Prelims 2020

Prelims Booster 2020 Flash Cards Set-12 [Current]

This is Prelims Booster 2020 Flash Cards Set-9 [current].
By IASToppers
September 24, 2020

 

 

 

Project Mausam is an initiative launched by?

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Solution: Ministry of Culture

Enrich Your Learning:

Project Mausam:

  • Project Mausam is a Ministry of Culture project launched in April 2014.
  • It is implemented by Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), New Delhi as the nodal coordinating agency with support of Archaeological Survey of India and National Museum as associate bodies.

About the Project:

  • It focusses on monsoon patterns, cultural routes and maritime landscapes.
  • It is examining key processes and phenomena that link different parts of the Indian Ocean littoral as well as those that connect the coastal centres to their hinterlands.
  • It aims to understand how the knowledge and manipulation of the monsoon winds has shaped interactions across the Indian Ocean and led to the spread of shared knowledge systems, traditions, technologies and ideas along maritime routes.
  • These exchanges were facilitated by different coastal centres and their surrounding environs in their respective chronological and spatial contexts, and simultaneously had an effect on them.

Features:

  • At the macro level, it aims to re-connect and re-establish communications between countries of the Indian Ocean world which would lead to an enhanced understanding of cultural values and concerns.
  • At the micro level, the focus is on understanding national cultures in their regional maritime milieu.

 

 

 

G8+5 was an international group consisting of?

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Solution:

  1. Heads of government from G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States and Russia).
  2. Heads of government of five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).

Enrich Your Learning:

G8+5:

  • The Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) was an international group that consisted of the leaders of:
    • Heads of government from G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States and Russia).
    • Heads of government of five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).
  • The group was found in 2005.
  • In March 2014, Russia was cast out of the Group of 8 due to its involvement in the 2014 Crimea crisis in Ukraine.
  • The G8+5 in its original form is unlikely to reconvene with Russia present.

 

 

 

Recently, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment launched the Kiran Initative. It seeks to?

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Answer:

  • Kiran is a toll-free helpline to enable access to mental health resources.

Enrich Your Learning:

Kiran:

  • Launched by Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • Kiran is a toll-free helpline to enable access to mental health resources.
  • It will offer support in 13 languages.
  • Will provide support for early screening, first-aid, psychological support, distress management, mental well-being, preventing deviant behaviours, psychological crisis management etc.
  • It targets to resolve issues of people across the country experiencing stress, anxiety, depression, panic attack, adjustment disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, suicidal thoughts, pandemic-induced psychological issues and mental health emergency.
  • With 660 volunteer clinical/rehabilitation psychologists and 668 volunteer psychiatrists, the helpline will be run from 25 centres by 75 experts who can handle 300 callers per hour.
  • There is a three-level mechanism of support. The caller will first be connected to the location-based helpline centre, and then as per need referred to rehabilitation/clinical psychologists/psychiatrists. Follow-up and support will be extended at the third level.

 

 

 

The Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative was proposed by ?

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Answer:

  • The Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative was proposed by India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative

The Prime Minister proposed the idea Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative at the East Asia Summit in Thailand.

  • The main objective of the initiative is to achieve safe, secure and a stable maritime domain.
  • The Focus areas include creating partnerships among interested states in Enhancing maritime security; Sustainably using marine resources; Disaster prevention & management.
  • India will organize an Indo-Pacific Conclave in Chennai early next year, to take the initiative forward.
  • The initiative is considered by the experts as an incremental step to the Shangri la dialogue.
  • Japan, Australia and Thailand support the initiative already.

Significance of the initiative

  • Provide confidence to minor players of ASEAN.
  • Ensure freedom of navigation and freedom of overflights.
  • Resolving disputes as per international conventions.

 

 

 

Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 was enacted after which incident?

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Answer:

  • The 1991 Public Liability Law regulates mandatory liability insurance. It was enacted post the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.

Enrich Your Learning:

Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991

  • The 1991 Public Liability Law regulates mandatory liability insurance. It was enacted post the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.

