Prelims 2020

Prelims Booster 2020 Flash Cards Set-2 [Static]

This is Prelims Booster 2020 Flash Cards Set-2 [Static]
By IASToppers
September 21, 2020

 

 

 

Fiber-optic and Bluetooth are working on which principle?

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Answer:

Fiber-optic communication sends pulses of infrared light through an optical fiber while Bluetooth works on a short-range radio frequency (RF) technology.

Enrich Your Learning:

Fiber-optic communication

  • Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of infrared light through an optical fiber.
  • The light is a form of carrier wave that is modulated to carry information.
  • Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference is required.
  • This type of communication can transmit voice, video, and telemetry through local area networks or across long distances

Uses

  • Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals.
  • Researchers at Bell Labs have reached internet speeds of over 100 petabit × kilometer per second using fiber-optic communication.

Bluetooth

  • Bluetooth is the name for a short-range radio frequency (RF) technology that operates at 2.4 GHz and is capable of transmitting voice and data.
  • The effective range of Bluetooth devices is 32 feet (10 meters).
  • Bluetooth transfers data at the rate of 1 Mbps, which is from three to eight times the average speed of parallel and serial ports, respectively.

Uses

  • Bluetooth can be used to wirelessly synchronize and transfer data among devices.
  • Bluetooth can be thought of as a cable replacement technology.
  • Typical uses include automatically synchronizing contact and calendar information among desktop, notebook and palmtop computers without connecting cables.
  • Bluetooth can also be used to access a network or the Internet with a notebook computer by connecting wirelessly to a cellular phone.

 

 

 

In which Indian states the Great Indian Desert lies?

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Answer:

The Great Indian Desert lies in the Indian state of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana, and also in Pakistani province of Sindh.

Enrich Your Learning:

Great Indian Desert

  • Also known as Thar Desert. It is a large arid region in the north-western part near Aravali hills of the Indian subcontinent.
  • It forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
  • It is the world’s 17th largest desert, and the world’s 9th largest subtropical desert.
  • It is a land of undulating topography dotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans.
  • This region receives low rainfall below 150 mm per year; hence, it has arid climate with low vegetation Because of these characteristic features, it is known as Marusthali.
  • Desert land features present here are mushroom rocks, shifting dunes and oasis.
  • On the basis of the orientation, the desert can be divided into two parts: the northern part is sloping towards Sindh and the southern towards the Rann of Kachchh.
  • Most of the rivers in this region are ephemeral. The Luni river flowing in the southern part of the desert is of some significance.
  • The lakes and the playas have brackish water which is the main source of obtaining salt.
  • It is believed that during the Mesozoic era, this region was under the sea.
  • Corroborated by the evidence available at wood fossils park at Aakal and marine deposits around Brahmsar, near Jaisalmer.

 

 

 

Is geranium cultivation done in India? If yes, then enlist the regions of cultivation.

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Answer:

Geranium is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh and North Eastern regions.

November is suitable for sowing and loamy soil is good for its cultivation.

Enrich Your Learning:

Geranium

  • Geranium is any of a group of about 300 species of perennial herbs or shrubs in the family Geraniaceae, native mostly to subtropical southern Africa.
  • A geranium is an herbaceous plant or small shrub of a genus that comprises the
  • Geraniums are among the most popular of bedding and greenhouse plants.
  • Geraniums are unique when it comes to their classification. They can be annuals, perennials or even houseplants.
  • Geraniums feature five-petal flowering blooms.

Oil from Geranium plant

  • Geranium plant has huge medicinal value and its essential oil works as an anti-inflammatory and anti-septic agent.
  • Oil extracted from Geranium plant is very valuable. A crop of just 4 months, costs about 80 thousand rupees.
  • The average price of the oil in India is around 12 to 18 thousand rupees per litre.

Why in news?

  • The production of Geranium has got boost under the Aroma mission.
  • Scientists from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research- Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), Lucknow have developed a new low-cost technology to prepare Geranium saplings and make this available for the farmers.
  • Aroma Mission will be able to cultivate an area of ​​about 50 hectares of plant material of Geranium.

 

 

 

Which article of the Indian Constitution, provides constitutional recognition of “Official languages”?

