PIB Daily

PIB Daily – 3rd March 2020 – IASToppers

Increasing black carbon concentration in Himalayas; Nominations for World Heritage List; Dholavira; Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate; Black Carbon; Gangotri Glacier; RaIDer-X; National Workshop on Explosive Detection; International Women’s Day; Chairs in the name of eminent Indian women scientists;
By IASToppers
March 03, 2020

Contents

Issues related to Health & Education

  • Chairs in the name of eminent Indian women scientists

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

  • Increasing black carbon concentration in Himalayas

Defence & Security Issues

  • RaIDer-X

Art & Culture

  • Nominations for World Heritage List

Also in News

  • International Women’s Day

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Issues related to Health & Education

Chairs in the name of eminent Indian women scientists

The Government on the occasion of National Science day has announced 11 chairs in the name of eminent Indian women scientists in various fields to inspire, encourage, empower women and give due recognition to young women researchers excelling in various fields.

Key Features:

  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has announced several schemes for Women’s Empowerment and the proposal is in line with theme for this year’s National Science Day – ‘Women in Science’.
  • The 11 Chairs have been instituted in various areas of research including Agriculture, Biotechnology, Immunology, Phytomedicine, Biochemistry, Medicine, Social Sciences, Earth Science & Meteorology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Physics & Fundamental Research.
  • One of the chairs constituted is under the name of the noted anthropologist Dr Irawati Karve.

Details:

[Ref: PIB]

 

 

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

Increasing black carbon concentration in Himalayas

Scientists from Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, (WIHG), an autonomous institution under Department of Science & Technology, in a study conducted at Chirbasa station near Gangotri Glacier, for the Year 2016, have found that black carbon (BC) concentration in this region has changed drastically during summer.

Highlights of the report:

  • According to a study, the black carbon concentration in the region increases by 400 times during summer. This can trigger glacial melt because of the light-absorbing nature of black carbon.
  • It was revealed by investigating the occasional high values of black carbon extricated, that the seasonal cycle of increase was significantly influenced by:
  • the emissions resulting from agriculture burning (in western part of the country),
  • forest fires (along the Himalayan slopes) in summer, and
  • by the contribution from long-range transport of pollutants in winter, depending the prevailing meteorological conditions.

  • The Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) aerosols contribute significantly towards global warming due to its light-absorbing nature.
  • Their presence in the eco-sensitive zone, such as the Himalayan glacier valleys, is a matter of serious concern and needs to be meticulously monitored. However, baseline data on BC is rarely available from most of the glaciated Himalayan region.
  • For the first time, the team of Scientists from WIHG carried out measurements on ambient EBC mass concentration at a high altitude site Chirbasa (3600 m), near Gangotri Glacier in the Indian Himalaya, during the year 2016.
  • The monthly mean concentration of EBC was found to be minimum in August and maximum in the month of May.
  • The observed seasonal mean concentrations of EBC indicated a pristine glacial source and absence of EBC sources in the locality.

Black Carbon:

  • Black carbon is a component of fine particulate matter.
  • Black carbon consists of pure carbon in several linked forms.
  • It is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot.
  • It comprises a significant portion of particulate matter or PM, which is an air pollutant.
  • Black carbon warms the Earth by absorbing sunlight and heating the atmosphere and by reducing albedo when deposited on snow and ice and indirectly by interaction with clouds.

Gangotri Glacier:

  • Gangotri Glacier is located in Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India in a region bordering Tibet.

  • This glacier, one of the primary sources of the Ganges, is one of the largest in the Himalayas with an estimated volume of over 27 cubic kilometres.
  • The glacier is about 30 kilometres long and 2 to 4 kms wide.

[Ref: PIB]

 

Defence & Security Issues

RaIDer-X

RaIDer-X, a new explosive detection device, was unveiled at the National Workshop on Explosive Detection (NWED-2020) in Pune recently.

Features of RaIDer-X:

  • RaIDer-X has the capability to detect explosives from a stand-off distance.

  • The data library can be built in the system to expand its capability to detect a number of explosives in pure form as well as with the contaminants.
  • Bulk explosive in concealed condition can also be detected by the device.
  • RaIDer-X has been co-developed by High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) Pune and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 

National Workshop on Explosive Detection:

  • The NWED-2020 was inaugurated by Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development and Chairman Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO).

  • The two-day workshop has been organised by HEMRL Pune, which is a premier laboratory of DRDO.
  • It provides a platform to scientists, technocrats and users to share knowledge, experience and updated information on the technological advancements made in the recent past.
  • The workshop will help in the further development of explosive detection devices and keep abreast on the recent development and advancements in the field of explosive detection.

Significance:

  • The detection of explosives is a compelling need of the hour and the security agencies are continuously monitoring vulnerable targets with the help of intelligence agencies to thwart the attempts of anti-social elements.

[Ref: PIB]

 

Art & Culture

Nominations for World Heritage List

The Ministry of Culture has submitted nominations of ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City’ and ‘Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate’ for their inclusion in the World Heritage List for the year 2020.

