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PIB Daily

PIB Daily – 4th September 2019 – IASToppers

Exercise Yudh Abhyas 2019; POSHAN Abhiyaan; Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme; Mount Kun;
By IASToppers
September 04, 2019

Contents

Issues related to Health & Education

  • PM Asks For Public Support To Boost ‘Poshan Maah’ Nutrition Campaign

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

  • Cabinet approves Mechanism revision of ethanol price for supply to Public Sector OMCs

Key Facts for Prelims

  • Indian Army Men and Women Summit MT Kun
  • Exercise Yudh Abhyas 2019

 

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Issues related to Health & Education

PM Asks For Public Support To Boost ‘Poshan Maah’ Nutrition Campaign

To give impetus to the government’s flagship programme POSHAN Abhiyan (National Nutrition Mission), National Council on India’s Nutrition Challenges has earmarked the month of September as ‘Rashtriya Poshan Maah’.

'Poshan-Maah'-Nutrition-Campaign

ABOUT POSHAN ABHIYAAN

  • POSHAN Abhiyaan was launched on International Women’s day (March 8) in 2018 to boost nutrition among children and women.
  • It is a multi-ministerial convergence mission with the vision to ensure attainment of malnutrition free India by 2022.

POSHAN-Abhiyaan

  • Its aim to ensure holistic development and adequate nutrition for pregnant women, mothers and children.
  • Its large component involves gradual scaling-up of interventions supported by on-going World Bank assisted ‘Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Systems Strengthening and Nutrition Improvement Project’ (ISSNIP) to all districts in the country by 2022.

TARGET UNDER THE MISSION

  • The target of the mission is to bring down stunting among children in the age group 0-6 years from 38.4% to 25% by 2022.

OTHER TARGETS:

  • Prevent and reduce stunting in children (0-6 years): By 6% @ 2% p.a.
  • Prevent and reduce under-nutrition (underweight prevalence) in children (0-6 years): By 6% @ 2% p.a.
  • Reduce the prevalence of anemia among young Children (6-59 months): By 9% @ 3% p.a.
  • Reduce the prevalence of anemia among Women and Adolescent Girls in the age group of 15-49 years: By 9% @ 3% p.a.
  • Reduce Low Birth Weight (LBW): By 6% @ 2% p.a.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

  • The project will include investments in improving the skills and capacities of ICDS staff and community nutrition workers, instituting mechanisms of community mobilization and behavior change communication.
  • It aims at strengthening systems of citizen engagement and grievance redress and establishing mobile technology based tools for improved monitoring and management of services for better outreach to beneficiaries during the critical 1,000-day window for nutrition impact.
  • The project will additionally ensure convergence of all nutrition related schemes and provide performance based incentives to states and community nutrition and health workers, facilitating a focus on results.

HOW WILL THE WORLD BANK LOAN BE UTILIZED?

world-bank

  • The World Bank loan will be used for improving coverage and quality of ICDS nutrition services to pregnant and lactating women and children under 3 years of age.
  • It will be also used for project in improving skills and capacities of ICDS staff and community nutrition workers, instituting mechanisms of community mobilization and behaviour change communication, strengthening systems of citizen engagement and grievance redress.

 [Ref: PIB]

 

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

Cabinet approves Mechanism revision of ethanol price for supply to Public Sector OMCs

The government approved an increase in the price of ethanol to be procured by public sector oil marketing companies (OMCs) from sugar mills for blending with petrol for the 2019-20 supply year from December 1.

ethanol

BACKGROUND

  • Government has been implementing Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme wherein oil marketing companies (OMCs) sell petrol blended with ethanol up to 10%.
  • This programme aims to promote the use of alternative and environment friendly fuels and to reduce import dependence for energy requirements
  • Government has notified administered price of ethanol since 2014. For the first time during 2018, price of ethanol, based on raw material utilized was announced by the Government.
  • These decisions have significantly improved the supply of ethanol thereby ethanol procurement by Public Sector OMCs has increased from 38 crore liter in 2013-14 to over 200 crore liter in 2018-19.

WHAT IS ETHANOL?

ethanol-1

  • Ethanol is basically alcohol of 99%-plus purity, which can be used for blending with petrol.
  • The normal rectified spirit used for potable purposes has only 95% alcohol content.