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Answer:

Article 345 of the Indian Constitution provides constitutional recognition as “Official languages”.

Enrich Your Learning:

Official Languages in Indian Constitution

  • Article 345 of the Indian Constitution, provides constitutional recognition as “Official languages” of the union to any language adopted by a state legislature as the official language of that state.
  • Provisions have been mentioned in constitution as:

Official Language of the Union

  • The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script.
  • The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
  • Notwithstanding anything, for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement.
  • Provided that the President may, during the mentioned period, by order authorise the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union.
  • Notwithstanding anything in this article, Parliament may by law provide for the use, after the said period of fifteen years, of the English language, or the Devanagari form of numerals, for such purposes as may be specified in the law.

Languages Used in Judiciary and Laws

  • Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc.
  • Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, until Parliament by law otherwise provides—
    • All proceedings in the Supreme Court and in every High Court.
  • The authoritative texts
  • The Governor of a State may, with the previous consent of the President, authorise the use of the Hindi language, or any other language used for any official purposes of the State.

Official Languages Act, 1963

  • An Act to provide for the languages which may be used for the official purposes of the Union, for transaction of business in Parliament, for Central and State, Acts and for certain purposes in High Courts.
  • It was enacted by Parliament in the 14th Year of the Republic of India as follows:
  • This Act may be called the Official Languages Act, 1963.
  • Section 3 shall come into force on the 26th day of January, 1965 and the remaining provisions of this Act shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act.
  • It lays down that English should be used for purposes of communication between the Union and the non-Hindi states.
  • Further, where Hindi is used for communication between a Hindi and a non-Hindi state, such communication in Hindi should be accompanied by an English translation.
  • Also, Hindi translation of acts, ordinances, orders, regulations and bye-laws published under the authority of the president are deemed to be authoritative texts.

 

 

 

India’s first listed exchange commodity derivatives exchange is?

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Answer:

  • The Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX) is India’s first listed exchange commodity derivatives exchange.

Enrich Your Learning:

Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX)

  • The Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX) is India’s first listed exchange commodity derivatives exchange that facilitates online trading of commodity derivatives transactions, thereby providing a platform for price discovery and risk management.
  • The Exchange started operations in November 2003.
  • Operates under the regulatory framework of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
  • MCX offers trading in commodity derivative contracts across varied segments including bullion, industrial metals, energy and agricultural commodities.
  • The Exchange’s flagship index series, MCX iCOMDEX, is a series of real-time commodity futures price indices, which give information on market movements in key commodities traded on MCX.

 

 

 

What is the primary reason behind large number of Indian households without electricity?

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Solution:

The primary reason is the high cost of electricity.

Enrich Your Learning:

High cost of electricity in India

  • Prime Minister Tony Abbott’s recent statement in The Australian, that Adani’s Carmichael coal mine in Queensland is “absolutely critical for the welfare literally of tens of millions of people in India” and “will provide for decades to come for 100 million people in India who currently have no power,” lacks appreciation of the reality on the ground.
  • The number of households without electricity in India is significantly large.
  • Though the country added 95,000 MW of new generation capacity during 2002-2012, the number of households without access to electricity remained steady at around 145 millionduring the corresponding timeframe.
  • The primary reason for this is the high cost of electricity.
  • Despite subsidies, the average domestic tariffs have remained high, around 4-11 cents/kwh, and most households cannot afford such expensive electricity.
  • Moreover, many households live in makeshift shelters for which it is difficult to provide electricity.
  • There are several reasons for the high cost.
    • The Indian electricity supply system is heavily skewed in favour of coal-based power, which can only cater to the steady component of the demand, not the peak-time demand. 
    • Such a supply system results in peak-time shortages and makes electricity expensive.
    • Over the years, the excessive emphasis on adding new generation capacity at the expense of the transmission and distribution (T&D) facilities has diminished the supply reliability and resulted in high T&D losses, averaging over 20 per cent, which in turn has added to the cost.
    • Also, there are hundreds of villages in remote areas far away from the grid, and extending the grid to them is difficult and cost intensive. When a village is more than 5 kilometres from the grid, the cost of supplying electricity from solar and other off-grid facilities is far below the cost of supply from conventional sources such as coal.
    • There is also a growing publicopposition to industrial projects as they uproot thousands of families from their lands, pollute their environment and disrupt their lives.

