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PIB Daily

PIB Daily – 27th & 28th October 2019 – IASToppers

Odisha Integrated Irrigation Project for Climate Resilient Agriculture; Excavation at a site near Naidupeta in Andhra Pradesh;
By IASToppers
October 28, 2019

Contents

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

  • World Bank Project to Support Climate Resilient Agriculture in Odisha

Art & Culture

  • 2,000-year-old trade centre discovered in Andhra’s Gottiprolu

 

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Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

World Bank Project to Support Climate Resilient Agriculture in Odisha

The Government of India, Government of Odisha and the World Bank signed a US$165 million loan agreement to support smallholder farmers strengthen the resilience of their production systems as well as diversify and improve the marketing of their produce, for increased income.

World-Bank-Project-to-Support-Climate-Resilient-Agriculture

ABOUT ODISHA INTEGRATED IRRIGATION PROJECT FOR CLIMATE RESILIENT AGRICULTURE

  • It is a collaborative project between Government of India, Government of Odisha and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD).
  • This project will be implemented in rural areas vulnerable to droughts and largely dependent on rainfed agriculture.

World-Bank-Project-to-Support-Climate-Resilient-Agriculture-1

  • The project will strengthen the resilience of smallholder farmers against adverse climate by improving access to resilient seed varieties, diversifying towards more climate-resilient crops, and improving access to better water management services.

Objective

  • Support the rehabilitation of water tanks
  • Support farmers to reduce the current emphasis on food grains (especially paddy and wheat)
  • Increase the share of high-value and more nutritious products like fruits and vegetables
  • Provide marketing support to farmers who are able to generate a marketable surplus.
  • Disseminate improved aquaculture practices and post-harvest management.

NEED FOR SUCH PROJECT

  • In recent years, climate variability has seriously affected agriculture in Odisha, where farming is largely dominated by farmers with landholdings of less than 2 hectares.
  • Since 2009, the frequency of droughts in the state has increased from 1 in 5 years to 1 in 2 years. Today, about 70 % of total cultivated area is prone to droughts compared to 40 % in the 1970s.
  • Since 2013, floods are now devastating areas beyond the traditional flood zone. Drier areas are projected to become drier, while wetter areas will become wetter.
  • Agriculture is also a major source of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Odisha, responsible for about 25 % of the GHG emissions in the state.
[Ref: PIB]

 

Art & Culture

2,000-year-old trade centre discovered in Andhra’s Gottiprolu

A maritime trade centre based out of a fortified settlement near the banks of the Swarnamukhi river in Andhra Pradesh’s Gottiprolu may have had a trade guild with its own army to protect its interests

flourishing-port-2000-years-ago PIB Daily

ABOUT THE EXCAVATION

  • In 2018, Archaeological Survey of India started the excavation at a site near Naidupeta in Andhra Pradesh.

The excavation found,

  • A huge settlement surrounded by a brick enclosure with a moat around it. A moat is a deep ditch, filled with water, that surrounds a castle to protect it from enemies. The brick-built structures are in elliptical, circular and rectangular shapes. The size of bricks (43 to 48 cm) are similar to those used in the Satavahana/Ikshvaku period structures in the Krishna valley.
  • A tall sculpture of four armed Vishnu, dated back to the Pallava period (8th Century CE).
  • A series of broken terracotta pipes that fit into each other, pointing towards a form of drainage.
  • Molded female terracotta figurine with two hands lifted upwards
  • Conical jars, which were widely distributed in Tamil Nadu and considered to be imitated variety of Roman Amphorae jars.
  • The findings of assorted stone tools of Palaeolithic and Neolithic ages suggesting that prehistoric people also occupied this area.
  • Copper and lead coins, iron spear head, stone celts, ear stud in semi-precious stone, black and red ware, rouletted sherds, russet coated ware etc.
  • Explorations conducted in and around Gottiprolu found fortified early historic settlement at Puduru, Sunbrahmanya temple at Mallam, unique rock cut laterite stepped well at Yakasiri and Vishnu temple at Tirumuru.

WHAT DOES THESE EXCAVATIONS SUGGEST?

flourishing-port-2,000-years-ago-1

  • The proximity of the site to the seacoast suggests that the site could have served as a strategic settlement involved in maritime trade.
  • Trade guilds used to control such centres and they used to have their own armies to protect their interests. A guild is an association of merchants who oversee the practice of their trade in a particular area.
  • The two fortified townships within the gap of 15 km during early historic times indicates the significant strategic location was preferred by the early historic people for trade in the region keeping in view of proximity of the sea, River and Lake (Pulicat).

 [Ref: The Hindu, PIB]

 

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