Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management
- Centre releases Rs. 47,436 crores for afforestation to various states
- Cabinet approves Establishment of an International Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure
Science & Technology
- Vice President visits SAMEER
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Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management
Centre releases Rs. 47,436 crores for afforestation to various states
In a major boost towards promoting afforestation, Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change handed over Rs. 47,436 crores of Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning (CAMPA) funds to various states for fulfilling Nationally-Determined Contributions (NDCs).
ABOUT NORTH EAST RURAL LIVELIHOOD PROJECT (NERLP)
- Launched in 2012, the NERLP is a World Bank aided, multi-state project under the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER).
- It is implemented in various districts of Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim.
- It aims to improve rural livelihoods especially that of women, unemployed youth and the most disadvantaged, in four North Eastern States.
- The project has focussed on five development strategies: i) social empowerment, ii) economic empowerment, iii) partnership development, iv) project management and v) livelihood and value chain developments.
WHAT IS CAMPA?
- With the initial experience of the States regarding under-utilisation of the money towards compensatory afforestation, Supreme Court ordered for establishment of Compensatory Afforestation Fund and Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) in 2001.
- In 2009, Supreme Court permitted release of Rs.1000 crore every year to States/UTs for compensatory afforestation and other activities. It has provisioned that CAMPA funds shall be kept in interest bearing non-lapsable Public Account.
- The notification of CAF Rules was approved by the Supreme Court in 2019 with an amount of Rs. 54,685 Crore from Ad-hoc CAMPA, under the control of Government of India.
- The Fund will be utilized as per the provisions of the Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF) Act, 2016. These include catchment area treatment, wildlife management, forest fire prevention, soil and moisture conservation work in the forest etc.
- These fund cannot be used for payment of salary, travelling allowances, making buildings and buying office equipment for forest officers.
OBJECTIVES OF CAMPA
- Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) are meant to promote afforestation and regeneration activities as a way of compensating for forest land diverted to non-forest uses.
Its mandate includes:
- Lay down broad guidelines for and assist State CAMPA.
- Make recommendations to State CAMPA based on a review of their plans and programmes.
- Provide a mechanism to State CAMPA to resolve issues of an inter-state or Centre-State character.
NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (NDCS)
- NDCs are the documents, must prepared by the country parties to the Paris Agreement, to outline and communicate their post-2020 climate actions
- NDCs embody efforts by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
- It aims to fulfil the most ambitious objectives of the Paris Agreement which is to keep the increase in global temperature to well below 2°C with respect to the pre-industrial era and limiting it to 1.5°C.
- NDCs are submitted every five years to the UNFCCC secretariat, with the next round of NDCs being submitted by 2020.
From INDC to NDC
- The acronym, INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions) emerged at Conference of the parties (COP) 19 in Warsaw, Poland.
- Countries were urged to determine independently what contribution they could make to the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The initiative was so welcome that, most of the countries presented their contributions, detailing GHG reduction goals.
- However, some report revealed that the sum of the contributions of all the nations did not reach the objective of keeping earth well below a 2°C increase in global warming.
- Hence, INDC was converted to mandatory Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).
Cabinet approves Establishment of an International Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure
The Union Cabinet has given approval for the Establishment of an International Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) in New Delhi.
- The CDRI is proposed to be launched at the UN Climate Action Summit in New York, USA in September 2019.
- It would address concerns that are
- Common to developing and developed countries
- Small and large economies
- Countries at early and advanced stages of infrastructure development
- Countries that have moderate or high disaster risk.
- Government of India provided 480 crores to CDRI for a corpus required to fund technical assistance on on-going basis. Government will also cover recurring expenditures over a period of 5 years from 2019-20 to 2023-24.
- The financial resources will be met from the existing allocated budget and existing plan schemes of the National Medicinal Plants Board, Ministry of AYUSH.
- It will serve as a knowledge sharing platform on different aspects of disaster and climate resilience of infrastructure.
- It will create a mechanism to assist countries to upgrade their capacities, with regard to infrastructure development in accordance with their risk context and economic needs.
- Economically weaker sections of society, women and children, are the most vulnerable to the impacts of disasters and hence, will be benefitted from the CDRI.
- It will also benefit all areas with high disaster risk. In India, the north-eastern and Himalayan regions are prone to earthquakes, coastal areas to cyclones and tsunamis and central peninsular region to droughts.
Science & Technology
Vice President visits SAMEER
The Vice President of India, at the Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER) in Andhra Pradesh, said that India must always be wary of threats to national security as the country makes giant strides towards development with a booming economy.
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SPEECH
- Human-made or naturally occurring Electromagnetic Pulse (EMPs) can affect large geographic areas, disrupting elements critical to the nation’s security and could adversely affect global commerce.
- Hence, India needs to develops futuristic defence mechanisms and create EMP- resistant infrastructure to avert threats such as an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) attack.
- Initiatives such as National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations (NIDHI – an umbrella programme for nurturing innovations into successful start-ups) and Atal Innovation Mission fortify India’s science ecosystem.
- Aryabhatta wrote ‘Aryabhattiyam’ (contains astronomical treatise and is the only known surviving work of the Aryabhata)
- Varahamihira wrote Panchasidhhantika (Five schools of Astronomy)
- Charaka and Sushruta are known as Fathers of Surgery.
- Rishi Kanad first spoke of “anu’’ (atom) as an indestructible particle of matter in Kanada Sutra.
- Patanjali is considered as Father of Yoga.
- Gaganyaan, India’s first human space mission is to be realized by the 75th anniversary of independence by 2022.
- The Solar Mission, Aditya L1 is also set to be launched in 2022.
- India has installed capacity of 78 GW in renewable energy in 2019.
- As a major producer and exporter of software technology, India has announced the National Policy on Software Products 2019.
- It was set up as an autonomous R & D laboratory at Mumbai under the then Department of Electronics.
- It aims to undertake R & D work in the areas of Microwave Engineering and Electromagnetic Engineering Technology.
- It was set up with a mandate to achieve excellence in application -oriented research in the areas of Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3).
- It is an offshoot of the special microwave products unit (SMPU) set up in 1977 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai.
- It has 3 R&D centres at Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
- It has developed,
- India’s first MST(mesosphere–stratosphere–troposphere) Radar at Tirupati which is also the 2nd largest in the world.
- India’s first indigenously developed Linear Accelerator for Cancer treatment.
- India’s first center for design and engineering facility for Opto Electronic devices.