India’s Coal Reserve

  • Though India is endowed with large coal resources of its own, the extractable deposits will not last more than 15-20 years.
  • It can ill afford expensive imported coal.
  • Hydrocarbon resources are equally scarce and nuclear power is beset with huge potential risks and inter-generational health impacts.
  • India’s energy options are therefore limited. There is no viable alternative to a decisive shift towards energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy development based on distributed generation.
  • India is endowed with a vast solar energy potential of about 5,000 trillion kWh per year, with most regions receiving 4-7 kwh per square metre per day.
  • Assuming that 10 per cent of it could be converted into electricity, 0.22 per cent of that potential can generate as much electricity as presently generated.

 

 

 

Private Entrepreneurs Guarantee (PEG) Scheme is related to?

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Answer:

Private Entrepreneurs Guarantee (PEG) Scheme is related to the construction of storage godowns for overcoming the storage constraints and ensure safe stocking of food grains across the country.

Enrich Your Learning:

Private Entrepreneurs Guarantee (PEG) Scheme

  • Launched by Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution in 2008.
  • The objective is construction of storage godowns in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode through private entrepreneurs, Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC) and State Warehousing Corporations (SWCs) to overcome storage constraints and ensure safe stocking of food grains across the country. 
  • Land and expenses for construction of the godown are to borne by private entrepreneur/ state agencies while the Food Corporation of India(FCI) guarantees rent for 10 years in the case of private investors and for 9 years in case of CWC/SWCs/State Agencies irrespective of quantum of foodgrains stored.
  • Non-railway siding based godowns are to be constructed in one year whereas godowns with railway siding are allowed two years construction period.
  • Locations for construction of godowns was identified by the FCI based on recommendations of State Level Committees to meet the storage gaps. 
  • The scheme is in operation in 20 states. Out of a sanctioned capacity of 40 LMTunder the PEG scheme, a storage capacity of 143.83 LMT has been completed as on 30.06.2020.

 

 

 

The Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR) has been started under which central government programme?

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Solution:

Program on Global and Regional Climate Change

Enrich Your Learning:

Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR)

  • A state-of-the-art Centre for Climate Change Research established at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) Pune to better understand the science of climate change over the Tropics and enable improved assessments of the regional climate responses to global climate change.
  • The proposal for a Centre for Climate Change Research submitted to the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Governmentof India was approved on 7th January 2009 under the Program on Global and Regional Climate Change as one of the schemes of the 11th Five Year Plan.
  • CCCR has the mandate of developing an Earth System Model (ESM) and to make the regional climate projections, in addition to work on Paleoclimatology and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) measurements.

Some of the objectives of CCCR are:

  1. To develop high resolution climate models or Earth System Models (ESM) to address scientific questions on attribution and projection of regional climate change.
  2. To use regional climate models to produce projections of Indian monsoon under different scenarios and assess the uncertainty in these projections.
  3. To study Monsoon Variability and Predictability by identifying regional and global climate drivers for monsoon inter-annual variability and to identify useful predictors and to understand the dynamics of dry and wet epochs of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) and their relation to the ENSO and other global coupled phenomenon.
  4. To document chief features of regional monsoon climate change based on climate reconstructions derived from high resolution proxies and to understand the long-term monsoon climate variability over the Asian region.

 

 

 

Wi-Fi and Li-Fi are both wireless communication system based on which principle?

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Answer:

Wi-Fi uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet connection while Li-Fi uses range of visible light for that.

Enrich Your Learning:

Wi-Fi

  • Wi-Fi is a wireless networking technology that allows devices such as computers (laptops and desktops), mobile devices (smart phones and wearables), and other equipment (printers and video cameras) to interface with the Internet.
  • It is a wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections.
  • It allows these devices–and many more–to exchange information with one another, creating a network.
  • Internet connectivity occurs through a wireless router. Accessing Wi-Fi, it means connecting a wireless router that allows Wi-Fi-compatible devices to interface with the Internet.
  • Wi-Fi is not an acronym; it is a brand name created by a marketing firm that’s meant to serve as an interoperability seal for marketing efforts.