Provisions:

  • Under the law, companies must commit to installing and handling hazardous materials that have been reported under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986.
  • Enterprises that own or have control over handling of any hazardous substance have to compulsorily opt for a ‘public liability insurance policy cover’ whereby they are insured against the claims from third parties for death or injury or property damage caused by hazardous substances handled in their enterprise.
  • The victims who are exposed to hazardous substance used by an industry may file a claim with the Collector within 5 years of the accident.
  • On receipt of an application, the Collector, after giving notice to the owner and after giving the parties an opportunity of being heard, will hold an inquiry into the claim and may make an award determining the amount of relief which appears to him to be just.
  • The compensation payable under this Act is irrespective of the company’s neglect and the families of victims who have died due to the gas leak or have suffered a permanent disability or other injury or sickness are entitled to compensation of between Rs 12,500 and Rs 25,000.
  • The victim’s right to claim compensation for death is retained under this Act, which also enables establishment of Environmental Relief Fund by the Central government.
  • For loss of wages due to temporary partial disability, a fixed monthly relief not exceeding Rs 1,000 per month has been stipulated, up to a maximum of 3 months, provided the victim has been hospitalised for over 3 days and is above 16 years of age. For any damage to private property, up to Rs 6,000 is payable, depending on the actual damage.

 

 

 

The Chairman of the National Water Resources Council is the Union Minister for Water Resources. True or False?

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Answer:

False. The Chairman of the National Water Resources Council is the Prime Minister.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The National Water Resources Council body was set up in March 1983 as a national apex body, with Prime Minister as the Chairman, Union Minister for Water Resources as its Vice-Chairman and concerned Union Ministers for water-related Ministries, Chief Ministers of all the States and Administrators / Lt. Governors of all the Union Territories as members.
  • It is an apex body to evolve national policies for development and use of water resources in conformity with the highest national interest

Functions:

  • To lay down the national water policy and to review it from time to time.
  • To consider and review development plans submitted to it (including alternate plans) by the National Water Development Agency and the River Basin Commissions.
  • To recommend accepting the plans with such modifications as may be considered appropriate and necessary.
  • To give directions for carrying out such further studies as may be necessary for full consideration of the plans or component thereof.
  • To advise on the modalities of resolving inter-state differences with regard to specific elements of these plans and such other issues that may arise during planning or implementation of the project.
  • To advise on practice and procedures, administrative arrangements and regulations for fair distribution and utilization of water resources by different beneficiaries, keeping in view optimum development and maximum benefit to the people.
  • To make such other recommendations as would foster expeditious, environmentally sound and economical development of water resources in various regions.

 

 

 

Anniversary of the Declaration of Windhoek is observed worldwide as which day?

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Answer:

Anniversary of the Declaration of Windhoek is observed worldwide as the World Press Freedom Day (May 3).

Enrich Your Learning:

Declaration of Windhoek

  • Windhoek Declaration is a statement of press freedom principles put together by African newspaper journalists in 1991.
  • The Declaration was produced at a UNESCO seminar, “Promoting an Independent and Pluralistic African Press,” held in Windhoek, Namibia.
  • It was a landmark document which set the stage for the development of the African media.
  • The Declaration also asserts that a free press is essential to democracy and a fundamental human right.
  • May 3, the anniversary of the Declaration of Windhoek, is since then observed worldwide as the World Press Freedom Day.
  • World Press Freedom Day was proclaimed by the UN General Assembly in December 1993, following the recommendation of Unesco’s General Conference.
  • The theme of World Press Freedom Day 2020: “Journalism without Fear or Favour”.
  • India dropped two places on a global press freedom index to be ranked 142 out of 180 countries in the annual Reporters Without Borders analysis.

 

 

 

Recently, in 2020 some major government sponsored urban missions celebrated their 5th Anniversary. Which are they?

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Answer:

Major government sponsored urban missions who completed 5 years in 2020 are:

  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
  • Smart Cities Mission (SCM)
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U)

Enrich Your Learning:

Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)

  • AMRUT was launched on 25 June 2015, has completed 5 successful years.
  • The Mission aims at ensuring universal coverage of drinking water supply and substantial improvement in coverage and treatment capacities of sewerage and septage, along with storm water drainage, non-motorized urban transport and green spaces & parks.
  • The Mission spans across 500 cities, covering more than 60% of urban population.
  • The Mission helped cities to undertake a set of 11 reforms comprising 54 milestones aimed at strengthening capacities of city level institutions for effective governance and citizen service delivery.
  • In order to promote energy efficiency across the Indian cities, 76 lakh streetlights replaced with energy efficient LED streetlights.

Smart Cities Mission (SCM)

  • Smart Cities Mission (SCM) was launched on 25th June 2015 with the objective of promoting cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ solutions.
  • 180% growth in the completed project in the last one year, amounting to ₹ 12100 Crore.
  • The Integrated Command and Control Centres (ICCC) developed under the Smart Cities Mission have helped cities in their fight against COVID.
  • The Urban Learning Internship Program (TULIP)’ is designed for all ULBs and Smart City SPVs to engage fresh graduates as interns.
  • ClimateSmart Cities and DataSmart Cities are two important programs under Smart Cities Mission. They are key enablers, driving the future course of action through data driven performance management, urban innovation and institutional capacity building.
  • Top 20 cities have been paired as ‘Sister cities’ with 20 cities who were behind in ranking.
  • Smart Cities Mission is supporting interested cities in raising finance through Municipal Bonds.
  • Joint efforts of Smart Cities Mission with AGNI and Invest India is fostering growth of a start-up culture in Smart Cities.

