PIB Daily

PIB Daily – 30th July 2019 – IASToppers

President’s visit to Benin; Dam Safety Bill, 2019; Location of Benin; Location of Gambia; Location of Guinea; Microdot technology;
By IASToppers
July 30, 2019

Contents

Government Schemes & Policies

  • Dam Safety Bill runs into Opposition criticism

Bilateral & International Relations

  • Indian President arrives in Benin, 1st visit by an Indian head of state

Science & Technology

  • Draft Notification Issued Allowing Motor Vehicles and their Parts to be Affixed with Microdots
 
[Note: Today’s PIB Daily News are already covered in Today’s Current Affairs Analysis. This PIB News Analysis news are only for those who wants to get only PIB news]

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Government Schemes & Policies

Dam Safety Bill runs into Opposition criticism

Opposition MPs in the Lok Sabha expressed deep reservations about the Centre’s decision to introduce the Dam Safety Bill, 2019, asserting that the legislation, which is aimed at providing uniform safety measures across the country, would undermine the powers of State governments since water is a State subject.

Dam Safety Bill 2019 3 IASToppers

WHY DID CENTRE ENACT THE LAW WHICH IS A STATE SUBJECT?

  • Centre is empowered to enact a law on the subject, especially as 92% of the dams involved two or more States.
  • Article 246 and 56 empowered the Centre to intervene in state laws.

PROVISIONS OF THE BILL:

National Committee on Dam Safety:

  • The National Committee on Dam Safety will be constituted and will be chaired by the Chairperson, Central Water Commission for formulating policies and regulations regarding dam safety standards and prevention of dam failures.

Dam Safety Bill 2019 2 IASToppers

National Dam Safety Authority:

  • The National Dam Safety Authority will be set up for
  • Implementing the policies formulated by the National Committee on Dam Safety
  • Resolving issues between State Dam Safety Organisations (SDSOs), or between a SDSO and any dam owner in that state
  • Specifying regulations for inspection and investigation of dams
  • Providing accreditation to agencies working on dams

State Dam Safety Organisation:

  • State governments will establish State Dam Safety Organisations (SDSOs).
  • All specified dams situated in a state will fall under the jurisdiction of that state’s SDSO.
  • However, in certain cases the National Dam Safety Authority will act as the SDSO. These include cases where a dam: (i) is owned by one state but situated in another state, (ii) extends over multiple states, or (iii) is owned by a central public sector undertaking.

State Committee on Dam Safety:

  • The Bill provides for the constitution of State Committees on Dam Safety by state governments.
  • Functions of the Committee include: (i) reviewing the work of the SDSO, (ii) ordering dam safety investigations, (iii) recommending dam safety measures.

Obligations of dam owners:

  • Owners of specified dams are required to provide a dam safety unit in each dam.
  • This unit will inspect the dams: (i) before and after the monsoon session, and (ii) during and after every earthquake, flood, or any other calamity or sign of distress.
  • Dam owners will be required to prepare an emergency action plan, and carry out risk assessment studies for each dam at specified regular intervals.

Offences and penalties:

  • The Bill provides for two types of offences. These are: (i) obstructing a person in the discharge of his functions under the Bill, and (ii) refusing to comply with directions issued under the Bill. 

NEED OF THE BILL

  • India ranks third after USA and China in the number of large dams.
  • More than 5000 large dams are in operation in the country currently and another 447 are under construction. In addition to this, there are thousands of medium and small dams.
  • However, about 75 per cent of the large dams in India are more than 25 years old and about 164 dams are more than 100 years old.
  • A badly maintained, unsafe dam can be a hazard to human life, flora and fauna, public and private assets and the environment.
  • India has had 37 dam failures in the past in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu and Odisha.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BILL:

  • The bill is too focused on structural safety and not on operational safety.
  • There is inadequate compensation to the people affected by dams.
  • There is need for an independent regulator as well as for a precise definition of stakeholders.
  • Many states say it encroaches upon the sovereignty of States to manage their dams, and violates the principles of federalism enshrined in the Constitution. They see it as an attempt by the Centre to consolidate power in the guise of safety concerns.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BILL:

  • The bill addresses all issues concerning safety of dams, including regular inspection, emergency action plan and comprehensive safety review.
  • The legislation will help the states and Union territories to adopt uniform dam safety procedures.
  • The bill will also help in safeguarding human life, livestock and property.
[Ref: The Hindu, PIB]

 

Bilateral & International Relations

Indian President arrives in Benin, 1st visit by an Indian head of state

President Ram Nath Kovind is now on his visit of three African countries i.e. Benin, Gambia and Guinea.

Indian-President-arrives-in-Benin,-1st-visit-by-an-Indian-head-of-state

  • This is first visit by either a head of state or head of government to three West African countries.
  • During his visit, India offered a fresh line of credit of USD 100 million to finance development projects in Benin.
  • In the last 10 years, bilateral trade has risen from USD 350 million to more than USD 800 million. With this, India has become Benin’s largest trading partner.

LOCATION OF BENIN:

  • Benin is a country in West Africa.
  • It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north.
  • The majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean.

beni-MMAP-md

LOCATION OF GAMBIA:

  • Gambia is a country in West Africa that is almost entirely surrounded by Senegal with the exception of its western coastline along the Atlantic Ocean.
  • It is the smallest country within mainland Africa.
  • The Gambia is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation’s namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean.

Gambia-map-IASToppers.jpg1

LOCATION OF GUINEA:

  • Guinea is a west-coastal country in West Africa.
  • Guinea shares a border with Senegal on the north, Mali on the northeast, Ivory Coast to the east, and Liberia and Sierra Leone to the south.

GUINEA mapo

[Ref: PIB]

 

Science & Technology

Draft Notification Issued Allowing Motor Vehicles and their Parts to be Affixed with Microdots

The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has issued a draft notification amending Central Motor Vehicle Rules, allowing motor vehicles and their parts to be affixed with permanent and nearly invisible microdots that can be read physically with a microscope and identified with ultra violet light source.

Microdots 2 IASToppers

WHAT IS MICRODOT TECHNOLOGY?

  • Microdot technology involves spraying the body and parts of the vehicle or any other machine with microscopic dots, which give a unique identification.
  • The microdots and adhesive will become permanent fixtures which cannot be removed without damaging the asset, that is the vehicle itself.

Microdots IASToppersSIGNIFICANCE:

  • Use of this technology will help check theft of vehicles and also use of fake spare parts.
[Ref: PIB, Economic Times]

 

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