Li-Fi

  • Li-Fi is a wireless communication system based on the use of visible light between the violet (800 THz) and red (400 THz).
  • The technology was proposed by the German physicist Harald Haas in 2011 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) Global Talk on Visible Light Communication (VLC).
  • It uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) for transmission of data. The term Li-Fi refers to visible light communication (VLC) technology that uses light as medium to deliver high-speed communication in a manner similar to Wi-Fi.
  • Li-Fi provides better bandwidth, efficiency, connectivity and security than Wi-Fi and has already achieved high speeds larger than 1 Gbps under the laboratory conditions.
  • Li-Fi is the transfer of data through light by taking fibre out of fibre optics and sending data through LED light bulb.

 

 

 

Which project aims at synchronizing electricity produced from renewable sources with conventional power stations in the grid?

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Solution:

The Green Energy Corridor Project

Enrich Your Learning:

GREEN ENERGY CORRIDORS

  • The Green Energy Corridor Project aims at synchronizing electricity produced from renewable sources, such as solar and wind, with conventional power stations in the grid.
  • For evacuation of large-scale renewable energy, Intra State Transmission System (InSTS) project was sanctioned by the Ministry in 2015-16.
  • It is being implemented by eight renewable-rich states of Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • The project is being implemented in these states by the respective State Transmission Utilities (STUs).
  • The project includes approximately 9400 km transmission lines and substations of a total capacity of 19000 MVA to be completed by March 2020.
  • The purpose is to evacuate 20,000 MW of large-scale renewable power and improvement of the grid in the implementing states.
  • The total project cost is 10141 crores.
  • The funding mechanism consists of 40% Government of India Grant (total Rs. 4056.67 crores), 20% state equity and 40% loan from KfW, Germany (500 million EUR).
  • The Central grant is disbursed in two installments to the STUs: a) 70% advance on the award of contract, and b) balance 30% after successful commissioning and three months of performance testing.

 

 

 

What are the disadvantages of using Robotic Process Automation (RPA)?

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Answer:

Need to reconfigure the robots for small changes in application

Dependency of bots on the speed of application

Enrich Your Learning:

Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

  • Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is the technology that allows the automation of the task in exactly the way how a human does.
  • Automation does not mean that literally robots are going to replace human beings, but a computer program that imitates human actions.
  • RPA is a software program that imitates human actions while interacting with a computer application and accomplishing the automation of repetitive and rule-based processes.
  • RPA can be used to automate the labour intensive tasks such as back office processes, data entry, data validation etc.
  • In traditional workflow automation tools, a software developer produces a list of actions to automate a task and interface to the back-end system using internal application programming interfaces (APIs) or dedicated scripting language.
  • In contrast, RPA systems develop the action list by watching the user perform that task in the application’s graphical user interface (GUI), and then perform the automation by repeating those tasks directly in the GUI.
  • This can lower the barrier to use of automation in products that might not otherwise feature APIs for this purpose.
  • RPA tools have strong technical similarities to graphical user interface testing tools.
  • These tools also automate interactions with the GUI, and often do so by repeating a set of demonstration actions performed by a user.
  • RPA tools differ from such systems in that they allow data to be handled in and between multiple applications, for instance, receiving email containing an invoice, extracting the data, and then typing that into a bookkeeping system.

Advantages

  • Reduces human efforts and thus the related human errors too
  • Improves productivity by saving cost and time
  • Offers real time visibility into bug discovery
  • Suitable for the usage by non-technical persons too, as no programming skills are required to use it
  • Easy to automate large number of processes
  • Feature of tracking the defects for each test cases
  • Needs less training to master RPA tool

 

 

 

Which reserve had begun as the “California Climate Action Registry”?

