Polity & Governance
- IAMAI has agreed to observe the Voluntary Code of Ethics
Government Schemes & Policies
- Cumulative no of Houses Sanctioned Under PMAY(U) now more than 90 Lakhs
Science & Technology
- First Indigenous Fuel Cell System launched on CSIR Foundation Day
Key Facts for Prelims
- World Tourism Day 2019
- President Announces Names of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award Recipients
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Polity & Governance
IAMAI has agreed to observe the Voluntary Code of Ethics
Internet & Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) has agreed to observe the “Voluntary Code of Ethics” during all future elections including the ongoing General Elections to the Haryana & Maharashtra legislative assemblies.
KEY FEATURES OF “VOLUNTARY CODE OF ETHICS”:
- Social Media platforms will voluntarily undertake information, education and communication campaigns to build awareness including electoral laws and other related instructions
- Social Media platforms have created a high priority dedicated grievance redressal channel for taking expeditions action on the cases reported by the ECI.
- ECI can notify the relevant social media platforms of potential violations of Section 126 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 and other electoral laws.
- Platforms will ensure that all political advertisements on their platforms are pre-certified from the Media Certification and Monitoring Committees as per the directions of Hon’ble Supreme Court.
- Participating platforms are committed to facilitate transparency in paid political advertisements, including utilising their pre-existing labels/disclosure technology for such advertisements.
Government Schemes & Policies
Cumulative no of Houses Sanctioned Under PMAY(U) now more than 90 Lakhs
Under PMAY (U), the 47th Central Sanctioning and Monitoring Committee (CSMC) has approved 630 proposals from 10 States for construction of 1.23 lakh houses.
- With the approval of these proposals, cumulative sanctions of houses under PMAY(U)- mission has achieved milestone of more than 90 Lakh houses against the demand of 1.12 crore.
ABOUT PRADHAN MANTRI AWAS YOJANA (URBAN)
- Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana is an initiative by Government of India under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in which affordable housing will be provided to the urban poor.
- The PMAY (U) mission was launched in June 2015 with the aim to provide houses to every eligible urban household in India by the year 2022.
- It will be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) except for the component of credit linked subsidy which will be implemented as a Central Sector Scheme.
COMPONENTS OF THE PMAY (U)
- Beneficiary led Construction (BLC)
- Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS)
- Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP)
- In-Situ Slum Redevelopment (ISSR)
FEATURES OF PMAY(U)
- Subsidy of 6.5% on home loan interest rate for a term of 20 years.
- The credit linked subsidy up to Rs 6 lakhs. Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) and National Housing Bank (NHB) are the Central Nodal Agencies (CNAs) to channelize this subsidy.
- Compulsory ground floor housing accommodation for senior citizens and the differently-abled.
- Mandatory use of eco-friendly materials for building construction.
- Extending scheme coverage to include all urban areas in India.
- Encouraging women to become home owners by making it mandatory to register a property with both the male and female heads of family unless there is no female family member.
- Economically Weaker Section (EWS):Annual household income less than Rs.3 lakh.
- Light Income Group (LIG):Annual household income ranging between Rs.3 lakh to 6 lakh.
- Medium Income Group (MIG1):Annual household income below Rs.12 lakh fall
- Medium Income Group (MIG2):Annual household income between Rs.12 to Rs.18.
- Minorities:People hailing from minority groups like SC/ST/OBC will fall under minorities.
- Women: Women belonging to EWS/LIG categories will be considered under PMAY scheme.
- EWS category of beneficiaries is eligible for assistance in all four components of the Missions whereas LIG and MIG categories are eligible under only Credit linked subsidy scheme (CLSS) component of the Mission.
- The scheme focuses to cover the entire urban area consisting of all statutory towns and areas including Notified Planning/ Development Area/ Industrial Development Authority/Special Area Development Authority/ Urban Development Authority or any such Authority under the State legislation which is entrusted with the functions of urban planning and regulations.
- Phase I (April 2015 – March 2017) to cover 100 Cities selected from States/UTs as per their willingness.
- Phase II (April 2017 – March 2019) to cover additional 200 Cities
- Phase III (April 2019 – March 2022) to cover all other remaining Cities
OWNERSHIP OF HOUSES:
- House is to be allotted in the name of adult female member or in joint name and all houses to have toilet facility, drinking water and power supply. Preference is given to persons with disabilities, ST/ SC/ OBCs, minorities and transgender.
Science & Technology
First Indigenous Fuel Cell System launched on CSIR Foundation Day
The President of India unveiled the first Indigenous High Temperature Fuel Cell System on the occasion of CSIR Foundation Day.
ABOUT HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL SYSTEM
- It was developed, under Public-Private Partnership (PPP), by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in partnership with Indian industries under India’s flagship program named New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI).
- This Fuel Cells developed are based on High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HTPEM) Technology.
- The fuel cell system (5.0 kW) generates power using methanol / bio-methane, with heat and water as by-products for further use.
- It has greater than 70% efficiency which otherwise may not be possible by other energy sources.
APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE
- This type of cell is most suitable for distributed stationary power applications like; for small offices, commercial units, data centers etc.; where highly reliable power is essential with simultaneous requirement for air-conditioning.
- This system will also meet the requirement of efficient, clean and reliable backup power generator for telecom towers, remote locations and strategic applications as well.