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U)

  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U) completed five years on 25 June 2020.
  • The scheme was launched in 2015 with the objective of providing pucca house to all eligible beneficiaries of Urban India by 2022 with the vision of ‘Housing for All’.
  • Through the Credit Link Subsidy Scheme (CLSS), for the first time, the Middle Income Group (MIG) is being provided benefits for their housing needs.
  • Government has identified many alternative and innovative technologies through a Global Housing Technology Challenge- India.
  • In 2019 only, MoHUA launched Angikaar- a campaign for change management in more than 4000 cities. The campaign addressed and enabled beneficiaries to adapt to life transformation that comes with shifting to a newly constructed house.

 

 

 

What is the aim of ‘Seabed 2030’ project?

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Answer:

‘Seabed 2030’ project aims to bring together all available bathymetric data to produce the definitive map of the world ocean floor by 2030 and make it available to all.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Seabed 2030’

  • The U.N.-backed project, called Seabed 2030, is urging countries and companies to pool data to create a map of the entire ocean floor by 2030.
  • The Project was launched at the United Nations Ocean Conference in 2017.
  • It is a collaboration between the Nippon Foundation and GEBCO, a non-profit association of experts, which is already involved in charting the ocean floor.
  • The Seabed 2030 Project aims to obtain higher quality information that has a minimum resolution of 100 m at all spots, using equipment such as deep-water hull-mounted sonar systems, and more advanced options such as Underwater Vehicles.
  • The end result would be greater knowledge of the oceans’ biodiversity, improved understanding of the climate, advanced warning of impending disasters, and the ability to better protect or exploit deep-sea resources.
  • High tech sonar technology will be put into use to map the whole ocean floor.
  • Dutch energy prospector Fugro and deep-sea mapping firm Ocean Infinity are so far the biggest contributors for the project.

Benefits

  • Seabed 2030 would be helpful in raising the world economy as countries and companies seek to protect or exploit deep-sea resources– “blue economy”.
  • Seabed 2030’s map would have other benefits – in a warming world it would provide a better idea of sea levels as ice melts and warn about impending tsunamis that could devastate coastal communities.
  • According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), ocean economy to contribute $3 trillion to the world economy by 2030.

Key Fact

  • To add much more effort in the project the energy giant Shell, hosted a global competition– the Shell Ocean Discovery XPRIZE – offering $7 million to teams that can develop technologies to conduct ocean exploration autonomously, rapidly and to a high resolution.

 

 

 

Which type of projects receive more priority under Non-lapsable Central Pool of Resources scheme?

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Answer:

  • Both physical and social infrastructure sectors can be implemented through Non-lapsable Central Pool of Resources Projects scheme, however, physical infrastructure sector receives greater priority.

Enrich Your Learning:

Non-lapsable Central Pool of Resources

  • The North Eastern Region (NER) comprises of eight States Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura are dependent on Central funding for development works.
  • The Non-Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) Scheme came into existence in 1998. It was transferred to DoNER in 2001.
  • Funds under the scheme are shared between the Central and State Governments on 90:10 basis.
  • The objective of NLCPR Scheme is to fill up the gap in infrastructure sector of the North Eastern Region through sanctioning the projects prioritized by the State Governments.

Objectives:

  • Ensure speedy development of infrastructure in the North Eastern Region by increasing the flow of budgetary financing for new infrastructure projects/schemes in the Region.
  • Both physical and social infrastructure sectors such as Irrigation and Flood Control, Power, Roads and Bridges, Education, Health, Water Supply and Sanitation – are considered for providing support under the Central Pool, with projects in physical infrastructure sector receiving priority.
  • Funds from the Central Pool can be released for State sector as well as Central sector projects/schemes. However the funds available under the Central Pool are not meant to supplement the normal Plan programmes either of the State Governments or Union Ministries/ Departments/ Agencies.

Implementation:

  • The Non-Lapsable Central Pool of Resources is headed by Secretary, Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region and has representation from Ministries of Finance, Home Affairs and Planning Commission.
  • Financial Advisor to the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region has been included as a member.

Additional Information:

  • In 2017, a new Central Sector Scheme in December 2017 namely, “North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme” (NESIDS) in place of NLCPR Scheme was launched. Funding for ongoing projects under the NLCPR Scheme will be continued till March, 2020.
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