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Solution:

The Climate Action Reserve

Enrich Your Learning:

Climate Action Reserve

  • It is the premier carbon offset registry for the North American carbon market.
  • The Reserve began as the California Climate Action Registry, which was created by the State of California in 2001 to address climate change through voluntary calculation and public reporting of emissions.
  • Mission: To develop, promote and support innovative, credible market-based climate change solutions that benefit economies, ecosystems and society.
  • It encourages action to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by ensuring the environmental integrity and financial benefit of emissions reduction projects.
  • The Reserve establishes high quality standards for carbon offset projects, oversees independent third-party verification bodies, issues carbon credits generated from such projects and tracks the transaction of credits over time in a transparent, publicly-accessible system.
  • It supports activities that reduce local air pollution, spur growth in new green technologies and allow emission reduction goals to be met at lower cost.
  • The California Registry helped over 415 leading California-based corporations, organizations, government agencies and municipalities to voluntarily calculate and publicly report their GHG emissions.
  • Its established expertise in emissions accounting translated into expertise in emissions reductions accounting for the North American carbon market.

International Support given by the Reserve

  • The development of the Mexico protocols.
  • The technical support to the Government of Kazakhstan to support the development of its emission trading program.
  • It has conducted training for the government of South Korea.
  • It has played an active role in the development of REDD+ standards internationally through its partnerships with the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF).
  • The Reserve has also hosted delegations from China, Japan, South Korea, Russia, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Indonesia.

 

 

 

Employees’ Stock Option gives employees the right to buy a specific number of the company’s shares at a fixed price. True or False?

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Answer:

  • True. Employees’ Stock Option gives employees the right to buy a specific number of the company’s shares at a fixed price. But the employee has to buy within a certain period of time.

Enrich Your Learning:

Employees’ Stock Option

  • Employee stock options (ESOs) are a type of equity compensation granted by companies to their employees and executives.
  • ESO gives employees the right to buy a specific number of the company’s shares at a fixed price within a certain period of time. The fixed price is often called the grant or exercise price. 
  • Employees who are granted stock options hope to profit by exercising their options to buy shares at the exercise price when the shares are trading at a price that is higher than the exercise price.
  • The main aim is to compensate, retain, and attract employees. On the other hand, it is believed that the employees, who are also the shareholders, will focus better on company performance and growth so that the value of their shares appreciates.

 

 

 

Scope of Article 31C which was extended by the 42nd Amendment Act (1976) was declared as unconstitutional and invalid in which case?

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Answer:

Scope of Article 31C which was extended by the 42nd Amendment Act (1976) was declared as unconstitutional and invalid by the Supreme Court in the Minerva Mills case (1980).

Enrich Your Learning:

Saving of Laws Giving Effect to Certain Directive Principles

  • Article 31C contained the provisions for certain Directive Principles.
  • It was inserted by the 25th Amendment Act of 1971.
  • No law that seeks to implement the socialistic directive principles specified in Article 39(b) or (c) shall be void on the ground of contravention of the fundamental rights conferred by Article 14 (equality before law and equal protection of laws) or Article 19 (protection of six rights in respect of speech, assembly, movement, etc.)
  • No law containing a declaration that it is for giving effect to such policy shall be questioned in any court on the ground that it does not give effect to such a policy.
  • It was declared by the Supreme Court in Kesavananda Bharati case (1973) that provision of Article 31C as unconstitutional and invalid on the ground that judicial review is a basic feature of the Constitution and hence, cannot be taken away.
  • However, Article 31C was held to be constitutional and valid.
  • The 42nd Amendment Act (1976) extended the scope of Article 31C by including within its protection any law to implement any of the directive principles specified in Part IV of the Constitution and not merely in Article 39 (b) or (c).

 

 

 

As per Securities and Exchange Board of India, the Pension Fund of a foreign country cannot be a Foreign Venture Capital Investors in India. True or False?

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Answer:

  • As per Securities and Exchange Board of India.
  • Foreign Venture Capital Investors can be Pension Fund, Mutual Fund, Investment Trust, Investment Company, Investment Partnership, Asset Management Company, Endowment Fund, University Fund, Charitable Institution or any other investment vehicle established or incorporated outside India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Foreign Venture Capital Investors (FVCIs)

‘Foreign Venture Capital Investor’ (FVCI) means an investor incorporated and established outside India, which is registered under the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Foreign Venture Capital Investor) Regulations, 2000 {SEBI(FVCI) Regulations} and proposes to invest in accordance with these Regulations

An applicant can be:

Pension Fund, Mutual Fund, Investment Trust, Investment Company, Investment Partnership, Asset Management Company, Endowment Fund, University Fund, Charitable Institution or any other investment vehicle established or incorporated outside India. 