- It will replace Diesel Generating (DG) sets and help reduce India’s dependence on crude oil.
WHAT IS A POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL OR PROTON-EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELLS?
- It an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into electrical energy and heat.
- The core part of a PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) where the electrochemical reaction takes place. MEA is consisted of an electrolyte medium (polymer membrane) between two electrodes, the anode and the cathode.
HOW IT WORKS?
- Hydrogen gas is fed to the anode compartment where it is oxidized to protons and electrons. Protons are moving through the electrolyte (polymer membrane) to the cathode, while electrons (electric current) reach cathode. At the cathode, protons, electrons and air are producing water and heat.
ADVANTAGE OF HIGH TEMPERATE
- Conventional polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells operate at relatively low temperatures, around 80°C. Though Low-temperature operation is quick to start, it can have CO (carbon monoxide) poisoning.
The operation of PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 150°C offers significant advantages compared to the conventional PEM fuel cells such as:
- High CO tolerance
- No need for humidified gases
- High power-to-volume ratio
- Reduced complexity
- Low cost
ABOUT HIGH TEMPERATURE PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (HTPEM) TECHNOLOGY
- High Temperature Proton-Exchange-Membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells run above 150 °C.
- These are simple and cost effective fuel cell systems that can operate on fuel sources such as natural gas, propane, and methanol.
About Direct-methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)
- Direct-methanol fuel cells are a subcategory of PEM fuel cells in which methanol is used as the fuel.
- Their main advantage is the ease of transport of methanol and reasonably stable liquid at all environmental conditions.
- Efficiency is quite low for these cells, hence they are used for portable applications, where energy and power density are more important than efficiency.
ABOUT NEW MILLENNIUM INDIAN TECHNOLOGY LEADERSHIP INITIATIVE (NMITLI)
- The New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI) is the largest public-private-partnership effort within the R&D domain in India.
- NMITLI has projects in Agriculture & Plant Biotechnology, General Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Drugs & Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals, Materials etc.
- To catalyse scientific developments as a vehicle to attain for Indian industry a global leadership position by synergising the best competencies of publicly funded R&D institutions, academia and private industry.
FEATURES OF THE PROGRAMME
- Instead of funding a project based applications, the programme identifies the areas for development based on consultation.
- It has two types of programme: i) Nationally Evolved Projects (NEP) and (ii) Industry Originated Projects (IOP).
- Almost all projects are built in a public-private partnership
- A two-tier tight monitoring system (internal Steering Committee and external independent Monitoring Committee).
- Provides grant-in-aid to the institutional partners and provide soft loan to the industrial partners.
- The Fuel Cells fit well in India’s mission of replacing diesel with green and alternate fuels.
- The development of fuel cell technology is indigenous and carries immense national importance in terms of non-grid energy security.
Key Facts for Prelims
World Tourism Day 2019
World Tourism Day 2019: This day is commemorated each year on 27 September, with celebrations led by UNWTO.
ABOUT WORLD TOURISM DAY
- World Tourism Day is observed every year on 27 September.
- It is aimed to raise awareness about the role of tourism around the world and to promote social, cultural, political and economic values.
- The day of September 27 was chosen for World Tourism Day because the Constitution of the World Tourism Organization was accepted on this day in 1970.
- The theme of World Tourism Day 2019 is “Tourism and jobs: a better future for all”.
- The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) keeps the theme of World Tourism Day different every year.
- India is hosting the World Tourism Day 2019.
ABOUT WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION (UNWTO):
UNWTO is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
Functions of UNWTO:
- As the leading international organization in the field of tourism, UNWTO promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability and offers leadership and support to the sector in advancing knowledge and tourism policies worldwide.
- UNWTO encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, to maximize tourism’s socio-economic contribution while minimizing its possible negative impacts.
- It is also committed to promoting tourism as an instrument in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), geared towards reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development worldwide.
- UNWTO generates market knowledge, promotes competitive and sustainable tourism policies and instruments, fosters tourism education and training, and works to make tourism an effective tool for development through technical assistance projects in over 100 countries around the world.
Members of UNWTO:
- UNWTO’s membership includes 158 countries, 6 Associate Members and over 500 Affiliate Members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities.
President Announces Names of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award Recipients
President of India presented Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar awards for outstanding contributions in science and technology on the occasion of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Foundation Day.
ABOUT SHANTI SWARUP BHATNAGAR (SSB) PRIZE
- The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar(SSB) Prize for Science and Technology was instituted in the year 1957, in the memory of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar, the founder director of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
- Any citizen of India engaged in research in any field of science and technology up to the age of 45 years is eligible to be nominated.
- The SSB prize is awarded each year on the basis of outstanding contributions to human knowledge made through work done primarily in India during the five years, preceding the year of the prize.
- It is given to each person selected for the award in the following disciplines viz. Biological sciences, Chemical Sciences, Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Engineering Sciences and Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary Science.
- Any citizen of India engaged in research in any field of science and technology up to the age of 45 years. Overseas citizen of India (OCI) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) working in India are also eligible.
- The Prize is bestowed on a person who, in the opinion of CSIR, has made conspicuously important and outstanding contributions to human knowledge and progress – fundamental and applied – in the particular field of endeavour, which is his/her specialization.
- The Prize is awarded on the basis of contributions made through work done primarily in India during the five years preceding the year of the Prize.