Teachers become alert and responsive to the social, emotional and psychological needs of students as first level counsellors.
  • Teachers are trained to use Art as pedagogy leading to increased creativity and innovation among students.
  • Teachers are trained to develop and strengthen personal-social qualities of students for their holistic development.
  • Creation of healthy and safe school environment.
  • Integration of ICT in teaching learning and assessment.
  • Developing stress free School Based Assessment focused on development of learning competencies.
  • Teachers adopt Activity Based Learning and move away from rote learning to competency based learning.
  • Teachers and School heads become aware of new initiatives in school education.
  • Transformation of the Heads of Schools into providing academic and administrative leadership for the schools for fostering new initiatives.
[Ref: PIB]

 

Establishment of Chairs named after eminent Women in Universities

On the occasion of National Girl Child (24 Jan), the Ministry of Women and Child Development is going to set up 10 Chairs in different fields with an aim to carry out research activities to encourage women.

Establishment of Chairs named after eminent Women in Universities 1

The initiative

  • The initiative called Establishment of Chairs in the Universities in the name of eminent women administrators, artists, scientists and social reformers is being launched with the assistance of University Grants Commission (UGC).
  • The main objective is to inspire women to pursue higher education and to achieve excellence in their area of work.
  • This initiative of highlighting and celebrating women achievers of the country will motivate young girls and women towards higher studies.
  • The financial implications of the proposal are Rs. 50 lakhs per Chair per year and the total expenditure for establishing ten Chairs will be approximately Rs. 5 crores per annum.
  • The Chairs are to be established for a period of 5 years initially as per the guidelines.
  • The University will review the progress of the Chair annually and submit a final report on the activities and outcome of the Chair to the UGC after five years. However, the UGC may undertake the exercise of reviewing the Chair for its continuance, at any stage.

Academic functions of the Chairs will be to engage in research and contribute to the following areas:

  1. Advancement of knowledge in the area of the study.
  2. Strengthen the role of university/academics in public policy making.
  3. To design and execute short-term capacity-building programmes for teachers in higher education focused towards the designated discipline of the Chair.
  4. To provide a forum for inter-university/ inter- collegiate Post Graduate and Research level dialogues, discussion meetings, seminars/summer & winter schools
  5. To publish articles/research papers/reports/books/ monograms
  6. To participate in teaching and Ph.D programme of the Department or School in which it is located.

Establishment of Chairs named after eminent Women in Universities

The chairs proposed by UGC and approved by the Ministry are as under:

S. No.

Subject

Proposed name of chair

1.

Administration

Devi Ahilyabai Holkar

2.

Literature

Mahadevi Varma

3.

Freedom Fighter (North East)

Rani Gaidinliu

4.

Medicine & Health

Anandibai Gopalrao Joshi

5.

Performing Art

Madurai Shanmukhavadivu Subbulakshmi

6.

Forest/Wildlife Conservation

Amrita Devi (Beniwal)

7.

Mathematics

Lilavati

8.

Science

Kamala Sohonie

9.

Poetry & Mysticism

Lal Ded

10.

Educational Reforms

Hansa Mehta

[Ref: PIB]

 

Key Facts for Prelims

National Girl Child Day

The National Girl Child Day is celebrated in India every year on January 24. The Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India initiated this celebration in 2008.

National-Girl-Child-Day-(NGCD)

Objectives:

  • Highlight the inequalities faced by girls in the country,
  • Promote awareness about the rights of a girl child,
  • Generate awareness on importance of girl education, health and nutrition.

Key facts:

  • The NGCD is being celebrated with objectives of generating awareness on the issue of declining Child Sex Ratio (CSR) and create a positive environment around valuing the girl child.

Child Sex Ratio (CSR)

  • The celebrations also mark the anniversary of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme.
  • As part of the celebrations, several states organise BBBP awareness week, organise competitions, release IEC materials on addressing issues related to Girl child.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme:

  • Government launched the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) on 22nd January, 2015 at Panipat in Haryana.
  • It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development for coordinated and convergent efforts needed to ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child,

Objectives:

Beti-Bachao-Beti-Padhao-(BBBP)-Scheme.

  • To prevent gender biased sex selective elimination
  • To ensure survival and protection of the girl child
  • To ensure education and participation of the girl child.

Coverage:

  • The Pan India Expansion of the scheme covering all 640 districts (as per census 2011) of the country was launched on 8th March 2018.

Strategies

  • Implement a sustained Social Mobilization and Communication Campaign to create equal value for the girl child & promote her education.
  • Place the issue of decline in Child Sex Ratio (CSR) /Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) in public discourse, improvement of which would be an indicator for good governance.
  • Focus on Gender Critical Districts and Cities low on CSR for intensive & integrated action.
  • Adopt Innovative Interventions/Actions by the districts as per their local needs, context and sensibilities.
  • Mobilize & Train Panchayati Raj Institutions/Urban local bodies/ Grassroots workers as catalysts for social change, in partnership with local community/women’s/youth groups.
  • Engage with Communities to challenge gender stereotypes and social norms.
  • Ensure service delivery structures/schemes & programmes are sufficiently responsive to issues of gender and children’s rights.
  • Enable Inter-sectoral and inter-institutional convergence at District/Block/grassroots levels.
[Ref: PIB]
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