 

 

 

Which country’s constitution provides for the presidential form of government?

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Answer:

Unlike the Indian Constitution, the American Constitution provides for the presidential form of government.

Enrich Your Learning:

Features of Presidential Government

  • The President is both the head of the State and the head of government. As the head of State, he occupies a ceremonial position. As the head of government, he leads the executive organ of government.
  • The President is elected by an electoral college for a fixed tenure of four years. He cannot be removed by the Congress except by impeachment for a grave unconstitutional act.
  • The President governs with the help of a cabinet or a smaller body called ‘Kitchen Cabinet’. It is only an advisory body and consists of non-elected departmental secretaries. They are selected and appointed by him, are responsible only to him, and can be removed by him any time.
  • The President and his secretaries are not responsible to the Congress for their acts. They neither possess membership in the Congress nor attend its sessions.
  • The President cannot dissolve the House of Representatives—the lower house of the Congress.
  • The doctrine of separation of powers is the basis of the presidential system.
  • The legislative, executive and judicial powers of the government are separated and vested in the three independent organs of the government.

 

 

 

What do you mean by Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Last Glacial Maximum (LGM):

  • During the past 25,000 years, the Earth system has undergone a series of dramatic transitions.
  • The most recent glacial period peaked 21,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum, or LGM. 
  • LGM was the most recent time during the Last Glacial Period that ice sheets were at their greatest extent.
  • Worldwide, the most recent glacial period, or ice age, continental ice sheets extended well into the middle latitude regions of Europe and North Ameri
  • It affected Earth’s climate by causing drought, desertification, and a large drop in sea levels
  • The LGM was followed by the Late Glacial Interstadial.

 

 

 

The Culture of Haryana state of India is Agriculture based. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Key facts:

  • Divisions of the Haryana state into:
  • Regions basis of Soil i.e. (Khadar, Nardak, Bagad, Bangar),
  • Demographic basis i.e. (Ahirwal, Mewat, Braj) and
  • Basis of Eco Cultural Zones i.e. (Ahirwal, Mewat, Bagar, Nardak, Khadar). 
  • The Name of Haryana came from “Hari ka aana” from its History.
  • Haryana has more than 1000 Archaeological Sites which depicts that the Culture of Haryana.
  • The three battles were fought in Panipat in 1526, 1556 and 1761.
  • The Culture of Haryana is Agriculture based.
  • The Folk Dances of Haryana are Ghangor, Jhoomar, chhati showcases the Culture of Haryana along with the Folk Music.
  • Panipat offers places like Lodhi’s Grave, Kabuli Bagh Mosque, Panipat Museum and Tomb of Bu Ali Shah
  • Hisar, a place which has four gates offers some historical facts and figures including some interesting sites like Blue bird lake,Asirgarh Fort, Rakhigarhi .

 

 

 

Geological heritage sites Varkala Cliff is located in which Indian state?

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Answer: Kerala

Enrich Your Learning:

Varkala Cliff:

  • Varkala cliff is a famous beachfront which is a massive cluster of old times rock formations.
  • It features some colossal rock formations, hillsides, balmy beaches, hidden ruins and forts along with cloistered lighthouses and placid lakes.
  • The unique feature of Varkala cliff is that it appears as a dramatic horizon that is merging with the Arabian Sea.
  • The cliffs are also named as the Varkala Formation by the Geological Survey of India.
  • Formerly named as Udayamarthandapuram after the king of Travancore, a colossal development to the coastal stretch was made.
  • Varkala cliff is declared as a geo-heritage site in India due to the unique sediments that laid adjacent to the Arabian Sea. 

 

 

 

Kotumsar caves are located in which Indian State?

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Answer: Chhattisgarh.

Enrich Your Learning:

Kotumsar caves:

  • Kotumsar caves, which are largest series of caves after Meghalaya are in Chhattisgarh.
  • It is a limestone cave formed on the Kanger limestone belt, situated near the bank of the River Kanger.
  • Kotumsar cavewas initially named Gopansar cave (Gopan = hidden) but the present name Kotumsar became more popular as the cave is located near a village named ‘Kotumsar’. 
  • The cave is subject to frequent flooding during the monsoon season,  
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