Polity & Governance
- EC recognises JJP as state party, allots ‘key’ as poll symbol
Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management
- Global Sulphur cap compliant fuel oil is already available on west coast of India
- 16 seismometers defunct in earthquake-prone zones
Key Facts for Prelims
- Exercise SURYA KIRAN – XIV
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Polity & Governance
EC recognises JJP as state party, allots ‘key’ as poll symbol
Jannayak Janta Party (JJP) has been recognised as a ‘state party’ in Haryana by the Election Commission of India (ECI).
REGISTRATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES
- Registration of Political parties is governed by the provisions of Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
- A party seeking registration has to submit an application to the Election Commission of India within a period of 30 days following the date of its formation.
- The applicant association is asked to publish proposed Name of the party in two national daily newspapers and two local daily newspapers, on two days in same newspapers, for inviting objections with regard to the proposed registration of the party before the Commission.
- The Election commission of India will implement “Political Parties Registration Tracking Management System” (PPRTMS) to facilitate tracking of status of application by applicants from 1st January, 2020.
THE ELECTION SYMBOLS (RESERVATION AND ALLOTMENT) ORDER, 1968:
- A registered political party is accorded the status of a recognized state or national party as per the criteria listed in ‘The Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968’.
RECOGNITION AS A NATIONAL PARTY:
For any political party to be eligible for recognition as a National Party, it has to satisfy any of the three conditions listed below:
- Secure at least 6% of the valid vote in an Assembly or a Lok Sabha General Election in any four or more states and won at least 4 seats in a Lok Sabha General Election from any State or States.
- Win at least 2% of the total Lok Sabha seats in a Lok Sabha General Election and these seats have to be won from at least 3 states.
- The party is recognized as a State Party in at least four states.
RECOGNITION AS A STATE PARTY:
For any political party to be eligible for recognition as a State Party in a state, it has to satisfy any of the five conditions listed below:
- Secure at least 6% of the valid vote & win at least 2 seats in an Assembly General Election.
- Secure at least 6% of the valid vote & win at least 1 seats in a Lok Sabha General Election.
- Win at least 3% of the seats or at least 3 seats, whichever is more, in an Assembly General Election.
- Win at least 1 out of every 25 seats from a state in a Lok Sabha General Election.
- Secure at least 8% of the total valid vote in an Assembly or a Lok Sabha General Election.
BENEFITS OF ‘NATIONAL PARTY’ & ‘STATE PARTY’ RECOGNITION:
- If a party is recognised as a State Party/National party, it is entitled for exclusive allotment of its reserved symbol to the candidates set up by it.
- Recognised `State’ and `National’ parties need only one proposer for filing the nomination and are also entitled for two sets of electoral rolls free of cost at the time of revision of rolls and their candidates get one copy of electoral roll free of cost during General Elections.
- They also get broadcast/telecast facilities over Akashvani/Doordarshan during general elections.
- Political parties are entitled to nominate “Star Campaigners” during General Elections. A recognized National or State party can have a maximum of 40 “Star campaigners” and a registered un-recognised party can nominate a maximum of 20 ‘Star Campaigners”. The travel expenses of star campaigners are not to be accounted for in the election expense accounts of candidates of their party.
Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management
Global Sulphur cap compliant fuel oil is already available on west coast of India
Minister of Chemical informed that the Government has taken many steps to clear the uncertainty of the Shipping industry arising out of impending IMO regulations to reduce the level of sulphur oxide emissions from ship’s exhaust from January, 2020.
- The main type of fuel oil for ships is heavy fuel oil, derived as a residue from crude oil distillation. Crude oil contains sulphur which, following combustion in the engine, ends up in ship emissions.
- Sulphur oxides (SOx) are known to be harmful to human health, causing respiratory symptoms and lung disease. In the atmosphere, SOx can lead to acid rain, which can harm crops, forests and aquatic species, and contributes to the acidification of the oceans.
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations to reduce SOx emissions from ships first came into force in 2005 under International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Convention).
WHAT IS THE SULPHUR 2020 LIMIT?
- From 1 January 2020, the limit for sulphur in fuel oil used on board ships operating outside designated emission control areas will be reduced to 0.50% m/m (mass by mass), from current 3.50% m/m.
Four options for ships to comply Sulphur 2020 limit:
- Switching from high-sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) to marine gas oil (MGO) or distillates
- Using very-low-sulphur fuel oil or compliant fuel blends (0.50% sulphur)
- Retrofitting vessels to use alternative fuels such as LNG or other sulphur-free fuels
- Installing exhaust gas cleaning systems (scrubbers), which allows operation on regular HSFO
16 seismometers defunct in earthquake-prone zones
At least 20 out of 35 seismometers in Maharashtra are lying in a state of disrepair, and 16 of these are located in seismic zones III and IV.
WHAT IS SEISMOMETERS?
- A seismometer is an instrument used to measure and record earthquakes.
SEISMIC ZONES IN INDIA:
Over 59 % of India’s land area is under threat of moderate to severe earthquakes.
The zones are divided on the basis of Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity, which measures the impact of earthquakes.
The bureau of Indian standards is the official agency for publishing the seismic hazard maps and codes. Bureau of Indian Standards grouped India into four seismic zones, viz. Zone II, III, IV and V.
- Zone – V (highest seismic activity zone): Entire northeastern India, parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Rann of Kutch, part of North Bihar and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
- Zone – IV (high seismic zone): Parts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Sikkim, Northern Parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, parts of Gujarat and small portions of Maharashtra near the west coast and Rajasthan.
- Zone – III (moderate seismic zone.): Kerala, Goa, Lakshadweep islands, remaining parts of Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and West Bengal, Parts of Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka.
- Zone – II (least active seismic zone): Remaining parts of India.
Importance of India’s Seismic Zoning Map
- It is mainly used by the Department of Disaster Management of the different state governments. It also helps them in planning for a natural disaster like earthquake.
- An Indian seismic zoning map assists one in identifying the lowest, moderate as well as highest hazardous or earthquake prone areas in India. Even such maps are looked into before constructing any high rise building so as to check the level of seismology in any particular area.
WHY NORTH INDIA IS ON SHAKY GROUND?
- Indian tectonic plate broke off from an ancient supercontinent called Gondwana 100 million years ago.
- The Indian plate skewed north and slammed into the Eurasian plate, creating the Himalayas.
- India still moves northeast into Eurasian plate at roughly 5 cm every year. About 60% of India is vulnerable to earthquakes caused by northward grind of the Indian subcontinental landmass.
Key Facts for Prelims
Exercise SURYA KIRAN – XIV
Joint military exercise ‘SURYA KIRAN – XIV’ between India and Nepal will be conducted at Salijhandi, Rupendehi district of Nepal from 03 to 16 December 2019.
ABOUT EXERCISE SURYA KIRAN – XIV
- Exercise SURYA KIRAN – XIV is an annual event which is conducted alternatively in Nepal and India.
- The aim of this exercise is to conduct a Battalion level training to increase interoperability in jungle warfare and counter terrorist operations in mountainous terrain, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, medical and environmental conservation including aviation aspects.