What is the issue?

  • Government of India has submitted two nomination dossiers namely ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City’ and ‘Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate’ for inclusion in the World Heritage List for the year 2020.
  • Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has submitted the proposal of ‘Group of Monuments at Mandu’ in the year 2019.
  • The dossier was further forwarded to World Heritage Centre (WHC) for completeness check.  Inputs received from WHC have been conveyed to the State Government for further incorporation.
  • A consultation workshop was organized by the Wild Life Institute of India and State Govt. of Madhya Pradesh to prioritize the potential World Heritage Sites of M.P.
  • The workshop has proposed Bhedaghat (Narmada Valley) as one of the recommended potential site subject to criteria set by UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Dholavira:

  • Dholavira was one of the largest cities of its time. It was also one of the oldest, in continuous occupation for over 1200 years.
  • It is located on Khadir bet island in the Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary in the Great Rann of Kutch.

  • The site was discovered in 1967-68 by J. P. Joshi, of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), and is the fifth largest of eight major Harappan sites.
  • Dholavira’s location is on the Tropic of Cancer.
  • Dholavira was occupied from 3rd millennium BCE to the middle of 2nd millennium BCE, which is from about 2650 BCE to 1450 BCE and has seven different stages which document the rise and fall of the Harappan Civilization.
  • The earliest phase of Dholavira between 2650 BCE and 2500 BCE shows evidence of a pre-Harappan culture of scattered settlements with a very rudimentary style of pottery.
  • Dholavira seems to have evolved into a sophisticated planned city, a trademark of the mature Harappan period, by 2500 BCE and it continued to be a great urban centre till 1900 BCE.
  • The city was constructed to a pre-existing geometrical plan consisting of three divisions – the citadel, the middle town, and the lower town.
  • The most striking feature of the city is that all of its buildings, at least in their present state of preservation, are built of stone, whereas most other Harappan sites, including Harappa itself and Mohenjodaro, are almost exclusively built of brick.
  • Archaeological evidence shows that it gradually deserted and it became a rural settlement in the last 50 years between 1500 BCE and 1450 BCE.

Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate:

  • The Deccan sultanates were five dynasties that ruled late medieval kingdoms, namely, Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India.
  • The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau.
  • Their architecture was a regional variant of Indo-Islamic architecture, heavily influenced by the styles of the Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal architecture, but sometimes also directly from Persia and Central Asia.
  • The rulers of five Deccan sultanates had a number of cultural contributions to their credit in the fields of art, music, literature and architecture.
  • Deccan sultanates have constructed many grand and impregnable forts.
  • Bidar and Golconda forts are classic example of military planning of Deccan sultanates.

  • Apart from forts, they have constructed many tombs and mosques.
  • Gol Gumbaz (tomb of Mohammed Adil Shah) has a diameter of 124 feet and is the second largest dome in the world, next only to St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.

[Ref: PIB]

 

Also in News

International Women’s Day

The various Union Ministries are launching a week long campaign till 8th March, on the occasion of International Women’s Day.

The ministries include:

  • Ministries of Women and Child Development, Information & Broadcasting, Health & Family Welfare, Human Resource Development, Agriculture & Farmer’s Welfare, Rural Development, Housing and Urban Affairs, Finance, Defence and Home.

Themes:

  • The campaign has a theme for all the days beginning from 1st March, 2020.
  • The themes that are being observed are: education, health and nutrition, empowerment of women, skills &entrepreneurship and participation in sports, special circumstances, rural women & agriculture and urban women.

Highlights of the program:

  • A special program by celebrity chef, Sanjeev Kapoor will be telecast by Doordarshan from 1st-7th March,2020 highlighting special recipes of healthy and nutritious food for women during pregnancy and lactating period.

  • Fourteen women oriented Hindi movies will be telecast on Doordarshan from 1st-7thMarch, 2020.
  • Doordarshan is also organising special programmes to commemorate the contribution of women members of the Indian Constituent Assembly to honour their contribution in the foundation of the Indian Republic.
  • DD Kisan will telecast programs on women agriculturists, inventions in agriculture by women, the role of women in animal husbandry and food processing.
  • The regional units of the News Services Division of All India Radio will also conduct extensive programmes from Sunday, 1st March, like talk shows, features and exclusive programmes for women.
  • The M/o H&FW is organising camps for women on health and wellness and Anaemia.
  • The M/o HRD in collaboration with the University Grants Commission (UGC) is conducting round tables on women empowerment on the 7 themes in about 40 central universities around the country.
  • Women Self-Help Groups (SHGs) will be invited to interact and discuss various issues related to the Self-Help Groups with Minister and senior officials.

International Women’s Day:

  • International Women’s Day (IWD) is celebrated on the 8th of March every year.

  • It is a focal point in the movement for women’s rights.
  • It is a time to reflect on progress made, to call for change and to celebrate acts of courage and determination by ordinary women, who have played an extraordinary role in the history of their countries and communities.
  • International Women’s Day 2020 campaign theme is #EachforEqual.

[Ref: PIB]

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