MANUFACTURING

Manufacturing--ethenol

  • Both ethanol (also called anhydrous alcohol) and rectified spirit are produced mainly from molasses, which is a by-product of sugar manufacture.
  • Mills typically crush cane with a total fermentable sugars (TFS). Much of this TFS (sucrose plus reducing sugars (glucose and fructose)) gets crystallised into sugar.
  • The un-crystallised, non-recoverable part is called ‘C’ molasses.
  • But rather than produce sugar, mills can also ferment the entire TFS in the cane.
  • In between these two extreme cases, there are intermediate options as well, where the cane juice does not have to be crystallised right till the final ‘C’ molasses stage.
  • The molasses can, instead, be diverted after the earlier ‘A’ and ‘B’ stages of sugar crystal formation. Mills, then, would produce some sugar, as opposed to fermenting the whole sugarcane juice into ethanol.

In nutshell,

A molasses (first molasses): It is an intermediate by-product resulting from first sugar crystallization.

B molasses (second molasses): It has approximately the same sugar content as ‘A’ molasses but contains less sugar and does not spontaneously crystallize.

C molasses (final molasses or blackstrap molasses): It is the end by-product of the processing in the sugar factory, which does not crystallize and can be found in liquid or dried form as a commercial feed ingredient.

Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme 1

ABOUT ETHANOL BLENDED PETROL (EBP) PROGRAMME

Ethanol-Blended-Petrol-(EBP)-programme

  • Government of India launched Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme in 2003 for undertaking blending of ethanol in Petrol to address environmental concerns due to fossil fuel burning and subsidize crude imports.
  • Under EBP programme, ethanol blending in petrol is being undertaken by the Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) in except island Union Territory (UT) of Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep wherein 10% of blending of ethanol in Petrol are done by OMCs.
  • The present policy allows procurement of ethanol produced from molasses and non-food feed stock like celluloses and lignocelluloses material including petrochemical route.
  • This was also an attempt to reduce the Under-recovery of Public Sector OMCs.

WHAT HAS THE GOVERNMENT DONE?

  • Consistent surplus of sugar production is depressing sugar price. Consequently, sugarcane farmer’s dues have increased due to lower capability of sugar industry to pay the farmers.
  • Hence, government has allowed mills to produce ethanol from ‘B’ heavy molasses and directly from sugarcane juice.
  • Government has also even approved the use of sugar and sugar syrup for production of ethanol.
  • But the real impetus has come from mills getting higher rates for ethanol manufactured from the ‘B’ heavy and sugarcane juice routes.
  • For the 2018-19 supply year, the ex-distillery price payable by OMCs for ethanol manufactured from the conventional ‘C’ molasses route was fixed, while the price of ethanol from C and B heavy molasses was increased.
[Ref: PIB, Indian Express]

 

Key Facts for Prelims

Indian Army Men and Women Summit MT Kun

Indian Army Mountaineering Expedition to Mt Kun was recently conducted in Zanskar Range in Ladhak.

Indian-Army-Men-and-Women-Summit-MT-Kun

ABOUT MOUNT KUN

  • The Nun Kun mountain massif consists of a pair of Himalayan twin peaks: Nun (7135 m) and its neighbor Kun (7077 m).

Nun-Kun-mountain-massif

  • Kun is the second highest peak of the Nun Kun massif.
  • It is located in the upper Suru Valley of Ladakh.
  • It is one of the highest peaks in the Zanskar Range as well as highest peak on the Indian side of the Line of Control.
  • Nun and Kun along with Barmal, White Needle and Pinnacle Peak are shaped like a horseshoe over the Suru river along the Kashmir and Zanskar border.
[Ref: PIB]

 

Exercise Yudh Abhyas 2019

As part of the ongoing Indo-US defence cooperation, a joint military training, Exercise Yudh Abhyas – 2019, the 15th edition of the joint exercise, is being conducted in USA.

Exercise-Yudh-Abhyas-2019

ABOUT YUDH ABHYAS – 2019

  • Exercise Yudh Abhyas is one of the largest joint running military training and defence corporation endeavors between India and USA.

Exercise-Yudh-Abhyas-2019-1

  • It is hosted alternately between the two countries.
  • It provides an opportunity to the armed forces of both countries to train in an integrated manner at Battalion level with joint planning at Brigade level.
  • ln the end, a joint exercise will be undertaken by both countries in an operational setting under a UN mandate.
[Ref: PIB]

 

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